Half Moon Bay (California)
Half Moon Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean on the coast of San Mateo County, California. The bay is semi-circular, hence the name half moon, with sea access to the south. Coastal towns located there are Princeton-by-the-Sea, Miramar, El Granada, the city of Half Moon Bay; the surfing location Mavericks is located on the outer edge of the peninsula. Miramar Beach is located along the shore of the bay opposite the peninsula. Marine species include flatfish, the commercially important English sole, surfperch, Pacific herring, lingcod; the bay provides an example of a logarithmic spiral beach. Pilarcitos Creek Half Moon Bay State Beach Half Moon Bay SB California State Park
The Golden Gate is a strait on the west coast of North America that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. It is defined by the headlands of the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Peninsula, since 1937, has been spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge; the entire shoreline and adjacent waters throughout the strait are managed by the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. During the last Ice Age, when sea level was several hundred feet lower, the waters of the glacier-fed Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River scoured a deep channel through the bedrock on their way to the ocean; the strait is well known today for powerful tidal currents from the Pacific Ocean. Many small whirlpools and eddies can form in its waters. With its strong currents, rocky reefs and fog, the Golden Gate is the site of over 100 shipwrecks; the Golden Gate is shrouded in fog during the summer. Heat generated in the California Central Valley causes air there to rise, creating a low pressure area that pulls in cool, moist air from over the Pacific Ocean.
The Golden Gate forms the largest break in the hills of the California Coast Range, allowing a persistent, dense stream of fog to enter the bay there. Although there is no weather station on Golden Gate proper, the area has a mediterranean climate with narrow temperature fluctuations, cool summers and mild winters. For the nearest weather station see the weatherbox of San Francisco; the Golden Gate Bridge being nearer the ocean and at elevation indicate it being cooler during summer days. Nearer the San Francisco urban core, the temperatures resemble the official NOAA weather station instead. Before the Europeans arrived in the 18th century, the area around the strait and the bay was inhabited by the Ohlone to the south and Coast Miwok people to the north. Descendants of both tribes remain in the area; the strait was elusive for early European explorers due to this persistent summer fog. The strait is not recorded in the voyages of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo nor Francis Drake, both of whom may have explored the nearby coast in the 16th century in search of the fabled Northwest Passage.
The strait is unrecorded in observations by Spanish galleons returning from the Philippines that laid up in nearby Drakes Bay to the north. These galleons passed east of the Farallon Islands, fearing the possibility of rocks between the islands and the mainland; the first recorded observation of the strait occurred nearly two hundred years than the earliest European explorations of the coast. In 1769, Sgt José Francisco Ortega, the leader of a scouting party sent north along the San Francisco Peninsula by Don Gaspar de Portolá from their expedition encampment in San Pedro Valley to locate the Point Reyes headlands, reported back to Portolá that he could not reach the location because of his encounter with the strait. On August 5, 1775 Juan de Ayala and the crew of his ship San Carlos became the first Europeans known to have passed through the strait, anchoring in a cove behind Angel Island, the cove now named in Ayala's honor; until the 1840s, the strait was called the "Boca del Puerto de San Francisco".
On July 1, 1846, before the discovery of gold in California, the entrance acquired a new name. In his memoirs, John C. Frémont wrote, "To this Gate I gave the name of'Chrysopylae', or'Golden Gate', he went on to comment that the strait was “a golden gate to trade with the Orient.” In the 1920s, no bridge spanned the watery expanse between San Francisco and Marin in California—so when the U. S. Post Office issued a postage stamp on May 1, 1923, celebrating The Golden Gate, the issue portrayed the scene without a bridge; the schooner sailing ship in the engraving is the USS Babcock, which served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919, is seen passing through the Golden Gate into San Francisco Bay, its port of call. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean; as part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County.
The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when completed in 1937, is an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco and California in general. Since its completion, the span length has been surpassed by eight other bridges, it still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States, after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects; the Golden Gate strait serves as the primary access channel for nautical travel to and from the San Francisco Bay, one of the largest cargo ports in the United States. Commercial ports includes the Port of Oakland, the Port of Richmond, the Port of San Francisco. Commercial cargo ships use the Golden Gate to access the San Francisco Bay, as well as barges, fishing boats, cruise ships, owned boats, including wind-surfers and kite-boards. About 9000 ships moved through the Golden Gate in 2014, a similar amount in 2015.
The U. S Coast Guard maintains a Vessel Traffic Service to monitor and regulate vessel traffic through the Golden Gate. For navigational guidance, there are white and green lights on the center of the span of the Golden Gate Bridge. Lighthouses with beacons and foghorns provide alerts at Point Bonita, Point Diablo, Lime Point and Mile Rocks. Before th
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Antioch–SFO/Millbrae line is a Bay Area Rapid Transit line in the San Francisco Bay Area that runs from Antioch station to the San Francisco International Airport station and Millbrae station. It serves 28 stations in Antioch, Bay Point, Pleasant Hill, Walnut Creek, Orinda, San Francisco, Daly City, South San Francisco, San Bruno, Millbrae; the line is colored yellow on maps, BART has begun to call it the Yellow LineThe line is split into two segments. The majority of the line uses the same electric multiple unit trains as the rest of BART, shares tracks with the five other mainline services; the 8.6-mile section from Antioch to near Pittsburg/Bay Point station, known as eBART, uses diesel multiple units. A cross-platform transfer between the two modes is made at a dedicated transfer platform east of Pittsburg/Bay Point station. However, the line is shown on maps as one route, headsigns and station information display the ultimate terminus of the line; the line is extended to Millbrae station on nights and Saturdays when it is not served by the Richmond–Daly City/Millbrae line and SFO–Millbrae line.
It is the most-used BART line, the only line with additional short turn trains to provide additional service to core areas during weekday peak hours. The Antioch–SFO/Millbrae line was the second of BART's five rapid transit lines to open. Service from Concord to MacArthur began on May 21, 1973; the line was extended to Daly City when the Transbay Tube opened on September 16, 1974. The North Concord/Martinez and Pittsburg/Bay Point stations were added in 1995–1996; until 2015, rush hour service included trains. On April 1, 2015, BART opened the Central Contra Costa Crossover, a pair of crossover tracks south of Pleasant Hill/Contra Costa Centre station that allow trains to terminate there. On September 14, 2015, the Concord short turns were cut to Pleasant Hill to allow for increased frequency. Reverse peak "Pleasant Hill Limited" trains bypass Rockridge, Orinda and Walnut Creek stations eastbound in the morning peak, Lafayette and Orinda westbound in the evening. In March 2016, mysterious electrical surges caused several cars to be taken out of service on the tracks north of North Concord/Martinez station.
On March 16, 2016, BART halted service to Pittsburg/Bay Point station and established a bus bridge between North Concord and Pittsburg/Bay Point. Limited service to Pittsburg/Bay Point resumed on March 21 and full service resumed on April 2; when the SFO/Millbrae extension opened on June 22, 2003, BART extended the Pittsburg/Bay Point–SFO/Millbrae line to Millbrae but bypassed SFO. BART rerouted this line to SFO in place of the Dublin/Pleasanton line on February 9, 2004, with service extended to Millbrae outside of weekday peak hours. San Mateo County is not a member of the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, so SamTrans funded the county's BART service; when the extension's lower-than-expected ridership caused SamTrans to accrue deficits, BART agreed to SamTrans' request to operate only the Dublin/Pleasanton line south of Daly City effective September 12, 2005. SamTrans and BART reached an agreement in February 2007 in which SamTrans would transfer control and financial responsibility of the SFO/Millbrae extension to BART, in return for BART receiving additional fixed funding from SamTrans and other sources.
BART has since again increased service south of Daly City, this line now terminates at SFO on weekdays, with service extended to Millbrae on evenings and weekends. BART to Antioch, named during construction and known as eBART, is a diesel multiple unit light rail branch line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system in eastern Contra Costa County, United States. Service extends to Antioch station. Trains and tracks for the portion of the Antioch – SFO/Millbrae line between Antioch and Pittsburg/Bay Point are incompatible with those of the main BART rapid transit system, making it impossible for trains to move between the two systems; the first extension proceeds 10.1 miles east along the State Route 4 corridor to the city of Antioch at a Hillcrest Avenue station. Revenue service began on May 26, 2018; the BART map does not differentiate between this service and the remainder of the Antioch–SFO/Millbrae line. There is a notation on the map published in stations showing a transfer is required, but not on the schedule or map brochures distributed to the public.
Notes a The Antioch–SFO/Millbrae line services Millbrae station after 9pm on weekdays and all day on weekends only. The line terminates at SFO station until 9pm on weekdays
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
The Carquinez Strait is a narrow tidal strait in northern California. It is part of the tidal estuary of the Sacramento and the San Joaquin rivers as they drain into the San Francisco Bay; the strait is eight miles long and connects Suisun Bay, which receives the waters of the combined rivers, with San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of the San Francisco Bay. The strait formed in prehistoric times, near the close of one of the past ice ages, when an inland lake covered the present-day Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys. Melting ice from the Sierra Nevada mountain range raised the lake level while seismic activity formed a new outlet to the Pacific Ocean, draining the lake into the ocean and exposing the two valleys; the valleys evolved into productive agricultural areas and propelled California economy into the powerhouse that it is today. Andrei Sarna-Wojcicki, a geologist emeritus of the U. S. Geological Survey, has claimed that the Carquinez Strait was formed about 640,000 to 700,000 years ago, while much of modern California was emerging from an ice age.
The present Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley were covered by a huge lake, called Lake Corcoran. This lake drained into the ocean through a valley near present-day Monterey. However, ongoing seismic activity raised the coastal mountains sufficiently to plug this outlet. Concurrently, ice melting off the Sierras raised the water level in Lake Corcoran until the lake began to carve a new outlet to the ocean. At some point, the coastal barrier collapsed between today's cities of Crockett and Benicia, releasing lake water in a cataclysmic flood; the strait forms part of the border between Solano and Contra Costa counties, is 15 mi north of Oakland. The cities of Benicia and Vallejo lie on the north side of the strait, while Martinez, Port Costa, Crockett sit on the southern coast; the Napa River joins the strait, via the short Mare Island Strait, near its entrance into San Pablo Bay. Its watershed covers 62,500 square miles 40 percent of California's total surface; the strait is named after the Karkin, a linguistic division of the Ohlone Native Americans who resided on both sides of the strait.
The California Maritime Academy is at the western end of the strait on the northern waterfront. The C&H Sugar refinery is located on the southern shore in the small town of Crockett; the strait is crossed by two highway bridges, the Carquinez Bridge on Interstate 80 and the Benicia–Martinez Bridge on Interstate 680. Each highway bridge consists of two spans. Interstate 780 connects the two highways on the northern slope of the strait. State Route 4 connects these highways south inland from the strait. A rail bridge just east of the Benicia–Martinez Bridge is used by the Capitol Corridor, California Zephyr, Coast Starlight trains. A rail ferry, with the ferries Contra Costa and Solano provided service across the strait near the location of the current rail bridge until the rail bridge was built in 1930. Tall pylons carrying power lines cross the strait as well; the Carquinez Strait Powerline Crossing was the world's first powerline crossing of a large river. The channel is used for commercial and military shipping.
Deep water ship traffic bound for both the Port of Sacramento and the Port of Stockton traverse the strait. The narrow gap in the Coast Range that forms the strait has led to the formation of the San Joaquin–Sacramento River Delta, an inverted river delta, upstream of it, a rare geological feature; the strait is too small to allow the passage of huge amounts of floodwaters created during years with heavy rainfall/snowmelt events. Because the Delta area is the first to fill and last to drain in a flood event and soil have more time to drop out of suspension, creating the inverted river delta feature. Seawater is more dense than fresh water because of its higher concentration of salts. Under stable conditions, this means that an invisible boundary forms where two such streams meet, as where the fresh water from Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers meet the sea water contained in the San Francisco Bay. By the early 20th Century, farmers in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, who depended on irrigating their fields with fresh water from the two rivers noticed an increase in salinity farther inland than before.
It became obvious that fresh water was being pumped out of the Delta faster than it could be replenished by rain and snow during the wet season. Farmers and politicians complained that allowing fresh water to flow to the ocean was wasteful. While many solutions were proposed, few appeared practical. A political consensus formed that damming the Carquinez Strait should solve the seawater intrusion problem. In September, 1923, the California Legislature appropriated $10,000 for a salt-water dam survey; the Federal government added a $20,000 contribution through the U. S. Reclamation Service. Under Reclamation Service rules, another $10,000 needed to be raised from local supporters of the project; the necessary money was raised by March, 1924, the first of three site surveys was announced. The first survey was at Army Point, near Benicia, the preferred site based on preliminary studies; the second choice was Dillon Point, near Southampton Bay, while the third survey was at San Pablo Point, near Richmond.
The three surveys were completed by the end of 1924. However, it took four years before completing the decision making process, that named Army Point as the future dam site. Still more wrangling in the legislature was required before the "Salt Water Barrier" was adopted in May, 1929, made part of the state water co