Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Brooke Christa Shields is an American actress and model. She was a child model and gained critical acclaim at age 12 for her leading role in Louis Malle's film Pretty Baby, in which she played a child prostitute in New Orleans at the beginning of the 20th century. Shields garnered widespread notoriety in the role, she continued to model into her late teenage years and starred in several dramas in the 1980s, including The Blue Lagoon, Franco Zeffirelli's Endless Love. In 1983, Shields suspended her career as a model to attend Princeton University, where she graduated with a bachelor's degree in Romance Languages. In the 1990s, Shields appeared in minor roles in films, she starred in the NBC sitcoms Suddenly Susan, for which she received two Golden Globe nominations, Lipstick Jungle. In 2017, Shields returned to NBC with a major recurring role in Law & Order: Special Victims Unit in the show's 19th season. Since 2014, Shields has voiced Beverly Goodman in the Adult Swim animated series Mr. Pickles.
Brooke Christa Shields was born in Manhattan, New York on May 31, 1965, the daughter of actress and model Teri Shields and businessman Frank Shields. Her mother was of English, Scotch-Irish, Welsh descent, while her father had English, French and Italian ancestry. According to research by William Addams Reitwiesner, Shields has ancestral links with a number of noble families from Italy, in particular from Genoa and Rome; these are namely the Gattilusi-Palaiologos-Savoy, Imperiali, Doria, Doria-Pamphili-Landi, Chigi-Albani, Torlonia dynasties. Her paternal grandmother was Italian noblewoman Marina Torlonia di Civitella-Cesi, the daughter of an Italian prince and an American socialite; when Teri announced that she was pregnant, Frank's family paid her a sum to terminate the pregnancy. Teri took the money, but gave birth to Shields. Frank married Teri, she has three half-sisters. When Shields was only five days old, her mother stated she wanted her to be active in show business, saying, "She's the most beautiful child and I'm going to help her with her career."
Growing up, Shields took piano and horse riding lessons. Shields was raised in the Roman Catholic faith. For her confirmation at age 10, she took the name "Camille". While attending high school, she resided in Haworth, New Jersey, across the George Washington Bridge from Manhattan. Shields has stated that her first encounter with the paparazzi was in the Grand Ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria New York at the age of 12, stating that she "stood like a statue wondering why they were all hired to photograph " and that she "debuted at the Waldorf". Shields attended the New Lincoln School until eighth grade, she graduated from the Dwight-Englewood School in Englewood, New Jersey, in 1983. She moved to a dorm at Princeton University to pursue her bachelor's degree in French literature, where she graduated in 1987. At Princeton, Shields spoke about her sexuality and virginity, she was a member of the Cap and Gown Club. Her autobiography, On Your Own, was published in 1985, her 1987 senior thesis was titled "The Initiation: From Innocence to Experience: The Pre-Adolescent/Adolescent Journey in the Films of Louis Malle, Pretty Baby and Lacombe Lucien".
Shortly after Shields graduated from college, her four-year transcript was published in the July 1987 edition of Life Magazine. Based on that transcript, The New York Times published a light-hearted op-ed piece intended to tweak the claim that Princeton produced superior, well-rounded graduates. Noting that Shields "got all As and Bs, paid attention to her school work", it claimed she "got cheated" because Princeton did not require her to take any classical studies, modern or American history, nor any course in mathematics, economics, political science, world literature, or science with laboratory experience. "f that adds up to a liberal arts education from a place like Princeton, there is no longer any danger that our society will suffer from elitism in any form." Shields began her career as a model when she was 11 months old in 1966. Her first job was for Ivory Soap, she continued as a successful child model with model agent Eileen Ford, who, in her Lifetime Network biography, stated that she started her children's division just for Shields.
In 1978, when she was 12 years old, Shields played a child prostitute in the controversial film Pretty Baby. Eileen Ford, founder of the Ford Modeling Agency, said of Brooke Shields: "She is a professional child and unique, she looks like an adult and thinks like one."In 1980, 14-year-old Shields was the youngest fashion model to appear on the cover of Vogue. That same year, Shields appeared in controversial print and TV ads for Calvin Klein jeans; the TV ad included her saying the famous tagline, "You want to know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing." Brooke Shields ads would help catapult Klein's career to super-designer status. From 1981 to 1983, her mother, photographer Garry Gross, Playboy Press were involved in litigation in the New York City Courts over the rights to photographs her mother had signed away to Gross. Gross was the photographer of a controversial set of nude images taken in 1975 of a ten-year-old Brooke Shields with the consent of her mother, Teri Shields, for th
Molly Parker is a Canadian actress. She is best known for her roles in independent films, for her roles in television as Alma Garret on the HBO series Deadwood and as House Majority Whip Jacqueline Sharp on the Netflix original series House of Cards, for which she earned an Emmy nomination, she won a Genie Award in 1997 as Best Actress in a Leading Role for Kissed, was nominated for an Independent Spirit Award as best female lead in 2001 for her role in The Center of the World, has twice been nominated for a Genie Award as best supporting actress. Parker was born in Maple Ridge, British Columbia, spent her childhood on a farm in Pitt Meadows, she attended ballet classes from ages 3 to 17 but began acting in local productions at age 14. Her uncle's agent represented her early in her career, when she had parts in various Canadian television roles before studying with Vancouver's Gastown Actors' Studio. Parker portrayed Alice Ramsey in "The Wrath of Kali", a fourth-season episode of Highlander: The Series.
She played the daughter of a lesbian military officer in the television movie Serving in Silence. She appeared in the 1995 Lifetime television movie Ebbie playing the niece of Susan Lucci's Scrooge character, she won a Gemini Award nomination for her performance in the television movie Paris or Somewhere and the Genie Award for best actress for playing a necrophiliac in Lynne Stopkewich's film Kissed. Parker is known for taking on controversial roles, such as her performance in Kissed, her role as a sympathetic lap dancer and paid escort in The Center of the World, a rabbi in Six Feet Under. From 2004 to 2006 she starred in HBO's Deadwood, reprising her role in the series' 2019 film continuation. In 2008, she starred in the CBS show Swingtown, she filmed a pilot for a series called The Wonderful Maladys, but the series was not picked up, in 2010, she starred in the video for "Cold Love" by Tim Kasher. In 2012, Parker joined the cast of the television series The Firm, based on John Grisham's eponymous 1991 novel and its 1993 film adaptation.
She made several appearances on the sixth season of the Showtime series Dexter. In 2014, she appeared as Congresswoman Jacqueline Sharp in the second season of the Netflix series House of Cards. Parker continued in the role in seasons 3 and 4. One of her most recent projects involves a role alongside Jamie Dornan, Sarah Gadon, Aaron Paul in Miramax's supernatural thriller The 9th Life of Louis Drax, which started principal photography in October 2014. In 2016, Parker co-starred in the Amazon Studios legal series Goliath, she co-starred in Madeline's Madeline. She appears as Maureen Robinson in Lost in the Netflix remake of the 1965 TV series. Parker is divorced from director and producer Matt Bissonnette, they have a son. Molly Parker on IMDb Molly Parker profile, TheCanadianEncyclopedia.ca
Winona Ryder is an American actress and film producer. She is the recipient of a Golden Globe Award and has been nominated for two Academy Awards, a BAFTA Award, four Screen Actors Guild Awards. Following her film debut in Lucas, Ryder came to attention with her supporting performance in Tim Burton's Beetlejuice, she rose to prominence with starring roles in such films as Heathers, Edward Scissorhands, Bram Stoker's Dracula. Her career was further enhanced when she garnered critical acclaim and two consecutive Academy Award nominations for her portrayal of socialite May Welland in Martin Scorsese's The Age of Innocence, as Jo March in the film adaptation of Little Women, her other films during this period were Reality Bites, How to Make an American Quilt, Alien Resurrection, Girl, which she executive-produced. In 2002, Ryder appeared in the box office hit Mr. Deeds, following which her career saw a downturn and she took a sabbatical from films. In 2009, she returned to the screen after a brief hiatus following her shoplifting arrest, appearing in high-profile films such as Star Trek.
In 2010, she was nominated for two Screen Actors Guild Awards: as the lead actress in When Love Is Not Enough: The Lois Wilson Story and as part of the cast of Black Swan. She reunited with Burton for Frankenweenie, she stars as Joyce Byers in the Netflix series Stranger Things, for which she has received Golden Globe and Screen Actors Guild nominations. Ryder's personal life has attracted significant media attention, her relationship with Johnny Depp in the early 1990s and a 2001 arrest for shoplifting were both constant subjects of tabloid journalism. She has been open about her personal struggles with depression. In 2000, Ryder received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, honoring her legacy in the film industry. Winona Laura Horowitz was born in Winona, Minnesota, on October 29, 1971, the daughter of Cynthia Palmer and Michael D. Horowitz, her mother is an author, video producer, editor, her father is an author, editor and antiquarian bookseller. He worked as an archivist for psychedelic guru Dr. Timothy Leary.
Her father is Jewish, Ryder has described herself as Jewish. Most of her family on his side were killed in the Holocaust, her father's family was named "Tomchin" but took the surname "Horowitz" when they immigrated to the United States. Named after the nearby city of Winona, she was given her middle name, because of her parents' friendship with Laura Huxley, writer Aldous Huxley's wife, her stage name derives from a soul and rock singer of whom her father was a fan. Ryder's father is an atheist and her mother is a Buddhist. Ryder has one full sibling, a younger brother and two half-siblings from her mother's prior marriage: an older half-brother, Jubal Palmer, an older half-sister, Sunyata Palmer. Ryder's family friends were her godfather, Timothy Leary, the Beat Movement poets Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Ferlinghetti, the science fiction novelist Philip K. Dick. In 1978, when Ryder was seven years old and her family relocated to Rainbow, a commune near Elk, Mendocino County, where they lived with seven other families on a 300-acre plot of land.
As the remote property had no electricity or television sets, Ryder began to devote her time to reading and became an avid fan of J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye, she developed an interest in acting after her mother showed her a few movies on a screen in the family barn. At age 10, Ryder and her family moved to California. During her first week at Kenilworth Junior High, she was bullied by children who mistook her for an effeminate boy. "I was wearing an old Salvation Army shop boy's suit. As I went to the bathroom I heard people saying,'Hey, faggot', they slammed my head into a locker. I fell to the ground and they started to kick the shit out of me. I had to have stitches; the school kicked me out, not the bullies..." As a result, Ryder ended up being home-schooled that year. "Years I went to a coffee shop and I ran into one of the girls who'd kicked me, she said,'Winona, can I have your autograph?' And I said,'Do you remember me? Remember in seventh grade you beat up that kid?' And she said,'Kind of'.
And I said,'That was me. Go fuck yourself.'" Ryder's experiences being bullied continued into high school, when she achieved her early success in Beetlejuice. Ryder commented that "I remember thinking,'Ooh, it's, the number-one movie; this is going to make things great at school. They called me a witch." In 1983, when Ryder was 12, she enrolled at the American Conservatory Theater in nearby San Francisco, where she took her first acting lessons. During the same year, she had a near-drowning; this psychological trauma caused problems with the underwater scenes in Alien Resurrection, some of which had to be reshot numerous times. In 1989, Ryder graduated from Petaluma High School with a 4.0 GPA. In 1985, Ryder sent a videotaped audition, where she recited a monologue from the novel Franny and Zooey by J. D. Salinger, to appear in the film Desert Bloom. Although the role went to Annabeth Gish, writer/director David Seltzer noticed her talent and cast her in his film Lucas, about a boy called Lucas and his life at high school.
Shot in the summer
Waking the Dead (novel)
Waking the Dead is a 1986 novel by Scott Spencer. The book, Spencer's fourth, was adapted in 2000 into a film of the same name, starring Billy Crudup and Jennifer Connelly; the book is a love story about two passionate liberals with vastly different approaches to their ideologies: Fielding Pierce is a lawyer and aspiring politician, Sarah Williams is a social activist who despises the political system. During a mission to assist Chilean refugees, Williams is killed by a terrorist car-bomb. Years Pierce is offered the Democratic candidacy for an Illinois congressional seat, but during the campaign Pierce becomes convinced he has seen and heard Williams on several occasions; as Pierce becomes obsessed with finding out if his lost lover is alive, he is pushed to the brink of insanity and begins to fear he has become absorbed and changed by the political system Williams so hated. Waking the Dead was eagerly anticipated following Spencer's previous novel, the 1979 novel Endless Love. Michiko Kakutani, book reviewer for The New York Times compared Waking the Dead to the 1976 Brian De Palma film Obsession.
Both feature male protagonists who lose their lover to a violent death later believe they have been brought back to life. Although Kakutani said Spencer succeeded in fleshing out Pierce's world, in her view the author was less successful in convincing the readers of Pierce's love for Williams. Kakutani said, "his orchestration of Fielding's continuing obsession with Sarah becomes an empty display of narrative pyrotechnics". Kakutani said the first-person narration Spencer mastered in Endless Love, was less successful in Waking the Dead and "tend to come across as simple-minded or phony digressions". Paul Gray, of Time Magazine, said the Pierce character was too unlikeable, citing his "overweening self-pity penchant for purple prose." Film director Keith Gordon, who adapted Waking the Dead into a film, first read the book in 1991 and knew he wanted to make it into a movie before he finished it. Gordon said he was touched by a scene in which Pierce is on a plane taking Williams' body home and silently wishing the plane would crash: "I started to cry and I thought, I want to tell this story.
I'll never forget the chill. I finished the book and I was sure I had to tell it. I saw it. I saw what it looked like, I saw what it sounded like, I pictured what the cinematography would be like." Gordon said he identified with Fielding Pierce, saw parallels between in Pierce's feelings for Williams and Gordon's own love for his wife: "I can imagine if I lost Rachel that I would be devastated and go mad and have to work my way back to appreciating what I had gotten from her instead of dwelling on the loss." Gordon remained so faithful to the book during his adaptation that the first cut of the movie was three hours long.
Liv Rundgren Tyler is an American actress and former model. She portrayed Arwen Undómiel in the Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Tyler began a career in modeling at age 14, she decided to focus on acting, made her film debut in Silent Fall. She went on to achieve critical recognition with roles in Heavy, Empire Records, That Thing You Do!, Stealing Beauty. She appeared in films such as Inventing the Abbotts, Cookie's Fortune, Onegin, Dr. T & the Women, One Night at McCool's. Following the success of Lord of the Rings, Tyler has appeared in a variety of roles, including the films Jersey Girl, Lonesome Jim, Reign Over Me, The Strangers, The Incredible Hulk, Space Station 76, Wildling. Outside of film, she played the part of Meg Abbott on HBO's The Leftovers, has since starred in the BBC series Gunpowder, the ITV/Hulu series Harlots. Tyler has served as a United Nations Children's Fund Goodwill Ambassador for the United States since 2003, as a spokesperson for Givenchy's line of perfume and cosmetics.
She is the daughter of Bebe Buell. She has three children. Tyler was born Liv Rundgren on July 1977 at Mount Sinai Hospital in East Harlem, New York, she is the only daughter of Bebe Buell, a model and former Playboy Playmate, Steven Tyler, the lead singer of Aerosmith. Her mother named her after Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, after seeing Ullmann on the cover of the March 5, 1977 issue of TV Guide, her ancestry includes Italian, German and English. On the show Who Do You Think You Are?, Tyler discovered that her paternal great-great-great-great-grandfather was part African American. Tyler has three half-siblings: Mia Tyler, Chelsea Anna Tallarico, Taj Monroe Tallarico, her maternal grandmother, Dorothea Johnson, founded the Protocol School of Washington. From 1972 to 1979, Buell lived with rock musician Todd Rundgren. In 1976, Buell became unexpectedly pregnant from a brief relationship with Steven Tyler. Buell gave birth on July 1, 1977, naming the daughter Liv Rundgren and claiming that Todd Rundgren was the biological father.
By Rundgren and Buell had ended their romantic relationship, but Rundgren signed the birth certificate and acted as a father figure to Liv, including paying for her education. At age ten or eleven Liv met Steven Tyler and figured out he was her father; when she asked her mother, the secret was revealed. The truth about Tyler's paternity did not become public until 1991, when she changed her surname from Rundgren to Tyler, but kept the former as a middle name. Buell's stated reason for claiming that Rundgren was Liv's father was that Steven Tyler was too addicted to drugs at the time of Liv's birth. Since learning the truth about her paternity and Steven have developed a close relationship, they have worked together professionally, once when she appeared in Aerosmith's music video for "Crazy" in 1993, again when Aerosmith performed many of the songs in the film Armageddon, in which Tyler starred. Tyler maintains a close relationship with Rundgren. "I'm so grateful to him, I have so much love for him.
You know. And he's protective and strong."Tyler attended the Congressional Schools of Virginia, Breakwater School, Waynflete School in Portland, before returning to New York City with her mother at age 12. She went to York Preparatory in New York City for junior high and high school after her mother researched the school to accommodate Tyler's ADHD, she attended, for a time, the Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences in Santa Monica, California. She left to continue her acting career; when asked about the way she spent her youth, Tyler said: "For me, I didn't get much of a childhood in my teen years because I've been working since I was 14. But that kept me out of trouble; when everybody was doing acid and partying like crazy, I was at work on a movie in Tuscany... having my own fun, of course, but it was a different kind of thing. I have no regrets. I love the way my life has gone." Tyler received her first modeling job at 14 with the assistance of Paulina Porizkova, who took pictures of her that ended up in Interview magazine.
She starred in television commercials. She became bored with her modeling career less than a year after it started and decided to go into acting, although she never took acting lessons. Tyler first became known to television audiences when she starred alongside Alicia Silverstone in the music video for Aerosmith's 1993 song "Crazy". Tyler made her feature film debut in Silent Fall in 1994, where she played the elder sister of a boy with autism. In 1995, she starred in the comedy-drama Empire Records. Tyler has described Empire Records as "one of the best experiences" she has had. Soon after, she landed a supporting role in James Mangold's 1996 drama Heavy as Callie, a naive young waitress; the film received favorable reviews. The film received mixed reviews, but Tyler's performance was regarded favorably by the critics. Variety wrote: "Tyler is the perfect accomplice. At times sweetly awkward, at others composed and serene, the actress appears to respond effortlessly and
Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–1990)
The military dictatorship of Chile was an authoritarian military regime that ruled Chile between September 11, 1973 and March 11, 1990. The dictatorship was established after the democratically-elected socialist government of Salvador Allende was overthrown in a coup d'état on 11 September 1973. During this time, the country was ruled by a military junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet; the military used the alleged breakdown of democracy and the economic crisis that took place during Allende's presidency to justify its seizure of power. The dictatorship presented its mission as a "national reconstruction." The coup was the result of multiple forces, including pressure from conservative and women’s groups, certain political parties, union strikes and other domestic unrest, as well as international factors. Although it was reported that the CIA was directly involved in orchestrating and carrying out the coup, subsequently released sources suggest a much reduced role of the US government; the regime was characterized by the systematic suppression of political parties and the persecution of dissidents to an extent unprecedented in the history of Chile.
Overall, the regime left over 3,000 dead or missing, tortured tens of thousands of prisoners, drove an estimated 200,000 Chileans into exile. The dictatorship's effects on Chilean political and economic life continue to be felt. Two years after its ascension radical neoliberal economic reforms were implemented, in sharp contrast to Allende's leftist policies, advised by a team of free-market economists educated in US universities known as the Chicago Boys. In 1980, the regime replaced the Chilean Constitution of 1925 with a new constitution; this established a series of provisions that would lead to the Chilean national plebiscite, 1988 on October 5. In that referendum, the Chilean people denied Pinochet a new mandate, opening the way for the reestablishment of democracy in 1990. Democratic presidential elections were held the following year; the military dictatorship ended in 1990 with the election of Christian-Democrat candidate Patricio Aylwin. However, the military remained out of civilian control for several years after the junta itself had lost power.
There has been a large amount of debate over the extent of US government involvement in destabilising the Allende government. Declassified documents show evidence of communication between the Chilean military and US officials, suggesting covert US involvement in assisting the military’s rise to power; some key figures in the Nixon administration, such as Henry Kissinger, used the Central Intelligence Agency to mount a major destabilization campaign. As the CIA revealed in 2000, "In the 1960s and the early 1970s, as part of the US Government policy to try to influence events in Chile, the CIA undertook specific covert action projects in Chile... to discredit Marxist-leaning political leaders Dr. Salvador Allende, to strengthen and encourage their civilian and military opponents to prevent them from assuming power." The CIA worked with right-wing Chilean politicians, military personnel, journalists to undermine socialism in Chile. One reason for this was financial, as many US businesses had investments in Chile, Allende’s socialist policies included the nationalisation of Chile’s major industries.
Another reason was the fear of the spread of communism, important in the context of the Cold War. The US feared that Allende would promote the spreading of Soviet influence in their ‘backyard’. Despite the US having the obvious intention of weakening Allende’s popularity in Chile so that he would not be elected in the next presidential elections, there is no concrete evidence to suggest that the US played an active role in the coup itself. On 15 April 1973, workers from the El Teniente mining camp had ceased working, demanding higher wages; the strike lasted 76 days and cost the government in lost revenues. One of the strikers, Luis Bravo Morales, was shot dead in Rancagua city. On June 29, the Blindados No. 2 tank regiment under the command of Colonel Roberto Souper, attacked La Moneda, Chile's presidential palace. Instigated by the anti-Marxist militia Patria y Libertad, the armoured cavalry soldiers hoped other units would be inspired to join them. Instead, armed units led by generals Carlos Prats and Augusto Pinochet put down the coup attempt.
In late July, 40,000 truckers, squeezed by price controls and rising costs, tied up transportation in a nationwide strike that lasted 37 days, costing the government $6 million USD a day. Two weeks before the coup, public dissatisfaction with rising prices and food shortages led to protests like the one at the Plaza de la Constitución, dispersed with tear gas. Allende clashed with Chile's largest circulation newspaper El Mercurio. Tax-evasion charges were trumped up against its director arrested; the Allende government found it impossible to control inflation, which grew to more than 300 percent by September, further dividing Chileans over the Allende government and its policies. Upper- and middle-class right-wing women played an important role in destabilising the Allende government, they co-ordinated two prominent opposition groups called El Poder Feminino, Solidaridad, Orden y Liberdad. These women who opposed Allende felt as though their fundamental values of family and motherhood were being threatened by Marxism.
Furthermore, the economic chaos that Allende’s regime was seeing meant that there were struggles to buy food and thus look after their families. Allende’s regime therefore threatened the most important aspect of a woman’s role; these women used many tactics to destabilise the Allende regime. They carried out the ‘March of the E