National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Cyprian Kamil Norwid, a.k.a. Cyprian Konstanty Norwid, was a nationally esteemed Polish poet, dramatist and sculptor, he was born in the Masovian village of Laskowo-Głuchy near Warsaw. One of his maternal ancestors was the Polish King John III Sobieski. Norwid is regarded as one of the second generation of romantics, he wrote many well-known poems including Fortepian Szopena, Moja piosnka and Bema pamięci żałobny-rapsod. Norwid led a tragic and poverty-stricken life, he experienced increasing health problems, unrequited love, harsh critical reviews, increasing social isolation. He lived abroad most of his life in London and, in Paris where he died. Norwid's original and non-conformist style was not appreciated in his lifetime and due to this fact, he was excluded from high society, his work was only rediscovered and appreciated by the Young Poland art movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. He is now considered one of the four most important Polish Romantic poets. Other literary historians, consider this an oversimplification, regard his style to be more characteristic of classicism and parnassianism.
Born into a family bearing the Topór coat of arms, Cyprian Norwid and his brother Ludwik were orphaned early. For most of their childhood, they were educated at Warsaw schools. In 1830 Norwid entered a private school of painting, his incomplete formal education forced him to become an autodidact. His first foray into the literary sphere occurred in the periodical Piśmiennictwo Krajowe, which published his first poem, "Mój ostatni sonet", in issue 8, 1840. In 1842 Norwid went to Dresden, ostensibly to gain instruction in sculpture, he also visited Venice and Florence. After he settled in Rome in 1844, his fiancée Kamila broke off their engagement, he met Maria Kalergis, née Nesselrode, who became his "lost love" as his health deteriorated. The poet travelled to Berlin, where he participated in university lectures and meetings with local Polonia, it was a time when Norwid made many new social and political contacts. After being arrested and forced to leave Prussia in 1846, Norwid went to Brussels. During the European Revolutions of 1848, he stayed in Rome, where he met fellow Polish intellectuals Adam Mickiewicz and Zygmunt Krasiński.
During 1849–1852, Norwid lived in Paris, where he met fellow Poles Frédéric Chopin and Juliusz Słowacki, as well as Russians Ivan Turgenev and Alexander Herzen. Financial hardship, unrequited love, political misunderstandings, a negative critical reception of his works put Norwid in a dire situation, he lived in poverty and suffered from progressive blindness and deafness, but still managed to publish his work in the Parisian publication Goniec polski. Norwid decided to emigrate to the United States of America on 29 September 1852 under the protection of Wladyslaw Zamoyski, he arrived aboard the Margaret Evans in New York City on 12 February 1853, during the spring, obtained a well-paying job at a graphics firm. By autumn, he had learned about the outbreak of the Crimean War; this made him consider a return to Europe, he wrote to Mickiewicz and Herzen, asking for their assistance. During April 1854, Norwid returned to Europe with Prince Marcel Lubomirski, he lived in London and earned enough money through artistic endeavours to be able to return to Paris.
With his artistic work revived, Norwid was able to publish several works. He took a keen interest in the outbreak of the January Uprising in 1863. Although he could not participate due to his poor health, Norwid hoped to influence the outcome of the event. In 1866, the poet finished his work on a vast anthology of verse. However, despite his greatest efforts and formidable contacts, it was unable to be published; this included Prince Władysław Czartoryski failing to grant the poet the loan. In subsequent years, Norwid suffered from tuberculosis, his cousin, Michał Kleczkowski relocated Norwid to the St. Casimir's Institute nursing home on the outskirts of Paris. During the last months of his life, Norwid was bed-ridden, he died in the morning of 23 May 1883. Literary historians view Norwid's work as being too far ahead of its time to be appreciated, possessing elements of romanticism and parnassianism. Following his death, many of Norwid's works were forgotten. At that time, his work was discovered and popularised by Zenon Przesmycki, a Polish poet and literary critic, a member of the Polish Academy of Literature.
Some concluded that during his life, Norwid had been rejected by his contemporaries so that he could be understood by the next generation of "late grandsons."Opinion is divided however, as to whether he was a true Romanticist artist – or if he was artistically ahead of his time. Norwid's "Collected Works" were published in 1968 by Juliusz Wiktor Gomulicki, a Norwid biographer and commentator; the full iconic collection of the artist's work was released during the period 1971–76 as Pisma Wszystkie. Comprising 11 volumes, it includes all of Norwid's poetry as well as his letters and reproductions of his artwork. On 24 September 2001, 118 years after his death in France, an urn containing soil from the collective grave where Norwid had been buried in Paris' Montmorency cemetery, was ens
Gazeta Wyborcza is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland. It covers the gamut of political and general news from a liberal perspective. Gazeta Wyborcza was first published on 8 May 1989, under the rhyming masthead motto, "Nie ma wolności bez Solidarności"; the founders were Aleksander Paszyński and Zbigniew Bujak. Its founding was an outcome of the Polish Round Table Agreement between the communist government of the People's Republic of Poland and political opponents centered on the Solidarity movement, it was owned by Agora SA. Cox Communications bought the daily; the company became American Company "Cox Enterprises" in 1993. The paper was to serve as the voice of Solidarity during the run-up to semi-free elections held on 4 June 1989; as such, it was the first legal newspaper published outside the communist government's control since its founding in the late 1940s. The paper's editor-in-chief, since its founding, has been Adam Michnik, he was appointed to the post by Lech Wałęsa. The paper is published in compact format.
According to the editors, the first edition was small and expensive due to the limited supplies of paper available from the state. A year and a half the daily run had reached 500,000 copies. In September 1990, during the acrimonious breakup of the Solidarity camp following the collapse of the communist government, Wałęsa revoked the paper's right to use the Solidarity logo on its masthead. Since Gazeta Wyborcza has been a independent newspaper which supports liberal values; the paper is a multi-section daily newspaper, it publishes daily local editions for the following cities: Warsaw, Białystok, Bydgoszcz, Częstochowa, Gdańsk, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Opole, Płock, Poznań, Rzeszów, Toruń, Wrocław, Zielona Góra. Gazeta Wyborcza had a circulation of 432,000 copies during the first three quarters of 1998; the circulation of the paper was 459,473 copies between January and February 2001. Its circulation was 542,000 copies in 2003, making it the second best selling newspaper in the country.
The 2004 circulation of the paper was 686,000 copies on weekends. The average circulation of the newspaper was peaked at 672,000 and it was the largest-selling newspaper in Poland, but by 2010, the circulation had declined by more than half, to 319,000, Fakt overtook Gazeta Wyborcza as Poland's leading newspaper; the decline continued in 2013 when circulation was down to 190,000 with a commensurate decrease in advertising revenue. In 2003, Lew Rywin, a prominent Polish film producer, was accused by Gazeta Wyborcza of attempted bribery when he solicited a bribe of $17.5 million from editor Adam Michnik in exchange for amendments to a media bill. The adoption of the bill in its original form proposed by the government would have prevented Agora S. A. from buying Polsat, one of Polish private TV stations. This case, called the Rywin affair, led to the establishment of an investigation commission by the Polish Parliament. Lew Rywin was sentenced for attempting to influence the parliamentary legislative process in a way that would enable a Polish media company to buy a television station.
Furthermore, the controversial draft act was rejected by the Polish Parliament. Gazeta Wyborcza has been criticized for distorted coverage of controversial issues such as post-communist vetting, Polish-Jewish relations and the Polish minority in Lithuania, it has received criticism for using its influence to whitewash former communists General Jaruzelski. After the fall of communism, the paper was criticized for taking part in an "intensive propaganda campaign" and for rigorously trying to revamp Jaruzelski's image. Gazeta Praca, Gazeta Sport, Gazeta Dom, Duży Format, Gazeta Telewizyjna, Gazeta Co Jest Grane, Gazeta Turystyka and Wysokie Obcasy, Wysokie Obcasy Extra; the online edition of Gazeta Wyborcza is one of the sections of the portal Gazeta.pl. The paid electronic version of the newspaper is an option; the website wyborcza.pl has been expanded through rankings of articles which are most read and commented on. It presents global history on most notable covers of Gazeta Wyborcza. Beside analogue sections from the paper edition, the website provides a feedback section which allows the readers to contact the editorial staff and express opinions).
The paper's website links to Gazeta's journalists' blogs, including the ones by: Ewa Milewicz, Dominika Wielowieyska, Jan Turnau, Bartosz Węglarczyk and Wojciech Orliński. The number of journalists who write blogs is increasing. Michnikowszczyzna. Zapis choroby List of newspapers in Poland Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Adam Michnik is a Polish historian, former dissident, public intellectual, editor-in-chief of the Polish newspaper, Gazeta Wyborcza. Reared in a family of committed communists, Michnik became an opponent of Poland's communist regime at the time of the party's anti-Jewish purges, he was imprisoned after the 1968 March Events and again after the imposition of martial law in 1981. Michnik played a crucial role during the Polish Round Table Talks, as a result of which the communists agreed to call elections in 1989, which were won by Solidarity. Though he has withdrawn from active politics, he has "maintained an influential voice through journalism", he has received many honors, including the Legion of Honour and European of the Year. Adam Michnik was born in Poland, to a family of Jewish communists, his father Ozjasz Szechter was First Secretary of the Communist Party of Western Ukraine, his mother Helena Michnik was a historian, communist activist, children's-book author. His step-brother on his mother's side, Stefan Michnik, was a Stalinist military judge in the 1950s, who passed sentence, including executions, in politically-motivated trials of members of Polish anti Nazi resistance fighters.
Stefan Michnik, was formally implicated in zbrodnie komunistyczne by Polish courts. A step-brother of Adam Michnik on his father's side, Jerzy Michnik, settled in Israel after 1957 and moved to New York. While attending primary school, he was an active member of the Polish Scouting Association, in a troop, led by Jacek Kuroń. During secondary school, this particular Scouting troop was banned, Adam began to participate in meetings of the Klub Krzywego Koła. After its closing in 1962, with the encouragement from Jan Józef Lipski and under Adam Schaff's protection, he founded a discussion group, "Contradiction Hunters Club". In 1964 he began studies in history at Warsaw University. A year he was suspended because he disseminated an open letter to the members of Polish United Workers' Party among his schoolmates, its authors, Jacek Kuroń and Karol Modzelewski appealed for a beginning of reforms which would repair the political system in Poland. In 1965, the PZPR forbade his texts to be printed. In 1966 he was suspended for the second time for organizing a discussion meeting with Leszek Kołakowski, expelled from the PZPR several weeks earlier, for criticizing its leaders.
From on he wrote under a pseudonym to several newspapers including “Życie Gospodarcze”, Więź”, “Literatura”. In March 1968 he was expelled from the University for his activities during 1968 Polish political crisis; the crisis was ignited by the ban of Kazimierz Dejmek's adaptation of Adam Mickiewicz's "Dziady" in the National Theatre. The play contained many anti-Russian allusions, which were greeted with enthusiastic applause by the audience. Michnik and another student, Henryk Szlajfer, recounted the situation to a correspondent of Le Monde, "whose report was carried on Radio Free Europe". Both Michnik and Szlajfer were expelled from the university. Upon their expulsion, students organized demonstrations, which were brutally suppressed by the riot police and "worker-squads". Władysław Gomułka used Michnik's and several other dissidents' Jewish background to wage an anti-Semitic campaign, blaming the Jews for the crisis. Michnik was arrested and sentenced to three years imprisonment for "acts of hooliganism".
In 1969, he was released from prison under an amnesty. Not until the middle of the 1970s was he allowed to continue his studies of history, which he finished at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. After he was released from prison, he worked for two years as a welder at the Róża Luxemburg Industrial Plant and on the recommendation of Jacek Kuroń, he became private secretary to Antoni Słonimski. In 1976–77 he lived in Paris. After he returned to Poland, he got involved in the activity of Workers' Defence Committee, which had existed for a couple of months, it was one of the best known opposition organizations of the 1970s. He became one of the most active opposition activists and one of the supporters of the Society for Educational Courses. Between 1977 and 1989, he was the editor or co-editor of underground newspapers published illegally, samizdat: "Biuletyn Informacyjny", "Zapis", "Krytyka", he was a member of the management of one of the biggest underground publishers: NOWa. In years 1980–1989 he was an adviser to both the Independent Self-governing trade union "Solidarity" in the Mazovia Region and to Foundry Workers Committee of "Solidarity".
When martial law was declared, in December 1981, he was at first an internee, but when he refused to sign a "loyalty oath" and assent to voluntarily leave the country, he was jailed and accused of an "attempt to overthrow socialism". He was in jail without a verdict until 1984, because the prosecutor's office prolonged the trial on purpose. Adam Michnik have his case dismissed. Meanwhile, he wanted to be granted the status of a political prisoner, went on a hunger strike in jail. In 1984 he was released under an amnesty, he took part in an attempt to organize a strike in the Gdańsk shipyard. As a consequence, he was rearrested in this time sentenced to three years imprisonment, he was released the following year again under another amnesty. In 1988 he became an