Frederick Starr was an American academic, "populist educator" born at Auburn, New York. As he was avid collector of charms and votive slips he was called Dr. Ofuda in Japan, he sold much of this collection to art collector and museum specialist Gertrude Bass Warner, it resides at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art at the University of Oregon and the University of Oregon Knight Library Special Collections & University Archives. Starr earned an undergraduate degree at the University of Rochester and a doctorate in geology at Lafayette College. While working as a curator of geology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, he became interested in anthropology and ethnology. Frederic Ward Putnam helped him become appointed as curator of AMNH's ethological collection. In this period, he became active in the Chautauqua circuit as a popular professor and, in 1888-89, as registrar; when William Rainey Harper, president of the Chautauqua Institution, was named President of the University of Chicago, he appointed Starr as an assistant professor of anthropology there.
Starr moved to the University of Chicago in 1891. He was an Assistant professor, he gained tenure in 1896. One of Starr's most infamous incidents occurred. Much like ethnologist Carl Sofus Lumholtz, Starr traveled to the Purépecha community of Cheran, Michoacan located in the Meseta Purépecha in the state of Michoacan. Unlike his predecessor, Starr obtained Amerindian bones, said to have been dug up from a nearby ancient burial, he intended to take these with him to the U. S. for the collection of the University of Chicago. The inhabitants of Cheran opposed having their ancestors exhumed and were rightly suspicious of Starr's motives for visiting Cheran. In 1905-06 Starr made a study of the pygmy races of Central Africa. In 1908 he did field work in the Philippine Islands, followed by Japan in 1909-10, Korea in 1911. In his Truth about the Congo Free State, a collection of articles regarding the Congo Free State, Starr wrote: Many a time... I have seen a man after being flogged and playing with his companions as if naught had happened.
Though I have seen many cases of this form of punishment, I have never seen blood drawn, nor the fainting of the victim." In this period there was mounting criticism of the state of near-slavery in which rubber workers were kept by colonial forces. Starr's work is cited as an example of the whitewashing campaign King Leopold II conducted from 1884 to 1912 known as the Congo Free State Propaganda War. Floggings with the chicotte were known and documented as an cruel form of torture by other observers, such as Roger Casement, an Anglo-Irish investigator, he extensively reported on the abuse of the indigenous peoples by the private Belgian police which the king used to impose a state of virtual slavery for rubber workers. Starr happened to be in Japan when the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and subsequent major fires struck the main island of Honshū. In the absence of news from the devastated area, speculation about his safety was published in the New York Times, his plans to spend several months researching the vicinity of Mt. Fuji were not specific, nor was the extent of the quake area known.
Reports that the area near Mt. Fuji were hard hit led to increased concerns; the US Embassy in Tokyo published Dr. Starr's name among the list of survivors. Dr. Starr had escaped to the relative safety of Zojo-ji, a famous Buddhist Temple in Tokyo's Shiba district in what is today Minato ward. A brief description from a letter he wrote to friends in Auburn, New York, was printed in the New York Times: We went to the temple grounds, but at midnight, the priests took us up higher and higher to the innermost temple. Here on the topmost step, I sat till morning, watching the brazen sky beyond the slope meaning ruin to millions." Dr. Starr died of bronchial pneumonia at age 74 in Tokyo, August 14, 1933. Services were held at Trinity Cathedral in Tokyo. Among those attending was Japanese Premier Makoto Saito, he was survived by Lucy Starr, who helped execute his estate after his death. Order of Leopold. Order of the Crown of Italy. Order of the Sacred Treasure. University of Chicago, Department of Anthropology, Starr Lectureship.
Catalogue of Collections of Objects Illustrating Mexican Folklore Indians of South Mexico The Ainu Group of the Saint Louis Exposition The Truth about the Congo In Indian Mexico Filipino Riddles Japanese Proverbs and Pictures Liberia: Description, Problems Mexico and the United States Japanese Collectors and What They Collect Fujiyama, the Sacred Mountain of Japan.. Parezo, Nancy J. and Don D. Fowler.. "Taking Ethnological Training Outside the Classroom: the 1904 Louisiana Exposition as Field School," Histories of Anthropology Annual, Vol. 2, Regina Darnel and Frederic W. Gleach, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-6663-6 "DR. STARR DIES, 74. EXPECTED TO LIVE TO 120 Spoke Once of Circumstances That'Justify Cannibalism'uWas Honored by 3 Nations". New York Times. August 15, 1933. Retrieved 2008-08-09. New York Times. August 15, 1933. Gillis, Frank J. Starr Collection of Recordings from the Congo -- bio note. Archives of Traditional Music, Indiana University. Starr papers -- bio note.
University of Chicago Library and Archives. Starr Photographs Collection, 1894-1910 -- bio note. Smithsonian
Natalie Curtis was born on April 26, 1875, in New York City. Curtis was an American ethnomusicologist. Curtis, along with Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Frances Densmore, was one of a small group of women doing important ethnological studies in North America at the beginning of the 20th century, she is remembered for her transcriptions and publication of traditional music of Native American tribes as well as for having published a four-volume collection of African-American music. Curtis died in 1921. With her young death, Curtis wasn't able to close out her career and bring her works together. After a trip to Arizona, Curtis grew fascinated by Native American music, she began to devote herself to the study of Native American music. Curtis studied music at the National Conservatory of Music of America in New York City, she studied in France and Germany, studying prominent musicians, like Ferruccio Bussoni. Theodore Roosevelt was a family friend of Curtis, one of her biggest influences. Curtis used Roosevelt as a helpful tool.
At one point, Curtis entered Roosevelt's house to ask for tribal land rights with Mojave-Apache chief. Roosevelt addressed Curtis as one "... who has done so much to give Indian culture its proper position." Starting in 1903 she worked from the Hopi reservation in Arizona and produced transcriptions using both an Edison cylinder recorder and pencil and paper. At the time, such work with native music and language was in conflict with the policies of the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs, which discouraged natives on reservations from speaking their language, singing their music, dressing in native garb, etc, it was only after the personal intervention of her friend President Theodore Roosevelt that she could continue her work unhindered. Roosevelt himself visited the Hopi reservation in 1913 for the Hopi flute and snake ceremonies, which visit was detailed by Curtis in "Theodore Roosevelt in Hopi Land," an article Curtis wrote for Outlook magazine in 1919. In 1905, Curtis published The Songs of Ancient America, three Pueblo corn-grinding songs with piano accompaniment.
Characterizing her own task as a transcriber, she wrote, “I have in nowise changed the melodies, nor have I sought to harmonize them in the usual sense, nor to make of them musical compositions…My one desire has been to let the Indian songs be heard as the Indians themselves sing them..."In 1907 Curtis published The Indians’ Book, a collection of songs and stories from 18 tribes, illustrated with handwritten transcriptions of songs as well as with artwork and photography. Most of the 200 songs are presented only in manuscript notation with no piano accompaniment at all; the book served as source for her former teacher Busoni’s Indian Fantasy, a work for piano and orchestra, first performed in 1915 by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski. Around 1910, Curtis broadened her research to include transcription and collection of African American music, working at the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia, a college established in 1868 to educate former slaves; the work was funded by philanthropist George Foster Peabody.
In 1911, she and David Mannes founded the Colored Music Settlement School in New York, in 1912 she helped sponsor the first concert featuring black musicians at Carnegie Hall, a concert that featured the Clef Club orchestra, directed by James Reese Europe. In 1918 and 1919 Curtis published four volumes entitled Negro Folk-Songs, she published the songs in four-part harmony, a task that brought praise from composer Percy Grainger in 1918. Proceeds from the volumes went to the Hampton Institute. Curtis began to study the music of African tribes and in 1920 published Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent, in which she notated the written example of what is known as the standard pattern in ethnomusicology, triple-pulse son clave in Afro-Latin music. In 1917 she had married artist Paul Burlin, her published work did not appear in “scholarly journals” of anthropology or folklore. For example, Curtis was published in the Southern Workman, The Craftsman, The Outlook, as well as in general musical publications such as Musical America.
Reviews of her work appeared in such magazines as well as in standard scholarly journals of the day. Curtis Burlin may be considered among a small group of US American composers who used native American material in her own compositions. Others are Charles Wakefield Cadman, Arthur Nevin, Thurlow Lieurance, she composed about 15 short, original works, many based on native American or African American themes. Native American music "Natalie Curtis Burlin" "Frank Mead:'A New Type of Architecture in the Southwest,' Part II, 1907-1920" for much on the life long friendship of Natalie and George Curtis with architect Frank Mead
Manitou, akin to the Iroquois orenda, is the spiritual and fundamental life force among Algonquian groups in the Native American mythology. It is omnipresent and manifests everywhere: organisms, the environment, etc. Aashaa monetoo means "good spirit", while otshee monetoo means "bad spirit." When the world was created, the Great Spirit, Aasha Monetoo, gave the land to the indigenous peoples, the Shawnee in particular. The term manitou was in widespread use at the time of early European contact. In 1585, when Thomas Harriot recorded the first glossary of an Algonquian language, Roanoke, he included the word mantóac, meaning "gods". Similar terms are found in nearly all of the Algonquian languages. In some Algonquian traditions, Gitche Manitou refers to supreme being; the term has analogues dating to before European contact, the word uses of gitche and manitou themselves existed prior to contact. After contact, Gitche Manitou was adopted by some Anishinaabe Christian groups, such as the Ojibwe, to refer to the monotheistic God of Abrahamic tradition due to missionary syncretism.
Algonquian religion acknowledges shamans, or medicine men, who used manitou to see the future, change the weather, heal illness. Ojibwe shamans were healers who used their spiritual connection to cure patients, since illness was believed to be caused by magic and spirits. To communicate with spirits and manipulate manitou, a shaman would enter a trance, induced by singing, drum beats, or the use of hallucinogens. Non-shamans could interact with spirits by embarking upon a "vision quest," by means of prayer, hallucinogens, and/or removing themselves from the society of others. A person who underwent vision quests would be visited by an "animal, voice, or object," which would become his guardian spirit. In shamanistic tradition, manitous are connected to achieve a desired effect. In the Anishinaabeg tradition, manidoowag are one aspect of the Great Connection; the Anishinaabeg use the term manidoowish to speak of small animal manidoowag, manidoons to speak of insect manidoowag. Both manidoowish and manidoons mean "little spirit."
Manitou has made its way into the names of several places in North America. The name of Lake Manitoba derives from the area called manitou-wapow, or "strait of the Manitou" in Cree or Ojibwe, referring to the strange sound of waves crashing against rocks near the Narrows of the lake. Manitoba is home to Whiteshell Provincial Park’s petroforms, symbols made from rocks, which serve as reminders of the instructions given to the Anishinaabe by the Creator; the Anishinaabe Midewiwin, or Grand Medicine Society, considers the area containing the petroforms to be Manito Ahbee, the place where God sits. It is the site. Manitoulin Island, called mnidoo mnis, or "island of the Great Spirit," by the Odawa, is important to the Ojibwe, or Anishinaabe, because of its many sacred sites and sounding rocks. Native peoples continue to dwell on the island, host to several reserves; the Fox Indians, or Meskwaki, believed. When the lodge stove was lit and water was sprinkled on the stones, manitou left those stones in the steam from the evaporating water and entered the body of the person in the lodge.
Manitou migrated throughout the person’s body, driving out everything that inflicted pain. Before the manitou returned to the stone, it imparted some of its nature to the body, according to the Fox Indians, was why one felt so well after having been in the sweat lodge. In Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, the Manitou Islands and the water body between them and the mainland, the Maintou Passage.
The Great Spirit, known as Wakan Tanka among the Sioux, Gitche Manitou in Algonquian, in many Native American and First Nations cultures as the divine or the sacred, is the supreme being, God, or a conception of universal spiritual force. The Great Spirit has at times been conceptualized as an "anthropomorphic celestial deity," a God of creation and eternity, who takes a personal interest in world affairs and might intervene in the lives of human beings. There have been, may be, many different speakers for the Great Spirit, each of whom must be dedicated to the preservation of the Native American way of life; the Great Spirit, by way of the spiritual leaders, is looked to for spiritual and cultural guidance on both an individual and community level. Cultural variations among the different Native American Tribes who hold a belief in The Great Spirit have resulted in different stories about this being or these beings, as well as different types of messages being delivered by those seen as prophets or spiritual leaders in these cultures.
According to Lakota activist Russell Means, a better translation of Wakan Tanka is the Great Mystery. Two of the most well known prophets' prophecies took place in the early 1800s; the Shawnee Prophet occurred in 1824. Tenskwatawa, a religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, warned the Governor of Michigan, Lewis Cass, that the children of the Shawnees tribe would carry the "sacred flame"; this flame would end the world as it was between the Native Whites. Once the destruction was complete, the Great Spirit would restructure and repopulate the world in the way it was believed that it should be. Another well-known story happened in 1827 and involves William Clark and Kennekuk, a spiritual leader of the Kickapoo nation; this is known as the Kickapoo Prophet. Kennekuk informed Clark that he must be careful while exploring the land, now Illinois; this warning was. He proclaimed. Other popular prophets include The Red Sticks Prophet; the Great Spirit is portrayed in most North American Indigenous cultures as a powerful force that guides the people in wisdom and survival.
In the various Nations, The Great Spirit might be called Earthgrasper, Gisha Munetoa, Gitchi Manido, or "The Creator". An Algonquin legend speaks of a Delaware Indian called Eroneniera that travels to meet The Great Spirit. Upon meeting, The Great Spirit tells Eroneniera that he is the "Maker of Heaven and Earth…because I love you…the land on which you are, I have made for you"; the Great Spirit teaches him a prayer to share with his people that they should repeat it every morning and night. The stories of the Native American helped explain abstract ideas; the stories explained weather and land formations. Chief Mononcue, of the Ohio Wendat a nation of Christianized tribes, spoke to a group of white Methodists in the 1820s, he pointed out that the white men had been taught to do good. "The Great Spirit has taught you and us both one thing- that we should love one another and fear him. He has taught us by his Spirit and you white men by the Good Book, all one." Mononcue tells the gathered crowd that the white men say that they love the tribes but they give them whiskey and this causes evil and that the white man cheats the Indian and treats him as if he is less than the white man.
"Now, your Good Book forbids all this. Why not do what it tells you? Indians would do right too…. Now, let us all do right. According to a Chippewa legend a forest fire on the Wisconsin shoreline forced a mother bear and her two cubs into Lake Michigan; the cubs became tired and fell behind their mother and drowned within sight of the shoreline. The mother made it to the shore and climbed to the top of a dune to look for her cubs, but they were gone; the mother waited there for days in hopes. The Great Spirit was moved by the mother’s devotion and commitment to find her cubs and covered the mother in a blanket of sand so she would have a final resting place and be able to reunite with her cubs, it is said. The Great Spirit created two islands to mark the spot where the cubs had drowned; the two islands are known today as the South Manitou Islands. The Sleeping Bear Dunes are located on the northwest coast of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan in Leelanau county; the Great Spirit created man and woman and they "lived in happiness for a time, but as husbands and wives have done since, they soon began to quarrel".
The story explains that the wife leaves the husband and sets off walking toward "the setting sun". The Great Spirit sees that the man creates berries along her path; the Great Spirit creates strawberries and the woman stops to gather some and the man is able to catch up to her, she shares them with him and they return home together. The berries are named Odamin, meaning heart berry. Hail to the Sunrise Statue Manitou Monotheism Native American religion
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheist belief does not recognize a distinct personal anthropomorphic god and instead characterizes a broad range of doctrines differing in forms of relationships between reality and divinity. Pantheistic concepts date back thousands of years, pantheistic elements have been identified in various religious traditions; the term "pantheism" was coined by mathematician Joseph Raphson in 1697 and has since been used to describe the beliefs of a variety of people and organizations. Pantheism was popularized in Western culture as a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza his book Ethics. A pantheistic stance was taken in the 16th century by philosopher and cosmologist Giordano Bruno. Pantheism derives from θεός theos; the first known combination of these roots appears in Latin, in Joseph Raphson's 1697 book De Spatio Reali seu Ente Infinito, where he refers to the "pantheismus" of Spinoza and others.
It was subsequently translated into English as "pantheism" in 1702. There are a variety of definitions of pantheism; some consider it a philosophical position concerning God. Pantheism is the view that everything is part of an immanent God. All forms of reality may be considered either modes of that Being, or identical with it; some hold. To them, pantheism is the view that the God are identical. Early traces of pantheist thought can be found within the theology of the ancient Greek religion of Orphism, where pan is made cognate with the creator God Phanes, with Zeus, after the swallowing of Phanes. Pantheistic tendencies existed in a number of early Gnostic groups, with pantheistic thought appearing throughout the Middle Ages; these included a section of Johannes Scotus Eriugena's 9th-century work De divisione naturae and the beliefs of mystics such as Amalric of Bena and Eckhart. The Roman Catholic Church has long regarded pantheistic ideas as heresy. Giordano Bruno, an Italian monk who evangelized about an immanent and infinite God, was burned at the stake in 1600 by the Roman Inquisition.
He has since become known as a celebrated pantheist and martyr of science, an influence on many thinkers. In the West, pantheism was formalized as a separate theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese descent raised in the Sephardi Jewish community in Amsterdam, he developed controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature of the Divine, was excluded from Jewish society at age 23, when the local synagogue issued a herem against him. A number of his books were published posthumously, shortly thereafter included in the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books; the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work would not be realized for many years - as the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and the universe. In the posthumous Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are turned against themselves and destroyed entirely.".
In particular, he opposed René Descartes' famous mind–body dualism, the theory that the body and spirit are separate. Spinoza held the monist view that the two are the same, monism is a fundamental part of his philosophy, he was described as a "God-intoxicated man," and used the word God to describe the unity of all substance. This view influenced philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who said, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all." Spinoza earned praise as one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy and one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. Although the term "pantheism" was not coined until after his death, he is regarded as the most celebrated advocate of the concept. Ethics was the major source. Heinrich Heine, in his Concerning the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, remarked that "I don't remember now where I read that Herder once exploded peevishly at the constant preoccupation with Spinoza, "If Goethe would only for once pick up some other Latin book than Spinoza!"
But this applies not only to Goethe. In their The Holy Family Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels notes, "Spinozism dominated the eighteenth century both in its French variety, which made matter into substance, in deism, which conferred on matter a more spiritual name.... Spinoza's French school and the supporters of deism were but two sects disputing over the true meaning of his system...." In George Henry Lewes's words, "Pantheism is as old as philosophy. It was taught in the old Greek schools — by Plato, by St. Augustine, by the Jews. Indeed, one may say that Pantheism, under one of its various shapes, is the necessary consequence of all metaphysical inquiry, when pushed to its logical limits; the dreamy contemplative Indian, the quick versatile Greek, the practical Roman, the quibbling Scholastic, th
The Lakota are a Native American tribe. Known as the Teton Sioux, they are one of the three Sioux tribes of Plains, their current lands are in South Dakota. They speak Lakȟótiyapi—the Lakota language, the westernmost of three related languages that belong to the Siouan language family; the seven bands or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are: Sičháŋǧu Oglála Itázipčho Húŋkpapȟa Mnikȟówožu Sihásapa Oóhenuŋpa Notable Lakota persons include Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake from the Húnkpapȟa band. Siouan languages speakers may have originated in the lower Mississippi River region and migrated to or originated in the Ohio Valley, they were agriculturalists and may have been part of the Mound Builder civilization during the 9th–12th centuries CE. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Dakota-Lakota speakers lived in the upper Mississippi Region in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas. Conflicts with Anishnaabe and Cree peoples pushed the Lakota west onto the Great Plains in the mid- to late-17th century.
Early Lakota history is recorded in their Winter counts, pictorial calendars painted on hides or recorded on paper. The Battiste Good winter count records Lakota history back to 900 CE, when White Buffalo Calf Woman gave the Lakota people the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Around 1730, Cheyenne people introduced the Lakota to horses, called šuŋkawakaŋ. After their adoption of horse culture, Lakota society centered on the buffalo hunt on horseback; the total population of the Sioux was estimated at 28,000 by French explorers in 1660. The Lakota population was first estimated at 8,500 in 1805, growing and reaching 16,110 in 1881; the Lakota were, one of the few Native American tribes to increase in population in the 19th century. The number of Lakota has now increased to more than 170,000, of whom about 2,000 still speak the Lakota language. After 1720, the Lakota branch of the Seven Council Fires split into two major sects, the Saône who moved to the Lake Traverse area on the South Dakota–North Dakota–Minnesota border, the Oglála-Sičháŋǧu who occupied the James River valley.
However, by about 1750 the Saône had moved to the east bank of the Missouri River, followed 10 years by the Oglála and Brulé. The large and powerful Arikara and Hidatsa villages had long prevented the Lakota from crossing the Missouri. However, the great smallpox epidemic of 1772–1780 destroyed three-quarters of these tribes; the Lakota crossed the river into short-grass prairies of the High Plains. These newcomers were the Saône, well-mounted and confident, who spread out quickly. In 1765, a Saône exploring and raiding party led by Chief Standing Bear discovered the Black Hills the territory of the Cheyenne. Ten years the Oglála and Brulé crossed the river. In 1776, the Lakota defeated the Cheyenne; the Cheyenne moved west to the Powder River country, the Lakota made the Black Hills their home. Initial United States contact with the Lakota during the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804–1806 was marked by a standoff. Lakota bands refused to allow the explorers to continue upstream, the expedition prepared for battle, which never came.
Some bands of Lakotas became the first Indians to help the United States Army in an Indian war west of the Missouri during the Arikara War in 1823. In 1843, the southern Lakotas attacked Pawnee Chief Blue Coat's village near the Loup in Nebraska, killing many and burning half of the earth lodges. Next time the Lakotas inflicted a blow so severe on the Pawnee would be in 1873, during the Massacre Canyon battle near Republican River. Nearly half a century after Fort Laramie had been built without permission on Lakota land, the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was negotiated to protect travelers on the Oregon Trail; the Cheyenne and Lakota had attacked emigrant parties in a competition for resources, because some settlers had encroached on their lands. The Fort Laramie Treaty acknowledged Lakota sovereignty over the Great Plains in exchange for free passage on the Oregon Trail for "as long as the river flows and the eagle flies"; the United States government did not enforce the treaty restriction against unauthorized settlement.
Lakota and other bands attacked settlers and emigrant trains, causing public pressure on the U. S. Army to punish the hostiles. On September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Lakota village in Nebraska, killing about 100 men and children. A series of short "wars" followed, in 1862–1864, as refugees from the "Dakota War of 1862" in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory. Increasing illegal settlement after the American Civil War caused war once again; the Black Hills were considered sacred by the Lakota, they objected to mining. Between 1866 and 1868 the U. S. Army fought the Lakota and their allies along the Bozeman Trail over U. S. Forts built to protect miners traveling along the trail. Oglala Chief Red Cloud led his people to victory in Red Cloud's War. In 1868, the United States signed the Fort Laramie
Animism is the religious belief that objects and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Animism perceives all things—animals, rocks, weather systems, human handiwork and even words—as animated and alive. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples in contrast to the more recent development of organised religions. Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives; the animistic perspective is so held and inherent to most indigenous peoples that they do not have a word in their languages that corresponds to "animism". Due to such ethnolinguistic and cultural discrepancies, opinion has differed on whether animism refers to an ancestral mode of experience common to indigenous peoples around the world, or to a full-fledged religion in its own right; the accepted definition of animism was only developed in the late 19th century by Sir Edward Tylor, who created it as "one of anthropology's earliest concepts, if not the first".
Animism encompasses the beliefs that all material phenomena have agency, that there exists no hard and fast distinction between the spiritual and physical world and that soul or spirit or sentience exists not only in humans, but in other animals, rocks, geographic features such as mountains or rivers or other entities of the natural environment, including thunder and shadows. Animism may further attribute souls to abstract concepts such as words, true names or metaphors in mythology; some members of the non-tribal world consider themselves animists. Earlier anthropological perspectives, which have since been termed the "old animism", were concerned with knowledge on what is alive and what factors make something alive; the "old animism" assumed that animists were individuals who were unable to understand the difference between persons and things. Critics of the "old animism" have accused it of preserving "colonialist and dualist worldviews and rhetoric"; the idea of animism was developed by the anthropologist Sir Edward Tylor in his 1871 book Primitive Culture, in which he defined it as "the general doctrine of souls and other spiritual beings in general".
According to Tylor, animism includes "an idea of pervading life and will in nature". That formulation was little different from that proposed by Auguste Comte as "fetishism", but the terms now have distinct meanings. For Tylor, animism represented the earliest form of religion, being situated within an evolutionary framework of religion which has developed in stages and which will lead to humanity rejecting religion altogether in favor of scientific rationality. Thus, for Tylor, animism was fundamentally seen as a mistake, a basic error from which all religion grew, he did not believe that animism was inherently illogical, but he suggested that it arose from early humans' dreams and visions and thus was a rational system. However, it was based on unscientific observations about the nature of reality. Stringer notes that his reading of Primitive Culture led him to believe that Tylor was far more sympathetic in regard to "primitive" populations than many of his contemporaries and that Tylor expressed no belief that there was any difference between the intellectual capabilities of "savage" people and Westerners.
Tylor had wanted to describe the phenomenon as "spiritualism" but realised that would cause confusion with the modern religion of Spiritualism, prevalent across Western nations. He adopted the term "animism" from the writings of the German scientist Georg Ernst Stahl, who, in 1708, had developed the term animismus as a biological theory that souls formed the vital principle and that the normal phenomena of life and the abnormal phenomena of disease could be traced to spiritual causes; the first known usage in English appeared in 1819. The idea that there had once been "one universal form of primitive religion" has been dismissed as "unsophisticated" and "erroneous" by the archaeologist Timothy Insoll, who stated that "it removes complexity, a precondition of religion now, in all its variants". Tylor's definition of animism was a part of a growing international debate on the nature of "primitive society" by lawyers and philologists; the debate defined the field of research of a new science: anthropology.
By the end of the 19th century, an orthodoxy on "primitive society" had emerged, but few anthropologists still would accept that definition. The "19th-century armchair anthropologists" argued "primitive society" was ordered by kinship and was divided into exogamous descent groups related by a series of marriage exchanges, their religion was the belief that natural species and objects had souls. With the development of private property, the descent groups were displaced by the emergence of the territorial state; these rituals and beliefs evolved over time into the vast array of "developed" religions. According to Tylor, the more scientifically advanced a society became, the fewer members of that society believed in animism. However, any remnant ideologies of souls or spirits, to Tylor, represented "survivals" of the original animism of early humanity. In 1869, the Edinburgh lawyer