Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
A duke or duchess can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. During the Middle Ages the title signified first among the Germanic monarchies, Dukes were the rulers of the provinces and the superiors of the counts in the cities and later, in the feudal monarchies, the highest-ranking peers of the king. During the 19th century many of the smaller German and Italian states were ruled by Dukes or Grand Dukes, but at present, with the exception of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there are no dukes ruling as monarchs. Duke remains the highest hereditary title in Portugal, Spain, in Sweden, members of the Royal Family are given a personal dukedom at birth. The Pope, as a sovereign, has also, though rarely. In some realms the relative status of duke and prince, as borne by the nobility rather than by members of reigning dynasties, varied—e. g. in Italy. A woman who holds in her own right the title to such duchy or dukedom, Queen Elizabeth II, however, is known by tradition as Duke of Normandy in the Channel Islands and Duke of Lancaster in Lancashire. A duchy is the territory or geopolitical entity ruled by a duke, a dukedom is the title or status of a duke, a rank in the present or past nobility, and is not necessarily attached to a duchy.
A few examples exist today, The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a independent state and its head. In Scotland the male heir apparent to the British crown is always the Duke of Rothesay as well, the Channel Islands are two of the three remaining Crown Dependencies, the last vestiges of the lands of the Duchy of Normandy. The Islanders in their loyal toast will say La Reine, notre Duc, the Channel Islands, part of the lost Duchy, remained a self-governing possession of the English Crown. While the islands today retain autonomy in government, they owe allegiance to The Queen in her role as Duke of Normandy. During the Middle Ages, after Roman power in Western Europe collapsed, in 1332, Robert of Taranto succeeded his father, Philip. John took the style of Duke of Durazzo, in 1368, Durazzo fell to Karl Thopia, who was recognized by Venice as Prince of Albania. The Visigoths retained the Roman divisions of their kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula and they were the most powerful landowners and, along with the bishops, elected the king, usually from their own midst.
They were the commanders and in this capacity often acted independently from the king. The army was structured decimally with the highest unit, the thiufa, the cities were commanded by counts, who were in turn answerable to the dukes, who called up the thiufae when necessary. When the Lombards entered Italy, the Latin chroniclers called their war leaders duces in the old fashion and these leaders eventually became the provincial rulers, each with a recognized seat of government
Arlon is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in and capital of the province of Luxembourg. With a population of just over 28,000, it is the smallest provincial capital in Belgium, Arlon is the capital of its cultural region, the Arelerland. The municipality consists of the following sub-municipalities, Arlon proper, Autelbas-Barnich, Guirsch, the local population adapted relatively easily to Roman culture. The Germanic invasions of the 3rd century destroyed most of these early advances, during most of the Middle Ages, the population still used the earlier buildings such as the thermae. In 1060, Waleran I of Limburg, Count of Arlon, in the 13th century, the only womens Cistercian abbey known to date was built in Clairefontaine. The Duchy of Luxembourg itself, of which Arlon was dependent, after Charles Vs abdication of his empire to his son Philip II of Spain in 1556, a troubled period started for the whole region as continuous wars opposed France and the Southern Netherlands. In 1558, nearly half of the city, including its castle, was destroyed by the French troops of Duke François of Guise.
In the 17th century, Capuchin monks built a convent on the ruins of the castle, an accidental fire destroyed a large part of the city again in 1785. On 9 June 1793 the French Revolutionary troops opposed the Austrians just outside Arlon, the French emerged victorious and occupied the city. They expelled the Capuchin monks and used their convent as a hospital, after the Battle of Waterloo, Arlons history is entwined with that of Belgium. Arlon was one of the first victims of the German invasion in 1914 as 121 inhabitants were executed on 26 August and its territory was again among the first to be invaded at the onset of World War II. During the war, the mayor of Arlon, Paul Reuter collaborated with the occupying Germans, one of the largest industrial employers is the Ferrero Rocher chocolate factory. All International express trains make a stop in Arlon, as it is the last station on the main Brussels—Luxembourg City railway line, Arlon is best known for holding one of the richest archeological museums in Belgium.
It houses numerous examples of Roman sculpture and Merovingian funerary art, a fragment of the Gallo-Roman defensive wall that was built in the 3rd century still stands in Arlon. The Gaspar Museum is well known for its furniture, ceramics, saint Donats church now stands on the Knipchen hill, where Waleran I of Limburg once built his castle and the Capuchin monks built their convent. Arlon cemetery has the largest Jewish section of all Walloon cemeteries, the carnival of Arlon takes place at mid-Lent. It includes the traditional handing of the city keys to the carnival prince, the Maitrank is the citys most popular refreshment. It is made of wine in which a local flower
County of Namur
Namur was a county of the Carolingian and Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries. Its territories largely correspond with the present-day Belgian arrondissement Namur plus the northwestern part of the arrondissement Dinant, the city of Namur most likely arose around the Champeau, a rocky hill between the Sambre and the Meuse. Numerous prehistoric flint weapons have been found in the area, during Roman times the region around Namur was first mentioned in Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico in the second half of the 1st century BC. In Caesars wars the Roman legions conquered numerous Belgic cities and settlements, after this defeat the Belgae and their territory were incorporated into the Roman Empire. The county of Namur was first listed as part of the Lommegau in the year 832 in a document by Louis the Pious, in 992, Emperor Otto III titles Albert I count of Namur for the first time. The first count of note was Albert III, who acquired wardship over the prince-abbacy of Stavelot-Malmédy, until the start of the 12th century, Namur was threatened by its powerful neighbours Brabant, Hainaut and Liège.
Important parts of the county were annexed, the city of Dinant, for example, from the 12th century on, the counts of Namur managed to more or less compensate for the losses they had suffered. Count Godfrey, for example, acquired the county of Longwy, the last important figure from the first house that ruled Namur was Henry I. Henry I inherited the counties of Durbuy, La Roche-en-Ardenne and Luxembourg, after Henrys death, a fierce succession war broke out between Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Henrys daughter Ermesinde. Baldwin V eventually received the county of Namur while Ermesine received Luxembourg, the situation remained more or less stable until 1263. In this year, the count of Namur, Baldwin II of Courtenay, sold his county to the count of Flanders, the house of Dampierre would rule until 1421, when the county of Namur was sold to the Burgundian duke Philip the Good. After the county of Namur was bought by Philip the Good, he integrated it into a territorial and political union. From the 15th century on, the Southern Netherlands were ruled by the Habsburgs, under their new rule, the military importance of the city of Namur steadily grew.
The Burgundians and Habsburgs strengthened the city and built new walls around it, during the 16th and 17th centuries the city became an important military stronghold, and was repeatedly besieged for this reason. During the Spanish period, Namur received a bishoprics seat, the Spanish king Philip II wanted to turn Namur into a catholic bastion as a bulwark against the rise of Calvinism. Thus Philip II required several religious orders to establish themselves in Namur, in consequence the city gained a specific catholic character. Philip II managed to make considerable reïnforcements to the Citadel of Namur, in 1577, Philip II sent Don Juan of Austria to the Netherlands as the new governor. In Namur, Don Juan received Margaret of Valois, and organised a magnificent celebration in her honor, Namur has had a crucial military role throughout history
Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria
Henry VII was the count of Luxembourg from 1026 and duke of Bavaria from 1042 until his death. He was the son of Frederick, count of Moselgau, in 1026, he inherited Luxembourg from his uncle Henry I. This included charge of the abbeys of Saint-Maximin in Trier and Saint-Willibrord in Echternach. In 1042, he was given Bavaria by the Emperor Henry III, who had held it. His brother Giselbert succeeded him in Luxembourg, while Bavaria escheated to the emperor, who gave it to Cuno
The Third Crusade, known as The Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. After the failure of the Second Crusade, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria, the Egyptian and Syrian forces were ultimately unified under Saladin, who employed them to reduce the Christian states and recapture Jerusalem in 1187. Spurred by religious zeal, King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France ended their conflict with other to lead a new crusade. The death of Henry in 1189, meant the English contingent came under the command of his successor and his death caused tremendous grief among the German Crusaders, and most of his troops returned home. After the Crusaders had driven the Muslims from Acre, Philip in company with Fredericks successor, Leopold V, Duke of Austria, on 2 September 1192, Richard and Saladin finalized a treaty granting Muslim control over Jerusalem but allowing unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants to visit the city. Richard departed the Holy Land on 2 October, the successes of the Third Crusade allowed the Crusaders to maintain considerable states in Cyprus and on the Syrian coast.
However, the failure to recapture Jerusalem would lead to the Fourth Crusade, after the failure of the Second Crusade, Nur ad-Din Zangi had control of Damascus and a unified Syria. Eager to expand his power, Nur ad-Din set his sights on the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt, in 1163, Nur ad-Din sent his most trusted general, Shirkuh, on a military expedition to the Nile. Accompanying the general was his nephew, Saladin. With Shirkuhs troops camped outside of Cairo, Egypts sultan Shawar called on King Amalric I of Jerusalem for assistance, in response, Amalric sent an army into Egypt and attacked Shirkuhs troops at Bilbeis in 1164. Nur ad-Din sent the scalps of the Christian defenders to Egypt for Shirkuh to proudly display at Bilbeis for Amalrics soldiers to see and this action prompted both Amalric and Shirkuh to lead their armies out of Egypt. In 1167, Nur ad-Din again sent Shirkuh to conquer the Fatimids in Egypt, Shawar again opted to call upon Amalric to defend his territory. The combined Egyptian-Christian forces pursued Shirkuh until he retreated to Alexandria, Amalric breached his alliance with Shawar by turning his forces on Egypt and besieging the city of Bilbeis.
Shawar pleaded with his enemy, Nur ad-Din, to save him from Amalrics treachery. Lacking the resources to maintain a siege of Cairo against the combined forces of Nur ad-Din and Shawar. This new alliance gave Nur ad-Din rule over all of Syria. Shawar was executed for his alliances with the Christian forces, in 1169, Shirkuh died unexpectedly after only weeks of rule. Shirkuhs successor was his nephew, Salah ad-Din Yusuf, commonly known as Saladin, Nur ad-Din died in 1174, leaving the new empire to his 11-year-old son, As-Salih
Henry V, Count of Luxembourg
He was the son and successor of Waleran III of Limburg and Ermesinda of Luxembourg. In 1226, following the death of his father Waleran III, in 1240 Henry married Margaret of Bar, daughter of Henry II of Bar and Philippa of Dreux who was the great-granddaughter of King Louis VI of France. Henrys marriage to Margaret brought him Ligny-en-Barrois as her dowry, though, by a clause in the marriage contract, in contempt of this, Henry paid homage in 1256 to Theobald II of Navarre, in his capacity as Count of Champagne. Henrys brother-in-law, Theobald II of Bar, took advantage of the raging between Frederick III of Lorraine and the bishops of Metz. Henry V was a partisan of the duke and so Theobald took the side of the bishop, Henry was captured in battle at Prény on 14 September 1266. On 8 September 1268, King Louis IX arbitrated between the two counts and Henry was freed and repossessed of Ligny, but under the suzerainty of the Barrois, Henry inherited Luxembourg and Laroche following the death of his mother, Ermesinde, in 1247.
In 1256, Henry seized Namur while the reigning margrave, Baldwin II, was reigning emperor in Constantinople, Baldwin relinquished his rights to Namur to Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders, who retook the margraviate from Henry. The two parties made peace and Guy married Henrys daughter, upon receiving 15,000 tournois from the Pope, Henry joined Prince Edward of England on the Ninth Crusade. He returned with his remaining retainers after the crusaders achieved a truce with the Mamluk Sultanate, verbruggen, J. F. DeVries, Kelly, ed. The Battle of the Golden Spurs
Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur. It is around 90 kilometres south-east of Brussels,30 kilometres south-east of Charleroi,30 kilometres south of Namur and 20 kilometres north of Givet. The municipality includes the old communes of Anseremme, Bouvignes-sur-Meuse, Dréhance, Falmignoul, Foy-Notre-Dame, Lisogne, Dinant is positioned in the Upper Meuse valley at a point where the river cuts deeply into the western Condroz plateau. During the 19th century the former Île des Batteurs to the south was attached directly to the town when a branch of the river was filled in, Dinant has been enriched by the agricultural opportunities presented by the fertility of the land on the plateau that overlooks it. The name Dinant comes from the Celtic Divo-Nanto, meaning Sacred Valley or Divine Valley, the Dinant area was already populated in Neolithic and Roman times. In 870, Charles the Bald gave part of Dinant to be administered by the Count of Namur, the part by the bishop of Tongeren.
In the 11th century, the emperor Henry IV granted several rights over Dinant to the Prince-Bishop of Liège, including market, from that time on, the city became one of the 23 ‘‘bonnes villes’’ of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The first stone bridge on the Meuse and major repair to the castle, the citys economic rival was Bouvignes, downriver on the opposite shore of the Meuse. Henri Pirenne gained his doctorate in 1883 with a thesis on medieval Dinant, in the 16th- and 17th-century wars between France and Spain, Dinant suffered destruction and epidemics, despite its neutrality. In 1675, the French army under Marshal François de Créquy occupied the city, Dinant was briefly taken by the Austrians at the end of the 18th century. The whole Bishopric of Liège was ceded to France in 1795, the dinanderies fell out of fashion and the economy of the city now rested on leather tanning and the manufacture of playing cards. The famous couques de Dinant appeared at that time, the city suffered devastation again at the beginning of the First World War.
On the 15 August 1914, French and German troops fought for the town in the Battle of Dinant, on 23 August,674 inhabitants were summarily executed by Saxon troops of the German Army — the biggest massacre committed by the Germans in 1914. Within a month, some five thousand Belgian and French civilians were killed by the Germans at numerous similar occasions, the citys landmark is the Collegiate Church of Notre Dame de Dinant. It was rebuilt in Gothic style on its old foundations after falling rocks from the adjacent cliff partially destroyed the former Romanesque style church in 1227. Several stages for a pair of towers on the west end were completed before the project was abandoned in favour of the present central tower with an onion dome. Above the church rises the vertical flank of the rocher surmounted by the fortified Citadel of Dinant that was first built in the 11th century to control the Meuse valley, the Prince-Bishops of Liège rebuilt and enlarged it in 1530, the French destroyed it in 1703.
Its present aspect, with the stairs, is due to rebuilding in 1821
The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary from country to country and era to era. There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class. g, san Marino and the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil. The term derives from Latin nobilitas, the noun of the adjective nobilis. In modern usage, nobility is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies and it rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. Nobility is a historical and often legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income. Being wealthy or influential cannot, ipso facto, make one noble, various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens.
Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se, usually privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate. Most nobles wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small and it included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although often at a price. Nobles were expected to live nobly, that is, from the proceeds of these possessions, work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. In some countries, the lord could impose restrictions on such a commoners movements. Nobles exclusively enjoyed the privilege of hunting, in France, nobles were exempt from paying the taille, the major direct tax. In some parts of Europe the right of war long remained the privilege of every noble. During the early Renaissance, duelling established the status of a respectable gentleman, Nobility came to be associated with social rather than legal privilege, expressed in a general expectation of deference from those of lower rank.
By the 21st century even that deference had become increasingly minimised, in France, a seigneurie might include one or more manors surrounded by land and villages subject to a nobles prerogatives and disposition. Seigneuries could be bought, sold or mortgaged, if erected by the crown into, e. g. a barony or countship, it became legally entailed for a specific family, which could use it as their title. Yet most French nobles were untitled, in other parts of Europe, sovereign rulers arrogated to themselves the exclusive prerogative to act as fons honorum within their realms. Nobility might be inherited or conferred by a fons honorum