Kingaroy /kɪŋəˈrɔɪ/ is an agricultural town and locality in the South Burnett Region, Australia. It is approximately 210 kilometres or about 2½ hours drive north-west of the state capital Brisbane, the town is situated on the junction of the DAguilar and the Bunya Highways. At the 2011 census, Kingaroy had a population of 9,586 and it is known as the Peanut Capital of Australia because Australias largest peanut processing plant is located in the town and peanut silos dominate the skyline. Kingaroy is known as the home town of former Premier of Queensland. The origin of the name Kingaroy is usually claimed to be derived from the Wakka Wakka Aboriginal word for Red Ant, the local Kingaroy Rugby League football team is known as the Red Ants and a Red Ant features on the old Kingaroy Shire coat of arms. A Wakka Wakka Word List provides the explanation, Derived from king, a small black ant. The name was suggested by a local Aboriginal helper of the surveyor, Hector Munro, in 1878 the district where Kingaroy now stands was settled by the Markwell brothers.
The corner of this paddock was located on what is now known as Haly Street, named after the brothers who settled at Taabinga Station about 12 kilometres south-west of present-day Kingaroy. A small, prosperous village grew up around Taabinga in the 1890s but the arrival of the railway in 1904 led to a land explosion around Kingaroy and the development of Kingaroy as it now exists. Taabinga quickly declined into a ghost town by the end of World War I and today the original Taabinga Homestead, the area opposite Kingaroy Airport is today known as Taabinga Village but is really only a suburb of Kingaroy. The first Kingaroy Post Office opened by 1902 and was renamed Taabinga Village in 1905 and this was renamed Kingaroy in 1907. The Taabinga Village office closed in 1929, the foundation stone of the Kingaroy Soldiers Memorial Rotunda was laid on 25 April 1922 by the RSL president Sergeant Norman Booth. It was dedicated on 29 June 1932 by Mayor-General Sir Thomas William Glasgow, the Royal Australian Air Force had a significant operational and training presence in the region during the Second World War, the first squadrons deploying to the towns airport about mid-1942.
At least eight squadrons were based at RAAF Kingaroy then, together with No.3 Initial Training School, aircraft operated there by the RAAF included Avro Ansons, CAC Wirraways, DAP Beauforts, DH Mosquitos, Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawks and Bristol Beaufighters. Post Office was open from 7 August 1942 until 28 February 1946, Kingaroy celebrated its Centenary in 2004. Kingaroy is noted for being the first region in Australia to be placed on Level 7 Water Restrictions, Kingaroy has experienced growth in recent years. At the 2006 census, Kingaroy had a population of 7,620, the town has its own hotels, caravan parks and breakfasts and cabins, and a range of restaurants, fast food outlets and petrol stations. Unlike many towns of its size, Kingaroy has its own shopping mall that includes Woolworths, Big W, Kingaroy has an aerodrome a few kilometres from the centre of town and is regularly served by major bus lines
Murgon is a town and locality in the South Burnett Region, Australia. It is situated on the Bunya Highway 270 kilometres north-west of the state capital, at the 2011 Australian Census the town recorded a population of 2,092. Murgon is in the region of Queensland known as the South Burnett, attractions of Murgon include winemaking, fishing on the nearby Bjelke-Petersen Dam and gem-fossicking. Industries include peanuts, dairy farming and cattle production, the Indigenous Australian settlement of Cherbourg is just south of Murgon. Murgon Post Office opened by June 1908, the foundation stone of the Murgon War Memorial was laid on 25 April 1920 by Lieutenant Colonel Wilder Neligan. On 11 November 1921, the memorial was dedicated by RSL chairman. In the early 20th century the Nanango railway line reached the town, the town was the administrative centre for the former Shire of Murgon which existed from 1914 until 2008. The South Burnett Regional Council operates a library in Murgon
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is the main reference and research library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988 and it contains a significant portion of Queenslands documentary heritage, major reference and research collections, and is an advocate of and partner with public libraries across Queensland. The library is at Kurilpa Point, within the Queensland Cultural Centre on the Brisbane River at South Bank, the Brisbane Public Library was established by the government of the Colony of Queensland in 1896, and was renamed the Public Library of Queensland in 1898. The library was opened to the public in 1902, in 1934, the Oxley Memorial Library, and named for the explorer John Oxley, opened as a centre for research and study relating specifically to Queensland. A year after that, James L. Stapleton was appointed Queenslands first State Librarian, in 1971, the Public Library became the State Library.
A few years the Country Lending Service was established to provide book exchange, the CLS is still going strong today, administered by the State Librarys Public and Indigenous Library Services program. In 2003, the State Library began a new mission of establishing Indigenous Knowledge Centres in the Cape York, there is now a network of 22 IKCs in remote and regional communities, across Cape York, the Northern Peninsula. Area, the islands of the Torres Strait, Central Queensland, the State Librarys current strategic vision is to enrich the lives of Queenslanders through creatively engaging people with information and community. In early 2011, the library donated 50,000 pictures to Wikimedia Commons, the library holds general collections, including books and magazines, audiovisual items, family history, music, ephemera and electronic resources. There are research collections and services – including the John Oxley Library and the Australian Library of Art, the library is home to two UNESCO Memory of the World significant collections, Labour Party Manifesto and the Margaret Lawrie collection of Torres Strait Islands material.
The library holds a collection of Queensland election-related material, including websites, flyers, access to collections, including access to 50,000 Copyright-free Queensland images through Wikimedia Commons Provides books and other resource material to public libraries throughout Queensland. Specialist services to libraries in a number of areas, including services to young people. Public programs and exhibitions, including exhibition loans to schools, outreach programs in reference, information literacy, Internet training and digitisation throughout Queensland for public library staff and the general community. A digital culture centre called The Edge, for young people, a free coworking space, the Business Studio, supports startups and small business. Free guided tours of the building are available, in 2010, a total of 3730 school students participated in a tour. The then-Brisbane Public Library moved into the Old State Library Building in William Street and this building had formerly been occupied by the Queensland Museum.
The Library originally shared accommodation in the building with an art gallery, in the late 1950s, an extension, with a distinctive tiled mural on the exterior, was built onto the building to provide more space. The mural was the design in a national competition held in 1958
Ban Ban Springs
On the southern side of the road junction are the springs from which the community gets its name, being rare springs from which waters flow into the nearby Barambah Creek. The name Ban Ban Springs finds its source in the originally used by H. Herbert when, in 1846. It is reported Herbert borrowed the words Ban Ban from the local Wakka Wakka and/or Kabi Kabi languages, the springs are the first place in Queensland to have been formally registered as an Aboriginal cultural heritage place — being a Dreaming place of great significance to the Wakka Wakka people. It spoke to the elders of the tribe telling them the secrets of the sacred waters, the Rainbow Serpent told of talks he had had with the seven sisters and of the wonders he had seen while making the pathways for the sacred water to flow in this area. It is the place of many elders of the Wakka Wakka people with elders of this group living in the town of Gayndah. Ban Ban Springs is unique in Indigenous Heritage and it is sacred in mens Business and womens Business for separate and combined reasons.
Throughout time this area has been guarded by the Rainbow Serpent, theyve bulldozed what Gayndahs Wakka Wakka know as their cultural heritage. List of reduplicated Australian place names Map of Ban Ban Springs Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Area, accessed 25 February 2009
Gubbi Gubbi people
The Gubbi Gubbi, written Kabi Kabi, people are an Indigenous Australian people native to southeastern Queensland. They are now classified as one of several Murri language groups in Queensland, norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 sq. miles and lay west of Maryborough. The northern borders ran as far as Childers and Hervey Bay, on the south, they approached the headwaters of the Mary River and Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan, Gubbi Gubbi country is currently located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north. Some Gubbi Gubbi died in the poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep and they had feasted on stolen sheep.
Marksmen picked off many, even those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River, the slaughter was extensive, and the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850 and his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis lived among other tribes, the Gubbi Gubbi John Mathew and he described their society in a 1910 monograph, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. The Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them and it was known in their language as dala
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. The estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, the area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing slowly until tourism became an important industry. The area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters, Maroochydore and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white settler to sight the Glass House Mountains, in the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants, three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony slightly to the south. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve, the Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement.
By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area, many of the Sunshine Coasts towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest. Likewise, the roads often began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to, after construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being mostly ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades, sugar cane and pineapples proved especially important produce for the district. Many small hamlets and towns now emerged, produce was initially taken by horse to Landsborough, to Eudlo in 1891. Especially after World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1960s and 1970s.
Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being Woombyes Big Pineapple, during the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles. These newcomers developed a range of industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth, as of 2011 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes increasingly residential, most of the distinctive small farms – especially tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared. The Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the districts 120 cane growers who had been harvesting cane in the region, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
Indigenous peoples of Australia
For a more complete list of Indigenous peoples of Australia see List of Indigenous Australian group names, for general information, see Indigenous Australians. There are several hundred Indigenous peoples of Australia, many are groupings that existed before the British colonisation of Australia in 1788, within each country, people lived in clan groups, extended families defined by various forms of Australian Aboriginal kinship. Inter-clan contact was common, as was inter-country contact, but there were strict protocols around this contact, the largest language group people today are the Anangu Pitjantjatjara who live in the area around Uluru and south into the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands in South Australia. The second largest Aboriginal community are the Arrernte people who live in, the third largest are the Anangu Luritja, who live in the lands between the two largest just mentioned. The Aboriginal languages and dialects with the largest number of speakers today are the Pitjantjatjara, Ngunnawal The Ngunnawal people were the first inhabitants of the area which is now occupied by the city of Canberra and the Australian Capital Territory.
The city of Canberra is named after the Ngunnawal word Kambera, many other place names around Canberra are Ngunnawal names, such as Tuggeranong, Murrumbidgee, the suburb Ngunnawal and many road names. Murrawarri people - see Murrawarri Republic and Murawari language, Alyawarre Alyawarre who live north-east of Alice Springs. In 1980 they lodged a claim, which was handed back to them on 22 October 1992. The size of the land was 2065 km², Anmatjera Anmatjera from an area near Mount Leichhardt and Reynolds Ranges, and northeast to Central Mount Stuart. Artist Clifford Possum is an Anmatjera man, emily Kngwarreye was an Anmatjera woman. Arrernte The Arrernte people speak the Upper Arrernte language, and live in the Arrernte area of Central Australia, the population of Arrernte people living on Arrernte land is estimated at 25,000, making it the second largest of all Central Australian Aboriginal countries, after Pitjantjatjara. In most primary schools in Alice Springs, students are taught Arrernte as a compulsory language, future plans are that it will be included as a university subject.
Approximately 25% of Alice Springs residents speak Arrernte as their first language, Gurindji Gurindji, who from 1966 to 1975 at Wave Hill Cattle Station had a strike known as The Gurindji Strike. In 1975, the Australian Labor Party government of Gough Whitlam finally negotiated with the Vesteys to give the Gurindji back a portion of their land and this was a landmark in the land rights movement in Australia for Australian Aboriginal people to be given rights to their traditional lands. Kunibidji The Kunibidji, or Gunivugi, people live by the Liverpool River in Arnhem Land and they are Aboriginal people and speak the Ndjébbana language. They hunt dugong and fish, Luritja Luritja is a name used to refer to several dialects of the Western Desert Language, and thereby to the people who speak these varieties, and their traditional lands. The Luritja lands include areas to the west and south of Alice Springs, extending around the edge of Arrernte country, the total population of Luritja people is probably in the thousands making them the third largest of the Central Australian Aboriginal populations.
It includes the town of Papunya, Murrinh-Patha The Murrinh-Patha are a small group, living inland from the settlement of Wadeye, between the rivers Moyle and Fitzmaurice
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, economics, culture, technology.
The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system.
For the first time in history and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States