Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was the 33rd president of the United States from 1945 to 1953, succeeding upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt after serving as vice president, he implemented the Marshall Plan to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, established the Truman Doctrine and NATO. Truman was elected to the United States Senate in 1934 and gained national prominence as chairman of the Truman Committee aimed at waste and inefficiency in wartime contracts. Soon after succeeding to the presidency he authorized the first and only use of nuclear weapons in war. Truman's administration renounced isolationism, he rallied his New Deal coalition during the 1948 presidential election and won a surprise victory that secured his own presidential term. Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948; when Communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he gained United Nations approval for the large policy action known as the Korean War. It saved South Korea but the Chinese intervened, driving back the UN/US forces and preventing a rollback of Communism in North Korea.
On domestic issues, bills endorsed by Truman faced opposition from a conservative Congress, but his administration guided the U. S. economy through the post-war economic challenges. In 1948 he submitted the first comprehensive civil rights legislation and issued Executive Orders to start racial integration in the military and federal agencies. Allegations of corruption in the Truman administration became a central campaign issue in the 1952 presidential election and accounted for Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower's electoral victory against Democrat Adlai Stevenson II. Truman's financially difficult retirement was marked by the founding of his presidential library and the publication of his memoirs; when he left office, Truman's presidency was criticized, but scholars rehabilitated his image in the 1960s and he is ranked as one of the best presidents. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, on May 8, 1884, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman, his namesake was Harrison "Harry" Young.
His middle initial "S" honors Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. A brother, John Vivian, was born soon followed by sister Mary Jane. Truman's ancestry is English and less Scotch-Irish, German or French. John Truman was a livestock dealer; the family lived in Lamar until Harry was ten months old, when they moved to a farm near Harrisonville, Missouri. The family next moved to Belton, in 1887 to his grandparents' 600-acre farm in Grandview; when Truman was six, his parents moved to Independence, so he could attend the Presbyterian Church Sunday School. He did not attend a traditional school. While living in Independence, he served as a Shabbos goy for Jewish neighbors, doing tasks for them on Shabbat that their religion prevented them from doing on that day. Truman was interested in music and history, all encouraged by his mother, with whom he was close; as president, he solicited political as well as personal advice from her. He rose at five every morning to practice the piano, which he studied more than twice a week until he was fifteen.
Truman worked as a page at the 1900 Democratic National Convention in Kansas City. After graduating from Independence High School in 1901, Truman enrolled in Spalding's Commercial College, a Kansas City business school, he made use of his business college experience to obtain a job as a timekeeper on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, sleeping in hobo camps near the rail lines. He took on a series of clerical jobs, was employed in the mail room of The Kansas City Star. Truman and his brother Vivian worked as clerks at the National Bank of Commerce in Kansas City, he returned to the Grandview farm in 1906, where he lived until entering the army in 1917 after the beginning of the Great War. During this period, he courted Bess Wallace. Truman said he intended to propose again, but he wanted to have a better income than that earned by a farmer. To that end, during his years on the farm and after World War I, he became active in several business ventures, including a lead and zinc mine near Commerce, Oklahoma, a company that bought land and leased the oil drilling rights to prospectors, speculation in Kansas City real estate.
Truman derived some income from these enterprises, but none proved successful in the long term. Truman is the only president since William McKinley not to earn a college degree. In addition to having attended business college, from 1923 to 1925 he took night courses toward an LL. B. at the Kansas City Law dropped out after losing reelection as county judge. He was informed by attorneys in the Kansas City area that his education and experience were sufficient to receive a license to practice law. However, he did not pursue it. While serving as president in 1947, Truman applied for a license to practice law. A friend, an attorney began working out the arrangements, informed Truman that his application had to be notarized. By the time Truman received this information he had changed his mind, so he never sought notarization. After rediscovery of Truman's application, in 1996 the Missour
Douglas MacArthur in World War II
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II, he received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign. MacArthur was recalled to active duty in 1941 as commander of U. S. Army Forces in the Far East. A series of disasters followed, starting with the destruction of his air force on December 8, 1941, the invasion of the Philippines by the Japanese. MacArthur's forces were soon compelled to withdraw to Bataan, where they held out until May 1942. In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left Corregidor in PT boats, escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. For his defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor. After more than two years of fighting in the Pacific, he fulfilled a promise to return to the Philippines.
He accepted Japan's surrender on September 2, 1945. On July 26, 1941 Roosevelt federalized the Philippine Army, recalled MacArthur to active duty in the U. S. Army as a two star/major general, named him commander of U. S. Army Forces in the Far East. MacArthur was promoted to lieutenant general the following day, to general on December 20. At the same time, Sutherland was promoted to major general, while Marshall, Spencer B. Akin, Hugh John Casey were all promoted to brigadier general. On July 31, 1941 the Philippine Department had 22,000 troops assigned, 12,000 of whom were Philippine Scouts; the main component was the Philippine Division, under the command of Major General Jonathan M. Wainwright. Between July and December 1941 the garrison received 8,500 reinforcements. After years of parsimony, much equipment was shipped. By November, a backlog of 1,100,000 shipping tons of equipment intended for the Philippines had accumulated in U. S. ports and depots awaiting vessels. At 0330 local time on December 8, 1941, Sutherland learned of the attack on Pearl Harbor and informed MacArthur.
At 0530, Chief of Staff of the United States Army General George Marshall ordered MacArthur to execute the existing war plan, Rainbow Five. MacArthur did nothing. When, on three occasions, Gen. Breteron requested permission to attack Japanese bases in Formosa, in accordance with prewar intentions, he was refused. At 12:30, the Japanese pilots of the 11th Air Fleet achieved complete tactical surprise when they attacked Clark Field and the nearby fighter base at Iba Field, they destroyed or disabled 18 of Far East Air Force's 35 B-17s, 53 of its 107 P-40s, three P-35s, more than 25 other aircraft. Substantial damage was done to the bases, casualties totaled 80 killed and 150 wounded. What was left of the Far East Air Force was all but destroyed over the next few days. Prewar defense plans assumed the Japanese could not be prevented from landing on Luzon and called for U. S. and Filipino forces to retreat with their supplies to the Bataan peninsula. MacArthur attempted to slow the Japanese advance with an initial defense against the Japanese landings.
However, he reconsidered his confidence in the ability of his Filipino troops when the Japanese landing force made a rapid advance after landing at Lingayen Gulf on December 21. He subsequently ordered a retreat to Bataan. Manila was declared an open city and on December 25 MacArthur moved his headquarters to the island fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay. A series of air raids by the Japanese destroyed all the exposed structures on the island and USAFFE headquarters was moved into the Malinta Tunnel. Most of the headquarters moved to Bataan, leaving only the nucleus with MacArthur; the troops on Bataan continued to fight. Some blamed MacArthur for their predicament. A ballad sung to the tune of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" called him "Dugout Doug." However, most clung to the belief that somehow MacArthur "would reach down and pull something out of his hat."On January 1, 1942 MacArthur was offered and accepted a payment of $500,000 from President Quezon of the Philippines as payment for his pre-war service.
MacArthur's staff members received payments: $75,000 for Sutherland, $45,000 for Richard Marshall, $20,000 for Huff. Eisenhower, after being appointed Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force, was offered money by Quezon, but declined; these payments were known only to a few in Manila and Washington, including President Roosevelt and Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, until they were made public by historian Carol Petillo in 1979. While the payments had been legal, the revelation tarnished MacArthur's reputation. In February 1942, as Japanese forces tightened their grip on the Philippines, MacArthur was ordered by President Roosevelt to relocate to Australia. MacArthur discussed the idea with his staff that he resign his commission and fight on as a private soldier in the Philippine resistance but Sutherland talked him out of it. On the night of March 12, 1942, MacArthur and a select group left Corregidor in four PT boats. MacArthur, his family and Sutherland traveled in PT 41, commanded by Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley.
The others followed in PT 34, PT 35 and PT 32. MacArthur and his party reached Del Monte Airfield in Bukidnon province on the island of Mindanao two days later. General George Marshall sent three U. S. Navy B-17s to pick them up. Two of them arrived, brought the entire group to Australia. MacArthur arrived on March 17 at Batchelor Airfield, about 60 miles south of Darwin, before
Douglas MacArthur II
Douglas MacArthur II was an American diplomat. During his diplomatic career, he served as United States ambassador to Japan, Belgium and Iran, as well as Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs. MacArthur was the son of Captain Arthur MacArthur III and Mary McCalla MacArthur daughter of Bowman H. McCalla granddaughter of Col Horace Binney Sargent, great-granddaughter of Lucius Manlius Sargent and was named for his uncle, General Douglas MacArthur, he was born in Pennsylvania. He graduated from Milton Academy in Milton, Mass. and from Yale College, Class of 1932. He married Laura Louise Barkley on August 21, 1934, the daughter of future U. S. Vice President Alben Barkley. After serving as an Army officer, MacArthur began his Foreign Service career in 1935 with a post in Vancouver, he was assigned to Vichy France during the early years of World War II, served as secretary of the U. S. Embassy there from 1940 to 1942, was held as a prisoner of war for two years after the US broke relations with the Vichy government.
Following a prisoner exchange in March 1944, he served as part of General Dwight Eisenhower's political staff, led the political section of the U. S. Embassy in Paris until 1948, he went on to become chief of the State Department's Division of Western European Affairs in 1949, where he assisted in the formation of NATO, served as Counselor of the State Department from 1953 to 1956, where he led the U. S. negotiations for the SEATO treaty. MacArthur was appointed as U. S. Ambassador to Japan in December 1956, presented his credentials in February 1957. During his four years in Tokyo, MacArthur oversaw the negotiation of the mutual security treaty between the United States and Japan, amended in January 1960 amid widespread public controversy and demonstrations in Japan, it was revealed in 1974 that MacArthur negotiated a secret agreement with Japanese foreign minister Aiichiro Fujiyama to allow the movement of American nuclear weapons through Japanese territory. It was revealed, through documents declassified in the 2000s, that MacArthur pressured the Japanese judiciary, including Chief Justice Kotaro Tanaka, to uphold the legality of the United States military presence in Japan following a lower court decision that found it to be unconstitutional.
MacArthur appeared on the cover of the June 27, 1960 issue of Time magazine, in which he was characterized as "the principal architect of present-day U. S. policy toward Japan." Following his time in Japan, MacArthur served as Ambassador to Belgium, Assistant Secretary of State, Ambassador to Austria and Ambassador to Iran. While in the latter post, he escaped an attempted kidnapping by Iranian extremists in 1970. MacArthur died in Washington, D. C. in 1997. Girard incident Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan 1982 interview with Ambassador MacArthur related to US diplomatic efforts related to Vietnam Appearances on C-SPAN
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Service summary of Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur, United States Army General began his career in 1899, served in three major military conflicts and held the highest military office of the United States and of the Philippines during that service. June 13, 1899 – appointed as a Cadet at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. 1900: Is the victim of hazing and becomes involved in a serious scandal where one Cadet is left dead by upperclassman abuse. During the investigation he implicates only cadets who were expelled from West Point or had confessed. June 1903 – Graduates first in his class, commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers June 1903: Serves with the 33rd Battalion of Engineers in the Philippine Islands. 1904: Assigned to the California Debris Commission. April 1904: Promoted to First Lieutenant, becomes acting Chief Engineering Officer for the Army Pacific Division based in San Francisco, California October 1904: Reports to Tokyo, Japan to serve as an aide to his father in the Far East December 1906: Serves as aide-de-camp to President Theodore Roosevelt August 1907: Attends the "Engineering School of Application" in Washington, D.
C. February 1908: Assigned as the Officer-in-Charge, Improvements Commission, Wisconsin April 1908: Appointed as Commanding Officer, Company K, 3rd Battalion of Engineers; that year becomes an instructor at the Mounted Service School, Fort Riley, Kansas April 1909: Becomes Quartermaster for the 3rd Battalion of Engineers February 1911: Promoted to Captain and serves as the Officer-in-Charge of the Engineering Depot at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas November 1912: Assigned to the General Staff Corps, for duty as a Member and Recorder of the Board of Engineering Troops April 1913: Appointed as Superintendent of the State and Navy Building in Washington, D. C. as a member of the Army General Staff April 1914: Becomes the Assistant Engineering Officer of the military expedition to Veracruz, Mexico December 1915: Promoted to Major, serves as an Engineering Officer on the Army General Staff August 1917: Advanced to the temporary rank of Colonel in the National Army. Reports to Camp Mills, Long Island, New York to begin forming the 42nd Division.
1917 – 1918: Becomes Chief of Staff of the 42nd Division and is credited with naming it the "Rainbow Division". Joins the American Expeditionary Force bound for France. Departs U. S. for France in November 1917. June 1918: Appointed a Brigadier General in the National Army and in August is appointed as Commander of the 84th Infantry Brigade. Commands the 42nd Division from 10 to 22 November 1918. 1918 – 1919: Receives two Distinguished Service Crosses and seven Silver Star Citations for battlefield leadership and bravery and is wounded in action and gassed by the enemy. Was known for leading troops into battle without a weapon of his own. Begins to develop a negative relationship with General of the Armies John Pershing, after feeling that Pershing is wasting the lives of his troops with bad military tactics. May 1919: Returns to the United States as a hero, but is distraught over the lack of recognition his Rainbow Division receives for actions in France. June 12, 1919: Becomes the Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, West Point.
January 20, 1920: Appointed as a brigadier general in the Regular Army. Is one of the few officers who retain their wartime rank. Receives a negative evaluation report from Pershing, now Chief of Staff, who ranks Macarthur 38 out of 45 generals and states that MacArthur has an "exalted view of himself and should remain in his present grade for several years". November 1, 1922: Becomes Commanding General, District of Manila, in the Philippines. June 29, 1923: While still serving as District of Manila Commander becomes commander of the 23rd Infantry Brigade. November 18, 1924: Assigned as commander of the Philippine Division. January 17, 1925: Promoted to major general, becoming the youngest two-star general in the U. S. Army. Returns to the United States to become a corps commander. May 1, 1925: Assigned as 4th Corps Area Commander, encompassing the southeastern states with headquarters in Atlanta. Reassigned as local residents did not welcome MacArthur because his father was a Union officer during the Civil War.
August 1, 1925 – September 3, 1928: Serves as 3rd Corps Area Commander, with headquarters in Baltimore, Maryland. Summer 1928: Leads the United States Olympic Team to Amsterdam. October 1, 1928: Assigned as the Commanding General of the Philippine Department, with headquarters in Manila. October 2, 1930: Becomes the commander of the Ninth Corps Area with headquarters at the Presidio of San Francisco, California. November 21, 1930: Appointed by President Hoover as Chief of Staff of the United States Army and promoted to the rank of general on the same date. June 1932: Presides over the dispersal of the "Bonus Army", deemed a low point of his tenure as Army Chief of Staff. October 1, 1935: Completes his tour as Chief of Staff and declines retirement from the Army. Per Army regulations, reverts to his permanent rank of Major General and becomes the Chief Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines. April 30, 1937: marries Jean Faircloth in New York City. December 31, 1937: Retires from the Army at his own request.
Placed on the retired list as a four-star general. 1937 – 1941: Civilian adviser to the Philippine Government on military matters. Is appointed a Field Marshal in the Philippine Army, the only American in history to have that rank bestowed upon them. Begins wearing the "scrambled eggs" cap associated with him. February 21, 1938: Son Arthur MacArthur IV is born. July 26, 1941: Recalled to active service in the United States Army as a Major General. July 27, 1941
Appointment in Tokyo
Appointment in Tokyo is a 1945 documentary released Produced by the Army Pictorial Service, Signal Corps, with the cooperation of the Army Air Forces and the United States Navy, released by Warner Bros. for the War Activities Committee shortly after the surrender of Japan. It follows General Douglas MacArthur and his men from their exile from the Philippines in early 1942, through the signing of the instrument of surrender on the USS Missouri on September 1, 1945; the film is notable for its discussion of the problems MacArthur face in Australia after the conquest of the Philippines, the American military's "hit'em where they ain't" strategy through the Solomons and Papua New Guinea, the footage from the reconquest of the Philippines, including of Battle of Leyte, the Battle of Manila, the rescue of American and Filipino POWs from Japanese prison camps. The New York Times reviewer Bosley Crowther felt that the action footage is of the "highest caliber," and the battle in Manila's streets is recounted in shots that are as vivid as any others in war photography.
But Crowther continued that "to be quite frank about it, the cinematic structure of this film is inadequate to the vital subject and far inferior to that of previous war reports. Nor should the film, be regarded as a full review of the Pacific war." He objected that this material is "strangely grandiose with a'melodramatic flavor.'" "Questionable, too," he went on, "from the point of straight reporting," is the "elaborate emphasis placed upon the personality of Gen. Douglas MacArthur," represented in no less than twenty-six shots. Appointment in Tokyo is available for free download at the Internet Archive Appointment in Tokyo on IMDb
Louise Cromwell Brooks
Louise Cromwell Brooks was an American socialite whose four marriages included seven years as the first wife of General Douglas MacArthur. She was "considered one of Washington's most beautiful and attractive young women", she was born September 1890 in Rye, New York to Eva Roberts Cromwell and Oliver Eaton Cromwell. Her brother was the American diplomat and first husband of Doris Duke. After her father's death her mother married prominent investment banker Edward T. Stotesbury in 1912, she made her debut in Washington, DC in 1910. In 1911 she married Jr.. They had a son and a daughter. Brooks and Cromwell divorced in 1919, she married Brigadier General Douglas MacArthur in 1922. William Manchester, in his biography of MacArthur, stated that General John J. Pershing the Army Chief of Staff, summarily transferred MacArthur from his post as Superintendent of West Point to the Philippines because Pershing was himself interested in Mrs. Brooks, she claimed that Pershing wanted to marry her and had threatened to send MacArthur to the Philippines if they married.
Pershing said the allegation was "all damn poppycock". Her marriage to MacArthur ended in 1929, she next married the actor Lionel Atwill, whom she divorced in 1943. In 1944 she married Alf Heiberg; that marriage ended in divorce. Brooks died of a heart attack in Washington, DC at the age of 74