Victorian gold rush
The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia between 1851 and the late 1860s. It led to a period of extreme prosperity for the Australian colony, an influx of population growth and financial capital for Melbourne, dubbed "Marvellous Melbourne" as a result of the procurement of wealth; the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee wrote in 1854: The discovery of the Victorian Goldfields has converted a remote dependency into a country of world wide fame. For a number of years the gold output from Victoria was greater than in any other country in the world with the exception of the more extensive fields of California. Victoria's greatest yield for one year was in 1856, when 3,053,744 troy ounces of gold were extracted from the diggings. From 1851 to 1896 the Victorian Mines Department reported that a total of 61,034,682 oz of gold was mined in Victoria. Gold was first discovered in Australia on 15 February 1823, by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst.
The find was considered unimportant at the time, was not pursued for policy reasons. In the 1850s gold discoveries in Victoria, in Beechworth, Daylesford and Bendigo sparked gold rushes similar to the California Gold Rush. At its peak some two tonnes of gold per week flowed into the Treasury Building in Melbourne; the gold exported to Britain in the 1850s paid all her foreign debts and helped lay the foundation of her enormous commercial expansion in the latter half of the century. Melbourne was a major boomtown during the gold rush; the city became the centre of the colony with rail networks radiating to the regional towns and ports. Politically, Victoria's goldminers sped up the introduction of greater parliamentary democracy in Victoria, based on British Chartist principles adopted to some extent by the miners' activist bodies such as Bendigo's Anti-Gold Licence Association and the Ballarat Reform League; as the alluvial gold dwindled, pressures for land reform and political reform generated social struggles.
And a Land Convention in Melbourne during 1857 recorded demands for land reform. By 1854 Chinese people were contributing to the gold rushes, their presence on the goldfields of Bendigo and the Bright district resulted in riots, entry taxes and segregation in the short term, became the foundations of the White Australia policy. In short, the gold rush was reshaped Victoria, its society and politics. There were rumours abroad about the presence of gold in Australia, but Government officials kept all findings secret for fear of disorganising the young colony; however the Colonial Secretary, Edward Deas Thomson, saw a great future for the country when Edward Hargraves proved his theory that Australia was a vast storehouse of gold. Hargraves had been in the California gold rush and knew gold country, when he first saw it, round Bathurst; the news spread like wildfire, soon the race was on from coast to gold fields. Flocks were left untended, drovers deserted their teams and lawyers rushed from their desks and entire ships' crews, captains included, marched off to seek their fortunes.
In March 1850, Mr. W. Campbell of Strath Loddon found on the station of Mr. Donald Cameron, of Clunes several minute pieces of native gold in quartz; this was concealed at the time but on 10 January 1851, Campbell disclosed it. Others had found indications of gold. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, whose services as an analyst were in great demand, had been shown specimens of gold from what afterwards became the Clunes diggings. In spite of these and other discoveries, however, it was impracticable to market the gold, James Esmond's "find", made on Creswick's Creek, a tributary of the Loddon River, at Clunes on 1 July 1851, was the first marketable gold field. A party formed by Mr. Louis John Michel, consisting of himself, Mr. William Haberlin, James Furnival, James Melville, James Headon, B. Groenig, discovered the existence of gold in the quartz rocks of the Yarra ranges, at Andersons Creek, near Warrandyte, in the latter part of June, showed it on the spot to Dr. Webb Richmond, on behalf of the Gold Discovery Committee on 5 July.
The third discovery was by a resident at Buninyong. Clarke, by the discovery of Brentani's nugget in the Pyrenees district two years before, he had kept a constant lookout for gold in his neighbourhood, he discovered an auriferous deposit in the gully of the Buninyong ranges now bearing his name, on 8 August 1851, he communicated the fact, with its precise locality, to the editor of the Geelong Advertiser on the 10th of that month. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, in the month of January, 1851, started from Melbourne to explore "the mineral resources of this colony'. During his lengthened tour, he found, in April, indications of gold in quartz about two miles from Mr. Barker's station, on arriving at Mr. Cameron's station was shown by that gentleman specimens of gold at what are now called the Clunes diggings; this information he made known through the country in the course of his journey, communicated to Mr. James Esmond, at that time engaged in erecting a building at Mr. James Hodgkinson's station.
Dr. Bruhn forwarded specimens, which were received by the Gold Discovery Committe
Walhalla is a small town in Victoria, founded as a gold-mining community in late 1862 and at its peak home to around 4,000 residents. Today, the town has a population of 20 permanent residents, though it has a large proportion of houses owned as holiday properties, it is a major focus of the regional tourism industry. The town's name is taken from an early gold mine in the area, named for the German hall of fame, the Walhalla temple. Walhalla is located in South-East Australia, in the eastern Victorian region of Gippsland, about 180 kilometres from the state capital Melbourne, it is located in the Great Dividing Range, in the steep Stringers Creek valley four kilometres upstream of the creek's junction with the Thomson River. The area around the town is designated as an historic area; the township is located along one road which winds along the valley floor due to the steep terrain. After the 52 year gold rush period, Walhalla's population declined since the level of the gold has been extinct and for the latter part of the 20th century fewer than 20 people lived in the town as permanent residents.
The history of Walhalla is linked to the history of gold in Victoria. The first gold had been found in Victoria in 1851. By 1859 prospectors had pushed far east of Melbourne into the trackless wilderness of the Great Dividing Range. Major gold strikes on the Jordan River encouraged other prospectors to follow the nearby Thomson River in their search for the valuable metal. A group of four prospectors, exploring in creeks flowing into the Thomson River valley found gold in late December 1862. A claim was pegged out and a member of this group, former convict Edward Stringer, registered the claim at the stage post town of Bald Hills, now called Seaton, about 12 January 1863. Although his party were posthumously presented with a monetary reward of £100 for the discovery, Stringer was unable to capitalise on his finds, dying in September 1863. After news of the discovery became known, a rush to the creek began and a small town sprang up, The settlement was called Stringer's or Stringer's Creek, but after the township was surveyed it was rechristened Walhalla - the name of the town's largest mine at that time.
The creek running through town still bears his name. Access to the creek was an ongoing problem in the town's early days owing to the goldfield's remote and inaccessible location. In February 1863, two prospectors John Hinchcliffe and William Myers, discovered an immensely rich quartz outcrop in the hill just above the creek, named Cohen's Reef, after a storekeeper at Bald Hills. Gold panning and related techniques exhausted all the alluvial deposits. By late 1863 mining operations began as prospectors sought and followed the underground veins of gold. At Walhalla this could mean tunnelling into the steep valley walls as well as the more traditional digging downward; the vast majority of gold extraction from Walhalla centred on Cohens Reef, the largest single reef in Victoria. By 1900 the reef had produced around 55 tonnes of gold. Due to the enormous expenses of underground gold mining, small claims operated by individuals or small groups soon folded, being replaced by large companies such as the Long Tunnel Mining Company.
This company owned the richest mine working the reef, the Long Tunnel, which produced over 30 tons of gold alone over its operation between the years 1865 and 1914, paid £1,283,000 in dividends to its shareholders. The crushing machinery used to extract the gold from the quartz-based ore required large amounts of energy, supplied by wood-burning steam engines; the need for fuel wood led to the hills being denuded for some considerable distance around town, timber tramways bringing freshly cut timber for the boilers. The associated costs of bringing wood from further and further away were a key factor in the economic problems which ended mining in Walhalla. By late 1863 there had been more finds made nearby at Happy-Go-Lucky, three kilometres from Stringer's Creek, at Cooper's Creek, where copper was to be discovered in greater abundance. By March 1864, Walhalla had a weekly mail service from Toongabbie, the Walhalla Post Office was opened on 22 August 1864. Happy-Go-Lucky had a post office open from 1865 until 1916, as did Cooper's Creek from 1868 until 1893.
The first hotel, the Reefer's Arms, was opened in September 1863. In time, there were breweries and an aerated waters factory. A branch of the Bank of Victoria was opened in September 1865, a branch of the Bank of Australasia was opened in February 1866. Shopkeepers and other traders built the town up in support of the rush. By May 1866, the township of Stringer's Creek had been surveyed and renamed Walhalla, after one of the most prosperous mines working. Most of the first lots of township land were sold to the already-resident householders; that year saw a church building was erected for the Wesleyan Church, establishment of a Police reserve and Court of Petty Sessions. The growing number of families in the area saw the Mechanics' Institute and Free Library serving as a school when it opened in 1867. Before long, Walhalla could boast fraternal societies, a debating club, a chess club, choral union and dramatic club. By January 1870, the Walhalla Chronicle newspaper was being published, by December of the same year, a two-acre site had been gazetted for State School No.
957, which had t
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can be applied to smaller structures or features, that have become local or national symbols. In old English the word landmearc was used to describe an "object set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, etc.". Starting from approx. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a more general one. A landmark became a "conspicuous object in a landscape". A landmark meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. For example, the Table Mountain near Cape Town, South Africa is used as the landmark to help sailors to navigate around southern tip of Africa during the Age of Exploration. Artificial structures are sometimes built to assist sailors in naval navigation; the Lighthouse of Alexandria and Colossus of Rhodes are ancient structures built to lead ships to the port.
In modern usage, a landmark includes anything, recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure. In American English it is the main term used to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. Landmarks in the British English sense are used for casual navigation, such as giving directions; this is done in American English as well. In urban studies as well as in geography, a landmark is furthermore defined as an external point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment. Landmarks are used in verbal route instructions and as such an object of study by linguists as well as in other fields of study. Landmarks are classified as either natural landmarks or man-made landmarks, both are used to support navigation on finding directions. A variant is a seamark or daymark, a structure built intentionally to aid sailors navigating featureless coasts. Natural landmarks can be characteristic features, such as plateaus.
Examples of natural landmarks are Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Uluru in Australia, Mount Fuji in Japan and Grand Canyon in the United States. Trees might serve as local landmarks, such as jubilee oaks or conifers; some landmark trees may be nicknamed, examples being Hanging Oak or Centennial Tree. In modern sense, landmarks are referred to as monuments or prominent distinctive buildings, used as the symbol of a certain area, city, or nation; some examples include the Statue of Unity in Narmada, the White House in Washington, D. C. the Statue of Liberty in New York City, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Colosseum in Rome, Big Ben in London, Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, Bratislava Castle in Bratislava, the Space Needle in Seattle, the Sydney Harbour Bridge or the Sydney Opera House, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the CN Tower In Toronto, or Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw. Church spires and mosque's minarets are very tall and visible from many miles around, thus serve as built landmarks.
Town hall towers and belfries have a landmark character. Contemporary history Cultural heritage management Cultural heritage tourism National landmark National symbol Media related to Landmarks at Wikimedia Commons