Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bous is a commune and small town in south-eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Remich, part of the district of Grevenmacher; as of 2005, the town of Bous, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 505. Other towns within the commune include Assel and Rolling. Media related to Bous at Wikimedia Commons
Stadtbredimus is a commune and small town in south-eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Remich; as of 2005, the town of Stadtbredimus, which lies in the south-east of the commune, has a population of 676. Other towns within the commune include Greiveldange. Stadtbredimus Castle in the centre of the town has a history going back to the 13th century when a fortified castle stood on the site. In 1724, today's castle was built on the ruins of the old fort, it was here that Luxembourg's national poet, Edmond de la Fontaine, better known as Dicks, lived from 1858 to 1881. Media related to Stadtbredimus at Wikimedia Commons
Dalheim is a commune and town in south-eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Remich, part of the district of Grevenmacher; as of 2005, the town of Dalheim, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 1,232. Other towns within the commune include Welfrange; the church in Dalheim, built in 1743, is a Catholic church dedicated to Saints Paul. It is situated on the "Péiteschbierg" high above the village center, it is distinguished by its unique frescoes from the second half of the 18th century and statues of the two patron saints situated outside the church. However, in 2017, the statue of St Paul was decapitated and the head placed outside the front door of the presbytery. There has been press speculation that this incident occurred in order to intimidate the resident priest, Fr Jean-Marie Belanga. Both statues were removed shortly after the incident by the local administration for repairs. Fr Belanga, stopped from preaching by the Archdiocese due to complaints about the conservative and Catholic nature of his homilies, was subsequently removed from his position as parish priest in the village and told to leave Luxembourg.
Fr Belanga was the first priest of African origin to serve as the parish priest of Dalheim. To the south of today's village of Dalheim, is evidence of a Roman settlement named Ricciacum, located on the highest point of a gentle slope facing south-west. Ricciacum had impressive public buildings; some of these monuments can still be visited today. Media related to Dalheim at Wikimedia Commons Commune of Dalheim official website Dalheim-Online: the towns of Dalheim and Filsdorf Webpage of Firefighters of Dalheim and Welfrange
Mondorf-les-Bains is a commune and town in south-eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Remich. Mondorf-les-Bains is a spa town, has the only casino in Luxembourg; as of 2005, the town of Mondorf-les-Bains, which lies in the south-east of the commune, has a population of 2,812. Other towns within the commune include Ellange; the area was first inhabited by the Celts. The Romans, who arrived in 65 BC, built the Castel on Celtic foundations to protect the road from Metz to Trier, it was one of Charlemagne's nieces, behind the village's name. In the 9th century, she donated all her possessions including the little village to Echternach Abbey; the village was subsequently called Muomendorph. Over the centuries, Mondorf was attacked, burnt down and rebuilt. St Michael's Church from 1065 was rebuilt on four occasions, the last time in 1764, it was in the 1840s that the thermal waters were uncovered as a result of deep drilling for salt which had become taxed under the Dutch. Karl Gotthelf Kind, who had found salt in Germany and hoped to do the same in Mondorf, discovered the waters after drilling to a record depth of 736 metres.
Despite their mineral properties, the waters were not suitable for salt a brownish colour caused by the rich iron content which emerged after distilling. The local notary, J.-P. Ledure, saw other opportunities for the waters and was successful in finding support for setting up the "Société des Bains de Mondorf"; the architect Charles Eydt was commissioned to build the thermal establishment, inaugurated on 20 June 1847. As a result of the spa's success, the village prospered as rich French guests came to stay in the luxurious hotels which sprang up in the vicinity; the flow of visitors from France was however halted in 1871 when the Germans occupied Alsace and Lorraine. Despite acquiring the name of Mondorf-les-Bains on 28 August 1878, the spa had been undergoing a significant decline since 1871. Only after the State took over the facilities on 21 April 1886 were its fortunes improved. Minister of State Paul Eyschen was successful in reviving interest, encouraging visitors to come from Belgium.
In the early 20th century, the State invested in the resort adding a pavilion for the original source, a banqueting hall and a reading room as well as the Orangerie and the country’s first indoor swimming pool. The park was enlarged. A railway to Thionville was opened in 1903 and, in 1913, the Marie-Adelaïde Source, named after the grand duchess was added after drilling to a depth of 464 metres. After a quiet period during the First World War, a new spa centre designed by architect Paul Wigreux was opened in 1926. In the 1930s, the hotels were occupied not by visitors interested in the waters but by émigrés from Nazi Germany. At the same time it was visited by Polish pianist Arthur Rubinstein. During the Second World War, well-to-do Nazis enjoyed relaxing at "Staatsbad-Mondorf", far away from the bombing and fighting. In 1945, Mondorf's Palace Hotel became Camp Ashcan, a prisoner-of-war camp for senior Nazi dignitaries who awaited trial at Nuremberg. During the allied occupation, that lasted until september 1945, there was no permission to transit in the town from 7 pm to 7 am.
The spa continued to prosper in the second half of the 20th century with an outdoor swimming pool, a new thermal centre, the Casino 2000 which opened in 1983. The spa welcomes thousands of visitors a year with its richly mineralized waters at 24 °C. Set in a park of 36 ha, its facilities are among the most modern in Europe; the waters are suitable for the treatment of liver and respiratory ailments. In addition to a equipped fitness pavilion, there are massage booths, saunas and outdoor swimming pools, Turkish baths and whirlpools. Treatments from algae wraps and lava-stone therapy to lymphatic drainage and ayurvedic rituals are said to be relaxing. St Michael's Church is one of the country's finest Rococo buildings. Inside the church, the fresco and pulpit are of special interest. Now a listed building, the church was built from 1764 to 1766 on the initiative of Nic Ungeschick, with the support of the abbey of Echternach; the Louis XV furniture was created by the local sculptor Jean-Pierre Decker who lived and worked in Mondorf.
The organ on the balcony with musical emblems, the confessionals and the altars blend harmoniously with the frescos designed by Weiser from Bohemia. The original St Michael was destroyed and rebuilt on several occasions; the major contributor to Mondorf's economy is Casino 2000 as a hotel, gaming centre and business venue. Other contributors are the town's restaurants, its tourists and crafts interests as well as agriculture and viticulture; the Domaine Thermal attracts visitors to the spa as well as those interested in its hotel and restaurants and its conference facilities. Mondorf is part of a twinning network including: Bad Homburg, Germany Cabourg, France Chur, Switzerland Mayrhofen, Austria Terracina, Italy Spa, Belgium Jūrmala, Latvia Bad Tölz, Germany Hinterzarten, Germany John Grün, the strongest man in the world Auguste Liesch, liberal politician and writer Andy Schleck, professional road racing cyclist Fränk Schleck, professional road racing cyclist Media related to Mondorf-les-Bains at Wikimedia Commons
Lenningen is a commune and small town in southeastern Luxembourg. The commune has a population of about 1,900, it is located about 20 km east of Luxembourg City. The commune's administrative centre is Canach; as of 2013, the town of Lenningen, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 385. The only other town within the commune is Canach. Media related to Lenningen at Wikimedia Commons
Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia