Wake Island is a coral atoll in the western Pacific Ocean in the northeastern area of the Micronesia subregion, 1,501 miles east of Guam, 2,298 miles west of Honolulu, 1,991 miles southeast of Tokyo, 898 miles north of Majuro. The island is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States, claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Wake Island is one of the most isolated islands in the world and the nearest inhabited island is Utirik Atoll in the Marshall Islands, 592 miles to the southeast. Wake Island, one of 14 U. S. insular areas, is administered by the United States Air Force under an agreement with the U. S. Department of the Interior; the center of activity on the atoll is at Wake Island Airfield, used as a mid-Pacific refueling stop for military aircraft and an emergency landing area. The 9,800-foot runway is the longest strategic runway in the Pacific islands. South of the runway is the Wake Island Launch Center, a missile launch site of the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site operated by the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command and the Missile Defense Agency.
The Base Operations Support contractor at Wake is Inc.. About 94 people live on the island, access to it is restricted. Population fluctuates depending on operations being conducted by Missile Defense Agency activities. On December 11, 1941, Wake Island was the site of the Empire of Japan's first unsuccessful attack on American forces in the Battle of Wake Island when U. S. Marines, with some US Navy personnel and civilians on the island repelled an attempted Japanese invasion, sinking two enemy destroyers and a transport; the island fell to overwhelming Japanese forces 12 days in a second attack, this one with extensive support from Japanese carrier-based aircraft returning from the attack on Pearl Harbor's naval and air bases in Hawaii further east, sixteen days previously. Wake Island remained occupied by Japanese forces until the end of the war in September 1945; the submerged and emergent lands at the atoll are a unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument. Wake island, together with eight other insular areas, comprises the United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 3166-1 code.
They are collectively represented by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code UM. Wake Island derives its name from British sea captain Samuel Wake, who rediscovered the atoll in 1796 while in command of the Prince William Henry; the name is sometimes attributed to Capt. William Wake, reported to have discovered the atoll from the Prince William Henry in 1792. Wake is located two-thirds of the way from Honolulu to Guam. Honolulu is 2,300 statute miles to 1,510 statute miles to the west; the closest land is the uninhabited Bokak Atoll 348 mi in the Marshall Islands, to the southeast. The atoll is to the west of the International Date Line and in the Wake Island Time Zone, the easternmost time zone in the United States, one day ahead of the 50 states. Although Wake is called an island in the singular form, it is an atoll composed of three islets and a reef surrounding a central lagoon: Wake Island lies in the tropical zone, but is subject to periodic temperate storms during the winter. Sea surface temperatures are warm all year long, reaching above 80 °F in autumn.
Typhoons pass over the island. On October 19, 1940, an unnamed typhoon hit Wake Island with 120 knots winds; this was the first recorded typhoon to hit the island since observations began in 1935. Super Typhoon Olive barreled through Wake on September 1952 with wind speeds reaching 150 knots. Olive caused major flooding, destroyed 85% of its structures and caused $1.6 million in damages. On September 16, 1967, at 10:40 pm local time, the eye of Super Typhoon Sarah passed over the island. Sustained winds in the eyewall were 130 knots, from the north before the eye and from the south afterward. All non-reinforced structures were demolished. There were no serious injuries, the majority of the civilian population was evacuated after the storm. On August 28, 2006, the United States Air Force evacuated all 188 residents and suspended all operations as category 5 Super Typhoon Ioke headed toward Wake. By August 31 the southwestern eyewall of the storm passed over the island, with winds well over 185 miles per hour, driving a 20 ft storm surge and waves directly into the lagoon inflicting major damage.
A U. S. Air Force assessment and repair team returned to the island in September 2006 and restored limited function to the airfield and facilities leading to a full return to normal operations. Wake Island was first encountered by Europeans on October 2, 1568, by Spanish explorer and navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neyra. In 1567 Mendaña and his crew had set off on two ships, Los Reyes and Todos los Santos, from Callao, Peru, on an expedition to search for a gold-rich land in the South Pacific as mentioned in Inca tradition. After visiting Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands, the expedition headed north and came upon Wake Island, "a low barren island, judged to be eight leagues in circumference". Since the date – October 2, 1568 – was the eve of the feast of Saint Francis of Assisi, the captain named the island San Francisco; the ships were in need of water and the crew was suffering from scurvy, but after circling the island it was determined that Wake was waterless and h
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Battle of Wakde
The Battle of Wakde was part of the New Guinea campaign of World War II. It was fought between the United States and Japan from 18 May 1944 to 21 May 1944. Wakde is located 200 miles west of Hollandia. Task Force 77, commanded by Rear Admiral William Fechteler supported by USS Stockton covered the landing on 17 May 1944 by the 2nd Engineer Special Brigade, Company A, 542nd Engineer Boat and Shore Regiment, of the 163rd Regimental Combat Team of the 41st Infantry Division; the pre-invasion bombardment destroyed the few 75 mm gun emplacements the Japanese had and damaged several of the 100 bunkers the Japanese had placed on the island. The first US troops landed on the Island at 9:10 on the 18th on the south western side of the island and came under heavy fire from concealed positions; the fire however, was predominantly aimed at the LCI gunboats and the Americans reached the beach with only light casualties. By 9:25, the invasion force was ashore with two tanks which the Americans used to secure the beachhead despite heavy fire from Japanese defenders which killed one of the company commanders.
The American units split up. B and F Companies took the tanks and headed west along the coast whilst A Company were sent south-west to clear out machine gun nests. C Company was sent north towards the airfield where they were forced to overcome heavy fighting with well defended Japanese positions. So, the advance north went well and by noon they reached the airfield. By 13:30, the Americans had reached the north of the airfield but had failed to take the eastern side where the majority of the remaining Japanese forces were located; the attack continued at 9:15 on May 19 with the rest of the airfield captured despite well entrenched Japanese positions. Following the capture of the airfield, surviving Japanese made their way to coral caves on the coast, holding the Americans to a delay for a couple hours before being overcome; the third day of the battle was American forces clearing up the last pockets of Japanese resistance in north-eastern corner of the island where they were subject to several suicidal'Banzai' charges over the course of the day but were able to destroy the remaining Japanese resistance by the end of the day.
After a three-day battle the island was declared captured on 20 May. Several Japanese snipers still remained on the island until they were cleared out by L Company between 22 and 26 May; the capture of Wakde cost the Americans 40 killed, 107 wounded, the Japanese lost 759 killed and 4 captured. Following the capture, Wakde Airfield was expanded to cover the whole island with the airfield being operational on 21 May despite it having only been captured and by 24 May, B-24 Liberators were conducting reconnaissance missions from it, it was an important airbase, providing a landing and taking off base for attacks on the mainland and other islands throughout the rest of the Summer 1944. Its use faded, it became an emergency landing field, with American troops beginning their withdrawal from the island in February 1945. Davison, John; the Pacific War Day by Day. New York: Chartwell Books, Inc. ISBN 0-7858-2752-8 Dunn, Richard. Japanese Operations at Wakde Island. Wakde Island, Pacific War Wrecks
Papua is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia, comprising most of Western New Guinea. It is bordered by the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, the province of West Papua to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the north, the Arafura Sea to the south. According to the 2010 census by Statistics Indonesia, Papua had a population of 2,833,381, majority of whom are Christians; the province is divided into one city. Its capital and largest city is Jayapura; the province was called Irian Jaya and comprised the entire Western New Guinea until the inauguration of the province of West Papua in 2003. In 2002, Papua adopted its current name and was granted a special autonomous status by the Indonesian legislation. Puncak Jaya is the province's highest mountain as well as the highest point of Indonesia. "Papua" is internationally recognised name for the province. During the Dutch colonial era the region was known as part of "Dutch New Guinea" or "Netherlands New Guinea". Since its annexation in 1969, it became known as "West Irian" or "Irian Barat" until 1973, thereafter renamed "Irian Jaya" by the Suharto administration.
This was the official name until the name "Papua" was adopted in 2002. Today, the indigenous inhabitants of this province prefer to call themselves Papuans; the name "West Papua" was adopted in 1961 by the New Guinea Council until the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority transferred administration to the Republic of Indonesia in 1963. "West Papua" has since been used by Papuans as a self-identifying term by those demanding self-determination, refers to the whole of the Indonesian portion of New Guinea. The other Indonesian province that shares New Guinea, West Irian Jaya, has been renamed as West Papua, or Papua Barat; the entire western New Guinea is referred to as "West Papua" internationally – among networks of international solidarity with the West Papuan independence movement. The province of Papua is governed by a directly elected governor and a regional legislature, People's Representative Council of province of Papua. A government organisation that only exists in Papua is the Papuan People's Council Papuan People's Council), formed by the Indonesian Government in 2005 as a coalition of Papuan tribal chiefs, tasked with arbitration and speaking on behalf of Papuan tribal customs.
Indonesian sovereignty over Papua dates back to 1969, when Indonesia conducted a referendum on the self-determination of the peoples of Papua under an agreement with the United Nations to respect any result. Instead of conducting a democratic referendum amongst the general population, Indonesian security forces forcibly coerced a small number of tribal elders to vote to join Indonesia; the agreement with the UN was nominally upheld, was recognised by the international community in spite of protests. This intensified the independence movement among indigenous West Papuans, deepening the Papua conflict, which began when the Dutch withdrew from the East Indies in 1963; the conflict has continued to the present, with Indonesian security forces being accused of numerous human rights abuses in their suppression of the independence movement. The Indonesian government maintains tight control over the region, barring foreign journalists or rights monitors from entering. In 1999 it was proposed to split the province into three government-controlled sectors, sparking Papuan protests.
In January 2003 President Megawati Sukarnoputri signed an order dividing Papua into three provinces: Central Irian Jaya and West Papua. The formality of installing a local government for Jaraka in Irian Jaya Barat took place in February 2003 and a governor was appointed in November; the creation of this separate Central Irian Jaya Province was blocked by Indonesian courts, who declared it to be unconstitutional and in contravention of the Papua's special autonomy agreement. The previous division into two provinces was allowed to stand as an established fact; the province of Papua is one of three provinces to have obtained special autonomy status, the others being Aceh and West Papua. According to Law 21/2001 on Special Autonomy Status, the provincial government of Papua is provided with authority within all sectors of administration, except for the five strategic areas of foreign affairs and defense, monetary and fiscal affairs and justice; the provincial government is authorised to issue local regulations to further stipulate the implementation of the special autonomy, including regulating the authority of districts and municipalities within the province.
Due to its special autonomy status, Papua province is provided with significant amount of special autonomy funds, which can be used to benefit its indigenous peoples. But the province has low fiscal capacity and it is dependent on unconditional transfers and the above-mentioned special autonomy fund, which accounted for about 55% of total revenues in 2008. After obtaining its special autonomy status, in order to allow the local population access to timber production benefits, the Papuan provincial government issued a number of decrees, enabling: a Timber Logging Permit for Cus
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
West Papua (province)
West Papua is a province of Indonesia. It covers the two western peninsulas of the island of New Guinea along with nearby islands; the province is bordered to the north by the Pacific Ocean, to the west by the Halmahera Sea and the Ceram Sea, to the south by the Banda Sea, to the east by the province of Papua and the Cenderawasih Bay. Manokwari is the capital, while Sorong is the main gateway to the province. According to the 2010 census by Statistics Indonesia, West Papua recorded a population of 760,422. Inaugurated as a province in 2003, West Papua was named West Irian Jaya until 2007; the name West Papua itself is used by the Free Papua Movement to refer the whole Western New Guinea. Consisting of twelve regencies and one city, the province enjoys a special autonomous status as granted by the Indonesian legislation. West Papua is well known by its Raja Ampat Islands which contains the richest marine biodiversity in the world. Parts of the Bird's Head Peninsula has been colonized in the past.
During the reign of the Srivijaya Empire between the 7th century and the 13th century, traders from Srivijaya conducted trade with the local people of the Bird's Head Peninsula. The influence of the Majapahit kingdom centered on Java was reached up to the westernmost part of the island of New Guinea. A Kakawin dating from the 14th century Majapahit Nagarakretagama mentions Wwanin or Onin as one of the regions known in the east known as Onin Peninsula in Fakfak Regency, western part Bomberai Peninsula larger, in the south of the Bird's Head region of West Papua. In the 16th century, Europeans began arriving in the region, resulting in a competition between the Portuguese and the Dutch Empire to exert influence in the region. In the end, the Dutch emerged colonize the region; the Dutch was briefely ousted by the Japanese during World War II, but returned after the Japanese surrenders. The Dutch remained in New Guinea until 1963 when they transferred the control of the region to the Republic of Indonesia as part of the New York Agreement.
As of 2018, West Papua is still one of the least developed provinces in Indonesia out of Indonesia's 34 provinces, only ranking above the neighbouring province Papua. However, the government is attempting to improve West Papua's infrastructure, such as building the Trans Papua highway to connect all major cities in Indonesian New Guinea and building more airports and improving existing airports; the term'Papua' first appeared in a Malay dictionary made by William Marsden in 1812. Sollewijn Gelpke, a Dutch colonial official conducted a study of the origin of the word'Papua'. In the Portuguese and Spanish archives the word'Papua' is a term for residents who inhabit the Raja Ampat Islands and coastal areas of the Bird's Head Peninsula. According to F. C. Kamma, a missionary, a linguist,'sup-i-papwah' comes from the Biak language which means'land under the sunset'. At that time, residents of Biak Island during sunny weather could see a large island located on the west, the island under the sunset.
During the pre-colonial era in the Nusantara archipelago, the Srivijaya Empire was recorded as having sent birds native from the island of New Guinea which at that time were called Janggi to the Emperor of the Song dynasty in China. From some of the past names given to Papua, it seems clear that since this region has been known there has been a close relationship between this region and other regions in the archipelago at that time. Another name from Papua in the past was "Samudranta", which shows that the New Guinea region was known by Sanskrit-speaking people living in the Indonesian archipelago, both in terms of geo-politics and socio-economic. and culture in the broadest sense. Ramandey wrote that in the 1st Century the influence of Hinduism and India had spread throughout the archipelago at that time and was not only confined to Java and Sumatra but spread to the east including Papua, it might be called "Ujung Samudranta Island", New Guinea Island. Indian sailors have arrived here, because it is evident from the records of Indians who call Irian Samudranta, which means the island is at the edge of the ocean.
There is a high probability. If this is related to the Srivijaya Empire, it is that the name was given by the maritime kingdom, an indication that the island of Irian has been under the control of its power. In the 13th century, a Chinese traveler named Chau Yu Kua wrote that in the Indonesian Archipelago there was an area called Tung-ki, part of a country in Maluku. Tung-ki is the Chinese name for Irian. During the era of the Majapahit Empire, the Nagarakretagama written by Mpu Prapanca explicitly mentioned the Western New Guinea region as part of the Majapahit. In 1511, António de Abreu, a Portuguese sailor, referred to New Guinea as "Os Papuas" or llha de Papo. Don Jorge de Menetes, a Spanish sailor had stopped in Papua a few years he still used the name Papua, he himself knew the Papuan name in the diary of Antonio Figafetta, the clerk of the Magellan voyage that surrounded the world by the name of Papua. This Papuan name was known to Figafetta. Next, in 1528, Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón, a Spanish marine fleet leader named the island of Papua Isla de Oro or Island of Gold which means the Golden Island.
He is the only sailor who managed to plant his anchor on the north coast of New Guinea. With the mention of Isla Del Oro, there were not a few European sailors who came in droves to find gold on the golden island. On June 13, 1545, Ortiz de Retez, a Spani