Courier Journal, locally called The Courier-Journal or The C-J or The Courier, is the largest news organization in Kentucky. According to the 1999 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook, the paper is the 48th-largest daily paper in the U. S. and the single-largest in Kentucky. The Courier-Journal was created from the merger of several newspapers introduced in Kentucky in the 19th century. Pioneer paper The Focus of Politics and Literature, was founded in 1826 in Louisville when the city was an early settlement of less than 7,000 individuals. In 1830 a new newspaper, The Louisville Daily Journal, began distribution in the city and, in 1832, absorbed The Focus of Politics and Literature; the Journal was an organ of the Whig Party and edited by George D. Prentice, a New Englander who came to Kentucky to write a biography of Henry Clay. Prentice would edit the Journal for more than 40 years. In 1844, another newspaper, the Louisville Morning Courier was founded in Louisville by Walter Newman Haldeman.
The Louisville Daily Journal and the Louisville Morning Courier were the news leaders in Louisville and were politically opposed throughout the Civil War. The Courier was suppressed by the Union and had to move to Nashville, but returned to Louisville after the war. In 1868, an ailing Prentice persuaded the 28-year-old Henry Watterson to come edit for the Journal. During secret negotiations in 1868, The Journal and the Courier merged and the first edition of The Courier-Journal was delivered to Louisvillians on Sunday morning, November 8, 1868. Henry Watterson, the son of a Tennessee congressman, had written for Harper's Magazine and the New York Times before enlisting in the Confederate Army, he became nationally known for his work as The Courier-Journal emerged as the region's leading paper. He supported the Democratic Party and pushed for the industrialization of Kentucky and the South in general, notably through urging the Southern Exposition be held in Louisville, he attracted controversy for attempting to prove that Christopher Marlowe had written the works of Shakespeare.
He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1917 for editorials demanding the United States enter World War I. The Courier-Journal founded a companion afternoon edition of the paper, The Louisville Times, in May 1884. In 1896, Watterson and Haldeman opposed Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan over his support of "Free Silver" coinage; this unpopular decision upset readers and advertisers, many of whom pulled their support for The Courier-Journal. Kentucky voted for the Republican candidate in 1896, the first time in state history, local political leaders blamed the Courier. Only the popularity of The Louisville Times, which had no strong editorial reputation, saved the newspaper company from bankruptcy; the Courier supported Bryan in future elections. Haldeman had owned the papers until his death in 1902, by 1917 they were owned by his son and Henry Watterson. On August 8, 1918, Robert Worth Bingham purchased two-thirds interest in the newspapers and acquired the remaining stock in 1920; the liberal Bingham clashed with longtime editor Watterson, who remained on board, but was in the twilight of his career.
Watterson's editorials opposing the League of Nations appeared alongside Bingham's favoring it, Watterson retired on April 2, 1919. I have always regarded the newspapers owned by me as a public trust and have endeavored so to conduct them as to render the greatest public service; as publisher, Bingham set the tone for his editorial pages, pushed for improved public education, support of African Americans and the poor of Appalachia. In 1933, the newspapers passed to his son, Barry Bingham, Sr. Barry Bingham would continue in his father's footsteps, guiding the editorial page and modernizing the paper by setting up several news bureaus throughout the state, expanding the news staff. During Barry Bingham, Sr.'s tenure, the paper was considered Kentucky's "Newspaper of Record" and ranked among the 10 best in the nation. In 1971, Barry Bingham, Jr. succeeded his father as the newspapers' publisher. The Binghams were well-liked owners popularly credited with being more concerned with publishing quality journalism than making heavy profits.
They owned the leading local radio and television stations -- WHAS-TV, WHAS-AM, WAMZ-FM—and Standard Gravure, a rotogravure printing company that printed The Courier-Journal's Sunday Magazine as well as similar magazines for other newspapers. Barry Bingham Jr. sought to free the papers from conflicts of interests, through The Louisville Times, experimented with new ideas such as signed editorials. Bingham Jr. parted with tradition by endorsing several Republican candidates for office. In 1974, Carol Sutton became managing editor of The Courier-Journal, the first woman appointed to such a post at a major US daily newspaper. Under the leadership of C. Thomas Hardin, director of photography, the combined photography staff of The Courier-Journal and Louisville Times was awarded the 1976 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography for its coverage of school desegregation in Louisville. Barry Bingham, Jr. served as editor and publisher until he resigned in 1986, shortly after his father announced that the newspaper company was for sale, in large measure because of disagreements between Bingham Jr. and his sister Sallie.
In July 1986, Gannett Company, Inc. purchased the newspaper company for $300 million and appointed George N. Gill President and Publisher. Gill had been with the newspaper and the Binghams for over two decades, working his way up from reporter to Chief Executive Officer of the Bingham Companies. In 1993, Gill retired and Edward E. Manassah became President and Publisher. February 1987 saw
Oklahoma Sooners football
The Oklahoma Sooners football program is a college football team that represents the University of Oklahoma. The team is a member of the Big 12 Conference, in Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the program began in 1895 and is one of the most successful programs since World War II with the most wins and the highest winning percentage since 1945. The program has 7 national championships, 48 conference championships, 162 First Team All-Americans, seven Heisman Trophy winners. In addition, the school has had 23 members inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and holds the record for the longest winning streak in Division I history with 47 straight victories. Oklahoma is the only program that has had four coaches with 100+ wins, they became the sixth NCAA FBS team to win 850 games when they defeated the Kansas Jayhawks on November 22, 2014. The Sooners play their home games at Gaylord Family Oklahoma Memorial Stadium in Oklahoma. Lincoln Riley is the team's head coach.
Football at Oklahoma made its start in September 1895, 12 years before statehood and one year after the first organized football game in Oklahoma Territory. The team was organized by John A. Harts, a student from Winfield, Kansas who had played the game in his home state; that first team was composed of non-students, including a local fireman. That first "season" saw the team go 0–1, being blanked 0–34 by a more experienced Oklahoma City Town Team; the first game was played on a field of low prairie grass just northwest of the current site of Holmberg Hall. Several members of the Oklahoma team were injured, including Coach Harts, by the end of the game, the Oklahoma team was borrowing members from the opposing squad so they would have a full lineup. After that year, Harts left Oklahoma to prospect for gold in the Arctic; the team got its first real coach in 1897 when the new modern language professor, Vernon Louis Parrington, was named head coach. Parrington played some football at Harvard and was more exposed to football coming from the East coast.
In his four years as head coach, Parrington's teams racked up nine wins, one loss, two ties. After the 1900 season, football began interfering with his real passion, he stepped down as head coach shortly thereafter and went on to win the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1928 at the University of Washington. The Sooners had three more coaches over the next four seasons. Fred Roberts led the Sooners to a 3–2 season in 1901, Mark McMahon recorded an 11–7–3 record in his two years as coach in 1902 and 1903, Fred Ewing recorded a 4–3–1 record in 1904; the most notable event of those four years came in 1904 when Oklahoma had its first match against its in-state rival, Oklahoma A&M. The game was played on November 1904 at Mineral Wells Park in Guthrie, Oklahoma; the Oklahoma team soundly defeated the Oklahoma Aggies 75–0, but it was an unusual touchdown, remembered most of that game. Bedlam football, the athletic rivalry between the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University, was born that day.
After ten years of football, the program began to get serious and started looking for a permanent head coach. They found Bennie Owen, a former quarterback of the undefeated Kansas team of 1899 led by famous coach Fielding H. Yost. Owen's previous team beat Oklahoma twice in 1903 and 1904, so the Sooners were familiar with his ability. Owen's first two years at Oklahoma were spent between Norman and Arkansas City as Oklahoma did not have a big enough budget to keep him there all year; the early years of Owen's tenure were tough because of budget issues. Due to a low travel budget, his teams would have to play as many as three games in one trek. For instance, in 1905, his squad played three teams in three Kansas cities in five days and again in 1909 when they played three games in Missouri and Texas in six days. In Owen's first year, 1905, he gave Oklahoma its first victory over rival Texas, defeating them 2–0. Owen's first dominant team came in 1908 when they went 8–1–1, losing only to the powerful Kansas team.
His 1908 team used hand-offs directly to large runners. His 1911 team, on the other hand, had several small and fast players that the quarterback would pass directly to; that team went 8–0. Owen had two more undefeated seasons in 1915 and 1918. 1920 was Oklahoma's first season in the stronger Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association after three season in the Southwest Conference of which it was a founding member. In the new conference, they went 6–0–1 tying only Kansas State. Owen retired after the 1926 season. During Owen's 22-year career at Oklahoma, he went 122 -- a 67.7 % winning percentage. In 1951, he became the first person from Oklahoma to be inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in its inaugural year. Adrian Lindsey was hired by Oklahoma to coach the football team in 1927. Before coming to Oklahoma, Lindsey was an assistant football coach at his alma mater. Lindsey is remembered as the coach who resigned after failing to produce a winning team. Lindsey's record was not that shabby, however.
His players were small in size and number and the schedules they faced were too difficult for such a small squad. Lindsey's 1929 Sooners team defeated Nebraska, 20–7, marking the worst defeat the Cornhuskers saw from a Big Six team in two decades. In 1931, he took his team and defeated the Hawaii Warriors in Honolulu by a score of 7–0; this game marked the first time a university located in the central continental U
Uber Technologies Inc. is a transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Uber offers services including peer-to-peer ridesharing, ride service hailing, food delivery, a bicycle-sharing system; the company has operations in 785 metropolitan areas worldwide. Its platforms can be accessed via mobile apps. Uber has been so prominent in the sharing economy that the changes in industries as a result of it have been referred to as uberisation, many startups have described their products as "Uber for X"; the name "Uber" is a reference to the common word uber, meaning "topmost" or "super", having its origins in the German word über, cognate with over, meaning "above". Uber is estimated to have a 67.3 % market share in the United States. Uber is a gold member of the Linux Foundation and has a five star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Most jurisdictions regulate TNCs such as Uber and TNCs are banned from operating in some jurisdictions. For more information, see Legality of TNCs by jurisdiction.
The Uber app gives riders a quote for the fare. Uber uses a dynamic pricing model. At the end of the ride, payment is made based on the rider's pre-selected preferences, which could be a credit card on file, Google Pay, Apple Pay, cash, or, in India, Airtel mobile wallet or Unified Payments Interface. After the ride is over, the rider is given the option to provide a gratuity to the driver, billed to the rider's payment method. In some locations, if the driver has to wait more than a few minutes after arriving to the pickup location, riders are charged a wait time fee. UberX, the basic level of service, provides a private ride in a standard car with driver for up to four passengers. Rider service levels, many of which are only available in certain cities, include: UberASSIST provides additional assistance to senior citizens and passengers with a physical disability, but cannot transport a non-folding wheelchair. UberAUTO, available in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan, provides transportation by auto rickshaw.
UberBike is a dockless bicycle-sharing system that allows users to rent electric bicycles via Uber subsidiary Jump Bikes in 9 metropolitan areas in the United States including San Francisco and Washington, D. C. Uber users are able to rent Lime scooters in 46 cities via the Uber mobile app. UberBLACK provides a black luxury vehicle. UberBOAT, a water-taxi service, provides speedboats in the summer to/from points on the coast of Croatia. UberBOAT has offered transport across Biscayne Bay during Miami Art Week and across the Bosporus strait in Istanbul in the summer. UberChapchap, available in Nairobi, Kenya is a low-cost service offering transport via a Suzuki Alto, a kei car. "Chapchap" means "faster" in the Swahili language. UberESPAÑOL is a version of UberX that allows Spanish-speaking riders to request Spanish-speaking drivers. UberFLASH, available in Singapore, is a service that combines both private cars and ComfortDelGro taxis. UberGO, available in India and Sri Lanka, provides for a ride in a hatchback.
UberHealth is a HIPAA-compliant method for health professionals to arrange rides for patients to-and-from their appointments. Patients without smartphones can receive pickup information via Text messaging or via the health professional's office. UberKIDS provides a car with a child safety seat for an additional charge. UberMOTO, available in India, Indonesia and the Dominican Republic, provides transportation by motorcycle. UberPETS includes pet transport for an additional charge. Must be accompanied by pet's handler. Persons with a service animal may use any type of Uber service. UberPOOL, available for up to two people per party, provides a ride, shared with other riders going in the same general direction. Unless the rider pays an additional fee for door-to-door service, the rider are required to walk a short distance at both ends of the ride to save time for the driver and other riders; the pickup/drop-off locations are indicated via a map in the mobile app. UberPOP provides a subcompact car.
Uber Rent, powered by Getaround, is a peer-to-peer carsharing service available in San Francisco. UberSELECT provides a car with a leather interior. UberSUV provides a sport utility vehicle. UberTAXI allows users to summon a taxi using the Uber software application. Users can leave a gratuity through the app; the service was implemented to appease taxi drivers who protested the increased competition from Uber. UberX provides a private ride in a standard car for up to 4 passengers. UberXL provides a ride in a large vehicle. UberWAV provides a wheelchair accessible vehicle. UberAIR / UberElevate will provide short flights using VTOL aircraft. Demonstration flights are projected to start in 2020 in Los Angeles. Commercial operations are projected to begin in 2023. Although technically feasible, the program is expected to encounter safety and regulatory obstacles. Uber has operated promotional limited services, such as rides of up to 15 minutes each on September 6–8, 2013 in San Francisco in the DeLorean, featured in the Back to the Future film franchise.
Most Uber drivers use their own cars although drivers can lease a car to drive with Uber. Uber offers car rental or leasing via Getaround and Fair and Uber and BYD Auto have a partnership to provide leasing of electric cars to Uber drivers in Chicago and New York City. Drivers must meet requirements for age, car age and type, have
The ACT is a standardized test used for college admissions in the United States. It was first introduced in November 1959 by University of Iowa professor Everett Franklin Lindquist as a competitor to the Scholastic Aptitude Test, it is administered by ACT, a nonprofit organization of the same name. The ACT consisted of four tests: English, Social Studies, Natural Sciences. In 1989, the Social Studies test was changed into a Reading section, the Natural Sciences test was renamed the Science Reasoning test, with more emphasis on problem-solving skills as opposed to memorizing scientific facts. In February 2005, an optional Writing Test was added to the ACT, mirroring changes to the SAT that took place in March of the same year. In 2013, ACT announced that students would be able to take the ACT by computer starting in the spring of 2015; the ACT has seen a gradual increase in the number of test takers since its inception, in 2011 the ACT surpassed the SAT for the first time in total test takers.
All four-year colleges and universities in the U. S. accept the ACT, but different institutions place different emphases on standardized tests such as the ACT, compared to other factors including class rank, GPA, extracurricular activities. The main four sections are individually scored on a scale of 1–36, a composite score is provided. ACT, Inc. says that the ACT assessment measures high school students' general educational development and their capability to complete college-level work with the multiple choice tests covering four skill areas: English, mathematics and science. The optional Writing Test measures skill in writing a short essay. ACT states that its scores provide an indicator of "college readiness", that scores in each of the subtests correspond to skills in entry-level college courses in English, social science and biology. According to a research study conducted by ACT, Inc. in 2003, there was a relationship between a student's ACT composite score and the probability of him or her earning a college degree.
To develop the test, ACT incorporates the objectives for instruction from middle and high schools throughout the United States, reviews approved textbooks for subjects taught in Grades 7–12, surveys educators on which knowledge skills are relevant to success in postsecondary education. ACT publishes a technical manual that summarizes studies conducted on its validity in predicting freshman GPA, equating different high school GPAs, measuring educational achievement. Colleges use the ACT and the SAT because there are substantial differences in funding, curricula and difficulty among U. S. secondary schools due to American federalism, local control, the prevalence of private, home schooled students, lack of a rigorous college entrance examination system similar those used in some other countries. ACT/SAT scores are used to supplement the secondary school record and help admission officers put local data—such as coursework and class rank—in a national perspective; the majority of colleges do not indicate a preference for the SAT or ACT exams and accept both, being treated by most admissions officers.
According to "Uni in the USA," colleges that require students to take the SAT Subject Tests do so regardless of whether the candidate took the SAT or ACT. Most colleges use ACT scores as only one factor in the admission process. A sampling of ACT admissions scores shows that the 75th percentile composite score was 24.1 at public four-year institutions and 25.3 at private four-year institutions. Students should check with their prospective institutions directly to understand ACT admissions requirements. In addition, some states and individual school districts have used the ACT to assess the student learning and/or the performance of schools, requiring all high school students to take the ACT, regardless of whether they are college bound. Colorado and Illinois were the first to incorporate the ACT as part of their mandatory testing program in 2001. Other states followed suit in subsequent years. During the 2018–2019 school year, 13 states will administer the ACT test to all public school 11th graders, another six states will fund ACT test administration as an option or choice for districts.
While the exact manner in which ACT scores will help to determine admission of a student at American institutions of higher learning is a matter decided by the individual institution, some foreign countries have made ACT scores a legal criterion in deciding whether holders of American high school diplomas will be admitted at their public universities. The ACT is more used in the Midwestern, Rocky Mountain, Southern United States, whereas the SAT is more popular on the East and West coasts. However, the ACT is being used more on the East Coast. Use of the ACT by colleges has risen as a result of various criticisms of the effectiveness and fairness of the SAT; the required portion of the ACT is divided into four multiple choice subject tests: English, mathematics and science reasoning. Subject test scores range from 1 to 36; the English and readi
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Glossary of American football
The following terms are used in American football, both conventional and indoor. Some of these terms are in use in Canadian football. 2-4-5 defense A type of nickel formation with two linemen, four linebackers, five defensive backs. More common among teams with 3-4 base defenses than the 3-3-5, because all four starting linebackers remain on-field while the defensive linemen -- the slowest players on the defense -- come out; this maximizes versatility for the defense against three- and four-wide receiver, WR, offensive sets. A safety will cover the fourth receiver, a linebacker will cover the tight end or halfback, leaving three to patrol the middle of the field; the 2-4-5 is most used against the two-minute offense, when substituting players may be difficult. 3–3–5 defense A variation of the nickel formation with three linemen, three linebackers, five defensive backs. 3–4 defense A defensive formation with three linemen and four linebackers. A professional derivative in the 1970s of the earlier Oklahoma, 5-2 or 50 defense, which had five linemen and two linebackers.
The 3-4 outside linebackers resemble "stand-up ends" in the older defense. It is sometimes pronounced thirty-four defense; the 3-4 was spun off from the Miami Dolphins' "53 defense" named for the jersey number worn by linebacker Bob Matheson, used by the Dolphins as a fourth linebacker in passing situations. 4–3 defense A defensive formation with four linemen and three linebackers. Several variations are employed, it was first used by coach Tom Landry. It is sometimes pronounced forty-three defense. 46 defense Usually pronounced forty-six defense, a formation of the 4-3 defense featuring several dramatic shifts of personnel. The line is shifted toward the offense's weak side; the remaining safety, the free safety, stays in the backfield. It was invented by Buddy Ryan during his tenure as defensive coordinator for the Chicago Bears and was popularized by the Bears during their Super Bowl XX championship season. 5-2 defense A once popular college defense with five defensive linemen and two linebackers.
Known as the "Oklahoma defense", it is structurally similar to the 3-4. In the 50 defense, the team uses a nose tackle, two defensive tackles lined up over or inside the offensive tackles, two defensive ends lined up over or outside the tight end, it maximizes size along the line of scrimmage and is used in high school against teams that run the ball a lot. 5-3 defense A defense with five defensive linemen and three linebackers that appeared in the 1930s to combat improved passing attacks. The 5-3 defense and the 6–2 defense were considered the standard defensive formations of their time, with the 5-3 defense being regarded as the defense, better against the pass, it was considered the best defense against the T formation. By the late 1950s, NFL defenses had switched to the 4-3 defense or the 5-2 defense as their base defense. 53-man roster The most players a National Football League team can carry on its active roster at the start of the regular season. To reach the deadline, teams can cut players, add players to their practice squad, and, if injured, move players to the physically unable to perform list.
6–2 defense A defense with 6 defensive linemen and 2 linebackers that became popular in the 1930s due to improved passing attacks. The 6–2 defense and the 5-3 defense were considered the standard defensive formations of their time, with the 6–2 defense being regarded as the defense, stronger against the run; as the T formation became more popular, the popularity of the 6–2 defense declined. By 1950, NFL defenses had switched to the 5-3 defense as their base defense. 7–1–2–1 defense A defensive formation with seven defensive linemen, one linebacker and three defensive backs. It was invented by Henry L. Williams in 1903. By the mid-1930s, it was considered obsolete due to its vulnerability against the pass. 7–2–2 defense A defensive formation with seven defensive linemen, two linebackers and two defensive backs. It is akin to a goal line defense, it was invented by Amos Alonzo Stagg in 1890 and used as the base defense by Knute Rockne at Notre Dame and Mike Donahue at Auburn. N-possession game A way of expressing the number of times a team, late in the game and trails its opponent, must secure possession of the ball and score without allowing the opponent to do the same in order to tie or overtake the opponent.
Eight points are the most points possible on any given possession. For instance, a team down by 17 points would be in a three-possession game. A-11 offense An offensive philosophy designed to appear; the offense exploits a loophole in the American football rulebook to technically make the formation a scrimmage kick, the offensive line is spread across the field, all wearing numbers of eligible receivers, in an effort to confuse and d
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel