In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Deer Harbor, Washington
Deer Harbor is an unincorporated community on Orcas Island in San Juan County, United States. As with most San Juan Islands communities, Deer Harbor is known for its recreation and tourism, including kayaking, whale watching, fishing. Many people fish for Dungeness crab, rock crab, shrimp there. Deer Harbor is assigned the ZIP code 98243. Deer Harbor Marina
Blakely Island, Washington
Blakely Island in San Juan County, Washington is the sixth largest island in the San Juan Islands of Washington State, United States, encompassing a land area of 16.852 km². It is separated from Cypress Island to the east by Rosario Strait; the population was 56 persons as of the 2000 census. There is no public ferry service to Blakely Island. Access is only by private ferry, arriving at the marina at the northern tip of the island. There is a private airstrip for the exclusive use of property owners; the only services available on Blakely Island are at a general store and cafe, located at the marina and open seasonally. Seattle Pacific University runs a 967-acre biological field station on Blakely Island. Blakely Island was named by Charles Wilkes during the Wilkes Expedition of 1838-1842, in honor of Johnston Blakeley, a naval commander during the War of 1812. Thatcher bay, on the island's east coast, was the site of seasonal Samish tribal villages and, during the territorial period, the mill town of Thatcher, Washington.
In 2014, toxic creosote pilings left over from earlier habitation were removed from the waters of Thatcher bay. The island is hilly and forested, with few maintained roads or paths. There are Horseshoe Lake and Spencer Lake, at the center of the island. A freshwater creek, Spencer creek, flows from Spencer Lake into Thatcher Bay. Blakely Island: Block 2000, Census Tract 9605, San Juan County, Washington United States Census Bureau
Friday Harbor, Washington
Friday Harbor is a town in San Juan County, United States. The population was 2,162 at 2010 Census. Located on San Juan Island, Friday Harbor is the major commercial center of the San Juan Islands archipelago and is the county seat of San Juan County. In 1845 the Hudson's Bay Company laid claim to San Juan Island. In 1850 they built a salmon curing station. A few years they started a sheep farm; the town's name originates from a native Hawaiian. Friday worked at the Pugets Sound Agricultural Company's Fort Cowlitz, from 1841 to 1859–60 and moved north to San Juan Island and herding sheep around the harbor. After the peaceful settlement obtained following the Pig War, the San Juan Islands became a separate county in 1873. Friday Harbor was named the county seat. Friday Harbor was incorporated on February 10, 1909, it remains the only incorporated town in the San Juan Islands. Sailing ships, the steamships of the Puget Sound Mosquito Fleet, visited the harbor on a regular basis hauling passengers and freight.
Freight from the island would include apples, cherries, peas, eggs, grain and lime. All were produced around San Juan Island; the Great Depression, World War II, the pea weevil, competition from Eastern Washington growers brought about the decline of traditional island industries, diminishing Friday Harbor's export trade. The 1970s brought new industries - tourism, real estate, construction. Today, Friday Harbor is again prosperous. Osamu Shimomura harvested jellyfish from the docks of the harbor, he purified the proteins that allow the jellyfish to fluoresce green when exposed to blue light. One of them, green fluorescent protein, is now used as a marker of molecular activity. Friday Harbor is located at 48°32′07″N 123°01′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.16 square miles, of which, 2.09 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. Friday Harbor has a Mediterranean climate with warm, dry summers and cold, though not severe, rainy winters. Friday Harbor's primary connection to the mainland is via Washington State Ferries, which sail between the town and Anacortes, Washington several times per day.
Friday Harbor can be reached via ferry from Sidney, British Columbia, on Washington State Ferries' only international route. This service is available seasonally, only; the Friday Harbor Airport features limited airline service. The midtown Friday Harbor Seaplane Base is served by regular daily float plane scheduled services from the downtown pier to Seattle's Lake Union seaplane terminal. Seasonal passenger ferry service is available from Bellingham, Port Townsend and Seattle to Friday Harbor. On the island, there are taxis, shuttles and mopeds for rent; the town of Friday Harbor houses the world-famous marine biology facility, Friday Harbor Laboratories, a field station of the University of Washington. The town has several schools, including the public Friday Harbor High School, Friday Harbor Middle School, Friday Harbor Elementary School that are part of the San Juan Island School District. On the island is a branch of Skagit Valley College; the school district once included the Stuart Island Elementary School, established in 1897 and was one of Washington's "remote and necessary" schools before closing in 2013.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,162 people, 1,015 households, 481 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,034.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,273 housing units at an average density of 609.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 83.1% White, 0.3% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.9% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.9% of the population. There were 1,015 households of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.2% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 52.6% were non-families. 46.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the town was 41.3 years. 22.6% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the town was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,989 people, 896 households, 468 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,467.7 people per square mile. There were 1,053 housing units at an average density of 777.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.01% White, 0.65% African American, 1.31% Native American, 1.41% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 2.61% from other races, 1.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.23% of the population. There were 896 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.6% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.7% were non-families. 38.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.81. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 23.1% under
The Homestead Acts were several laws in the United States by which an applicant could acquire ownership of government land or the public domain called a homestead. In all, more than 160 million acres of public land, or nearly 10 percent of the total area of the United States, was given away free to 1.6 million homesteaders. An extension of the homestead principle in law, the Homestead Acts were an expression of the Free Soil policy of Northerners who wanted individual farmers to own and operate their own farms, as opposed to Southern slave-owners who wanted to buy up large tracts of land and use slave labor, thereby shutting out free white farmers; the first of the acts, the Homestead Act of 1862, opened up millions of acres. Any adult who had never taken up arms against the Federal government of the United States could apply. Women and immigrants who had applied for citizenship were eligible; the 1866 Act explicitly included black Americans and encouraged them to participate, but rampant discrimination slowed black gains.
Historian Michael Lanza argues that while the 1866 law pack was not as beneficial as it might have been, it was part of the reason that by 1900 one fourth of all Southern black farmers owned their own farms. Several additional laws were enacted in the latter half of the early 20th centuries; the Southern Homestead Act of 1866 sought to address land ownership inequalities in the south during Reconstruction. The Timber Culture Act of 1873 granted land to a claimant, required to plant trees—the tract could be added to an existing homestead claim and had no residency requirement; the Kinkaid Amendment of 1904 granted a full section—640 acres –to new homesteaders settling in western Nebraska. An amendment to the Homestead Act of 1862, the Enlarged Homestead Act, was passed in 1909 and doubled the allotted acreage from 160 to 320 acres. Another amended act, the national Stock-Raising Homestead Act, was passed in 1916 and again increased the land involved, this time to 640 acres. Land-grant laws similar to the Homestead Acts had been proposed by northern Republicans before the Civil War, but had been blocked in Congress by southern Democrats who wanted western lands open for purchase by slave-owners.
The Homestead Act of 1860 did pass in Congress, but it was vetoed by President James Buchanan, a Democrat. After the Southern states seceded from the Union in 1861, the bill passed and was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. Daniel Freeman became the first person to file a claim under the new act. Between 1862 and 1934, the federal government granted 1.6 million homesteads and distributed 270,000,000 acres of federal land for private ownership. This was a total of 10% of all land in the United States. Homesteading was discontinued in 1976, except in Alaska, where it continued until 1986. About 40% of the applicants who started the process were able to complete it and obtain title to their homesteaded land after paying a small fee in cash; the Donation Land Claim Act allowed settlers to claim land in the Oregon Territory including the modern states of Washington, Oregon and parts of Wyoming. Settlers were able to claim 320 or 640 acres of land for free between 1850 and 1854, at a cost of $1.25 per acres until the law expired in 1855.
The "yeoman farmer" ideal of Jeffersonian democracy was still a powerful influence in American politics during the 1840–1850s, with many politicians believing a homestead act would help increase the number of "virtuous yeomen". The Free Soil Party of 1848–52, the new Republican Party after 1854, demanded that the new lands opening up in the west be made available to independent farmers, rather than wealthy planters who would develop it with the use of slaves forcing the yeomen farmers onto marginal lands. Southern Democrats had continually fought previous homestead law proposals, as they feared free land would attract European immigrants and poor Southern whites to the west. After the South seceded and their delegates left Congress in 1861, the Republicans and other supporters from the upper South passed a homestead act; the intent of the first Homestead Act, passed in 1862, was to liberalize the homesteading requirements of the Preemption Act of 1841. Its leading advocates were George Henry Evans and Horace Greeley.
The homestead was an area of public land in the West granted to any US citizen willing to settle on and farm the land. The law required a three-step procedure: file an application, improve the land, file for the patent. Any citizen who had never taken up arms against the U. S. government and was at least 21 years old or the head of a household, could file an application to claim a federal land grant. Women were eligible; the occupant had to reside on the land for five years, show evidence of having made improvements. The process had to be complete within seven years. Enacted to allow poor tenant farmers and sharecroppers in the south become land owners in the southern United States during Reconstruction, it was not successful, as the low prices and fees were too much for the applicants to afford. The Timber Culture Act granted up to 160 acres of land to a homesteader who would plant at least 40 acres of trees over a period of several years; this quarter-section could be added to an existing homestead claim, offering a total of 320 acres to a settler.
This offered a cheap plot of land to homesteaders. Recognizing that the Sandhills of north-central Nebraska, required
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and distribution within the United States. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act, sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Customs Enforcement, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, the Department of Homeland Security, it has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing US drug investigations both domestic and abroad. The Drug Enforcement Administration was established on July 1, 1973, by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, signed by President Richard Nixon on July 28. It proposed the creation of a single federal agency to enforce the federal drug laws as well as consolidate and coordinate the government's drug control activities. Congress accepted the proposal; as a result, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement.
From the early 1970s, DEA headquarters was located at 1405 I Street NW in downtown Washington, D. C. With the overall growth of the agency in the 1980s and a concurrent growth in the headquarters staff, DEA began to search for a new headquarters location. However, then-Attorney General Edwin Meese determined that the headquarters had to be located in close proximity to the Attorney General's office. Thus, in 1989, the headquarters relocated to 600–700 Army-Navy Drive in the Pentagon City area of Arlington, near the Metro station with the same name. On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh attacked the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City because it housed regional offices for the FBI, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, DEA, all of which had carried out raids that he viewed as unjustified intrusions on the rights of the people. Subsequently, the DEA headquarters complex was classified as a Level IV installation under United States federal building security standards, meaning it was to be considered a high-risk law enforcement target for terrorists.
Security measures include hydraulic steel roadplates to enforce standoff distance from the building, metal detectors, guard stations. In February 2003, the DEA established a Digital Evidence Laboratory within its Office of Forensic Sciences; the DEA is headed by an Administrator of Drug Enforcement appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U. S. Senate; the Administrator reports to the Attorney General through the Deputy Attorney General. The Administrator is assisted by a Deputy Administrator, the Chief of Operations, the Chief Inspector, three Assistant Administrators. Other senior staff include the Chief Counsel; the Administrator and Deputy Administrator are the only presidentially-appointed personnel in the DEA. DEA's headquarters is located in Virginia across from the Pentagon, it maintains its own DEA Academy located on the Marine Corps Base Quantico at Quantico, Virginia along with the FBI Academy. It maintains 21 domestic field divisions with 221 field offices and 92 foreign offices in 70 countries.
With a budget exceeding $2 billion, DEA employs over 10,800 people, including over 4,600 Special Agents and 800 Intelligence Analysts. Becoming a Special Agent or Intelligence Analyst with the DEA is a competitive process. Administrator Deputy Administrator Human Resource Division Career Board Board of Professional Conduct Office of Training Operations Division Aviation Division Office of Operations Management Special Operations Division Office of Diversion Control Office of Global Enforcement Office of Financial Operations Intelligence Division Office of National Security Intelligence Office of Strategic Intelligence Office of Special Intelligence El Paso Intelligence Center OCDETF Fusion Center Financial Management Division Office of Acquisition and Relocation Management Office of Finance Office of Resource Management Operational Support Division Office of Administration Office of Information System Office of Forensic Science Office of Investigative Technology Inspection Division Office of Inspections Office of Professional Responsibility Office of Security Programs Field Divisions and Offices As of 2017 there were 4,650 special agents employed by the Drug Enforcement Administration.
DEA agents' starting salary is $49,746–$55,483. After four years working as an agent, the salary jumps to above $92,592. After receiving a conditional offer of employment, recruits must complete a 18-week rigorous training which includes lessons in firearms proficiency, weapons safety, tactical shooting, deadly-force decision training. In order to graduate, students must maintain an academic average of 80 percent on academic examinations, pass the firearms-qualification test demonstrate leadership and sound decision-making in practical scenarios, pass rigorous physical-task tests. Upon graduation, recruits earn the title of DEA Special Agent; the DEA excludes from consideration job applicants who have a history of any use of narcotics or illicit drugs. Investigation incl