Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Frederick the Fair
Frederick the Handsome or the Fair, from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany from 1314 as Frederick III until his death. Still a minor, he and his elder brother Rudolph III had been vested with the duchies of Austria and Styria by their father in 1298. Upon Rudolphs early death in 1307 and the assassination of his father in 1308, he became the ruler of the Austrian and Styrian duchies on behalf of himself and his younger brothers. Frederick had to all claims to the German crown and in turn received the official affirmation of his fiefs by King Henry. Originally, he was a friend of his cousin Louis IV of Wittelsbach, armed conflict arose between them when tutelage over the young sons of Louis cousin, late Duke Stephen I of Lower Bavaria was entrusted to Frederick by local nobles in 1313. Frederick took the occasion to enlarge his reach of power, invaded the Bavarian lands, but was beaten by Louis at the Battle of Gammelsdorf on 9 November 1313, and had to renounce the tutelage.
Meanwhile, Henry VII had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement V on 29 June 1312, Louis made use of the conflict around the Bohemian throne and the rivalry over the Saxon electoral dignity between the Ascanian duchies of Saxe-Wittenberg and Saxe-Lauenburg. King Henry of Bohemia voting for Frederick actually only claimed the electoral power, in this agreement, Frederick finally recognized Louis as legitimate ruler and undertook to return to captivity if he did not succeed in convincing his younger brothers to submit to Louis. As he did not manage to overcome Leopolds obstinacy, Frederick returned to Munich as a prisoner, impressed by Fredericks noble gesture, Louis renewed the old friendship with Frederick and they agreed to rule the Empire jointly. After Leopolds death in 1326, Frederick actually withdrew from the regency of Germany and he died on 13 January 1330, at Gutenstein Castle in the Wienerwald range, and was buried at Mauerbach Charterhouse, which he had founded. After the charterhouse was closed down in 1782, his remains were brought to the Ducal Crypt at St.
Stephens Cathedral in Vienna, Fredericks gracious return to captivity inspired Friedrich Schiller to write his poem Deutsche Treue and Uhland to his tragedy Ludwig der Bayer. On 11 May 1315 Frederick had married Isabella of Aragon, daughter of King James II of Aragon with Blanche of Anjou and they had one son, who was born in 1316 but he died in 1322. Their daughters, Elizabeth was born in 1317 and she died in 1336, anna was born in 1318, and married the Wittelsbach duke Henry XV of Bavaria in 1328. Her second husband was Count John Henry IV of Gorizia and this marriage was childless and John died in 1338. Frederick was succeeded in Austria and Styria by his younger brothers Albert II and it took the Habsburgs more than a century to regain the royal crown, when Alberts II great-grandson Albert V of Austria ascended to the German throne in 1438
Canton of Lucerne
The canton of Lucerne is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the centre of Switzerland, the population of the canton is 398,762. As of 2007, the population included 57,268 foreigners, the canton of Lucerne comprises territories acquired by its capital Lucerne, either by treaty, armed occupation or purchase. The oldest traces of humans in the Lucerne area are stone artifacts, other animal bones including mammoth and giant deer from the local glacial maximum have been found in the canton. Around 17,000 BC the glaciers disappeared from the Swiss plateau, the first Paleolithic and Mesolithic settlement discovered in the canton is in the Wauwilermoos, which is now a Swiss heritage site of national significance. A number of settlements have since been found, mainly on sandy. The settlements of Egolzwil 3 in Wauwilermoos in Egolzwil, Seematte at Hitzkirch, the Wauwilermoos houses had wooden or bark floors and hearths of clay. The villages had ceramic vessels and wood, antler, copper ax blades and knives provide the first evidence of metal use in Switzerland.
Imported mollusks show that there were connections to the Mediterranean. The bones at Egolzwil 3 are over two thirds from domestic animals with the remainder from wild animals, the main domesticated animals were sheep and pigs with only a few domestic cattle. The animals hunted included deer, roe deer, wild boar, during the Bronze Age the canton was quite settled. There were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Sempach and Lake Baldegg along with settlements, graves. At Hochdorf-Baldegg a fenced village from the early Bronze Age was uncovered, the single-story houses all had clay or stone hearths. During the Middle Bronze Age most of the villages were not located directly on the lake shores, the Late Bronze Age settlement at Sursee-Zellmoos on Lake Sempach featured houses arranged in rows with mortared stone. The walls were lined with clay. Another Late Bronze Age settlement near the village of Schötz was densely populated between 1350 and 800 BC, while numerous individual Iron Age items have been found, almost no settlements have been discovered.
From the Hallstatt period mainly graves have been discovered, very little is known about the La Tène period in Lucerne. Some iron tools, gold coins, ceramic vessels and a glass bangle as well as a ground with at least four graves have been found
Glarus is the capital of the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Since 1 January 2011, the municipality Glarus incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Glarus lies on the river Linth between the foot of the Glärnisch to the west and the Schilt to the east. Very few buildings built before the fire of 1861 remain, wood and plastics, as well as printing, are the dominant industries. The symbol of the city is the city church. The official language of Glarus is German, but the spoken language is the local Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Glarus is first mentioned in the early 9th Century in Latin as Clarona, in 1178 it was first mentioned in German as Glarus. On 10 February 878, the Emperor Charles the Fat gave his wife Richgard or Richardis the monasteries of Säckingen, of St. Felix and this land grant included extensive political rights and a large estate. This estate covered land in the Rhine and Frick valleys, the southern Hotzenwald, land in Zürich, along Lake Walen, Glarus remained under the Säckingen Abbey until 1395, when the Glarus valley broke away from the Abbey and became independent.
It became the capital of the Linth valley in 1419, in the 18th and 19th centuries, the valley began to be industrialized. Huldrych Zwingli a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland served in his first, Roman Catholic, ecclesiastical post in Glarus and he served there for ten years. It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in Europe, the Swiss Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours, the French, the Habsburgs, and the Papal States. Zwingli placed himself solidly on the side of the Holy See, in return, Pope Julius II honoured Zwingli by providing him with an annual pension. He took the role of chaplain in several campaigns in Italy, the decisive defeat of the Swiss in the Battle of Marignano caused a shift in mood in Glarus in favour of the French rather than the pope. Zwingli, the partisan, found himself in a difficult position. Even though he had preached in Glarus for 10 years, the town remained strongly Catholic, following the Second war of Kappel in 1531 both the Catholic and Protestant residents were given the right to worship in town.
This led to religious groups using the town church simultaneously, an arrangement that caused numerous problems. By the 18th Century both the groups shared the church but had separate organs, in 1697 there were two financially and theologically independent parishes meeting in the city church. Following the French invasion in 1798, Glarus became the capital of the Canton of Linth in the Helvetic Republic, the administration of the Canton moved into Glarus
Lucerne is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country. Lucerne is the capital of the canton of Lucerne and part of the district of the same name. With a population of about 81,057 people, Lucerne is the most populous town in Central Switzerland, and a nexus of economics, transportation and media of this region. The citys urban area consists of 17 municipalities and towns located in three different cantons with a population of about 250,000 people. Owing to its location on the shores of Lake Lucerne and its outflow, one of the citys famous landmarks is the Chapel Bridge, a wooden bridge first erected in the 14th century. The official language of Lucerne is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire beginning in the 6th century, in 1178 Lucerne acquired its independence from the jurisdiction of Murbach Abbey, and the founding of the city proper probably occurred that same year.
The city gained importance as a strategically located gateway for the commerce from the Gotthard trade route. By 1290 Lucerne had become a self-sufficient city of size with about 3000 inhabitants. About this time King Rudolph I von Habsburg gained authority over the Monastery of St. Leodegar and its lands, the populace was not content with the increasing Habsburg influence, and Lucerne allied with neighboring towns to seek independence from their rule. Along with Lucerne, the three other forest cantons of Uri and Unterwalden formed the eternal Swiss Confederacy, known as the Eidgenossenschaft, the cities of Zürich and Bern joined the alliance. With the help of these additions, the rule of Austria over the area came to an end, the issue was settled by Lucerne’s victory over the Habsburgs in the Battle of Sempach in 1386. For Lucerne this victory ignited an era of expansion, the city shortly granted many rights to itself, rights which had been withheld by the Habsburgs until then. By this time the borders of Lucerne were approximately those of today, in 1415 Lucerne gained Reichsfreiheit from Emperor Sigismund and became a strong member of the Swiss confederacy.
The city developed its infrastructure, raised taxes, and appointed its own local officials, the city’s population of 3000 dropped about 40% due to the Black Plague and several wars around 1350. In 1419 town records show the first witch trial against a male person, among the growing towns of the confederacy, Lucerne was especially popular in attracting new residents. As the confederacy broke up during Reformation after 1520, most cities became Protestant, after the victory of the Catholics over the Protestants in the Battle at Kappel in 1531, the Catholic towns dominated the confederacy. The future, belonged to the Protestant cities like Zürich and Basel, the former prominent position of Lucerne in the confederacy was lost forever
Canton of Schaffhausen
The Canton of Schaffhausen is a canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen, Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, it is documented that it struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was documented as Villa Scafhusun, around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which led to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190, in 1330 the town lost not only all its lands but its independence to the Habsburgs. In 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, as a result of the ban and Fredericks need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454, Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501. The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857, in 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces planes that accidentally strayed from Germany into neutral Switzerland.
The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895, the distinctive coat of arms bears the Schaffhauser Bock. Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland and lies almost entirely on the bank of the Rhine. It lies west of Lake Constance and has an area of 298 km2, much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km2 of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km2 is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton,31.8 km2, is developed, the cantons territory is divided into three non-contiguous segments where German territory reaches the Rhine. The large central part, which includes the capital Schaffhausen, in turn separates the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein from the rest of Germany, the small exclave of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies to the southwest, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. With the exception of Vor der Brugg, part of Stein am Rhein, the canton of Schaffhausen is bordered by the Swiss cantons of Zurich and Thurgau, as well as the German districts of Waldshut, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis and Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg.
Most of the lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of mountain is at 912 m. The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley, the Rhine Falls are the largest waterfalls in Europe and lie on the border of the cantons of Schaffhausen and Zürich. There are 27 municipalities in the canton as of January 2009, the population of the canton is 79,836