Julian Victor Corrie, better known by his stage name Miaoux Miaoux, is an English producer and songwriter based in Glasgow, Scotland. He is signed to Chemikal Underground Records, who have released his albums Light of the North and School of Velocity. Prior to his solo career Corrie was a member of the Glasgow based band Maple Leaves. Corrie is a member of Scottish indie rock band Franz Ferdinand and has created remixes for CHVRCHES, Belle & Sebastian and Lindstrom, amongst others. Corrie plays all the instruments on recordings himself, performs live with drummer Liam Chapman and bassist Liam Graham. Corrie was born in England, he spent his early childhood in Peru. Corrie studied the piano from a young age, was introduced by his older brother to sample-based music, including Portishead and the Propellerheads, he completed the Tonmeister degree at the University of Surrey. After graduation, Corrie took up a placement at BBC Scotland in Glasgow, where he has since worked as a sound engineer. Light of the North was recorded and produced by Corrie himself, mixed by Paul Savage at Chem 19 Recording Studios.
It was nominated for the Scottish Album of the Year Award in 2013. The album artwork is by James Houston, a frequent collaborator of Corrie's in Polybius, a short for Channel 4's Random Acts, which Houston directed. Corrie produced the single "I. D. L. U" by Bdy_Prts, a project by Jill O'Sullivan of Sparrow and the Workshop and Jenny Reeve of Strike the Colours, released on 3 March 2014, he has worked alongside comedian Robert Florence, producing tracks for the television show Burnistoun. Florence's production company, Bold Yin Productions produced award-winning artist Rachel Maclean's short Germs for Channel 4, for which Corrie provided music and sound design. Corrie has continued to work on further projects with Rachel Maclean as well as the National Theatre of Scotland; the album was favourably reviewed by Drowned in Sound, The Scotsman, The Skinny, The Line Of Best Fit, The List. On 19 May 2017, it was announced that Corrie had joined Franz Ferdinand along with fellow new member Dino Bardot as the band's new keyboard and synthesizer player.
Rainbow Bubbles, released 20 August 2007, Koshka Records Light of the North, released 8 June 2012, Chemikal Underground Records School of Velocity, released June 2015 Blooms, released 16 March 2010, Test Pilot Music Ltd The Japanese War Effort/Fox Gut Daata/Miaoux Miaoux/Wounded Knee Split EP, released 6 December 2010, Gerry Loves Records Autopilot, released 12 October 2012, Chemikal Underground Records "Hey Sound", released 23 May 2011, Eli and Oz "Better for Now", released 15 June 2012, Chemikal Underground Records Always Ascending, released 9 February 2018, Domino Recording Company Kirsty/Easyspeak, released 9 July 2009 Tapestry, released 2 June 2010 Golden Ether, released 20 October 2010, Bubblegum Records Threads, released 14 February 2011 Robots, released 27 May 2012 Arab Strap, The First Big Weekend of 2016 CHVRCHES, The Mother We Share, The Mother We Share, released 13 September 2013, National Anthem Records Belle & Sebastian, Your Cover's Blown, The Third Eye Centre, released 26 August 2013, Rough Trade Panamah, Born Af Natten, Sounds of Copenhagen Volume 11, released 19 August 2013, Good Tape Records I am Dive, The Cliff, released 16 June 2013, Foehn Records Chopin, 2 Nocturnes op.55: no.1 in F minor, Variations of Chopin, released 13 May 2013, too many fireworks records Lindstrom, Rà-àkõ-st, promotional release for Smalhans released 17 October 2012, The Quietus Human Don't Be Angry, 1985, 1985, released 18 May 2012, Chemikal Underground Records Discopolis, Zenithobia, released 5 March 2012, KIDS Records Adam Stafford, Shot-down You Summer Wannabes, Fire & Theft, released 22 August 2011, Wise Blood Industries Futuristic Retro Champions, May The Forth and Lemonade, released 4 April 2011, Everything Flows Japanese War Effort, The Japanese War Effort/Fox Gut Daata/Miaoux Miaoux/Wounded Knee Split EP, released 6 December 2010, Gerry Loves Records Zoey Van Goey, Song to the Embers, Foxtrot Vandals, released 15 October 2007, Zoey Van Goey Soundcloud Page Twitter Page Facebook Page Chemikal Underground Records National Theatre of Scotland Maple Leaves Bandcamp
Band (rock and pop)
A rock band or pop band is a small musical ensemble which performs rock music, pop music or a related genre. The four-piece band is the most common configuration in pop music. Before the development of the electronic keyboard, the configuration was two guitarists, a bassist, a drummer. Another common formation is a vocalist who does not play an instrument, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, a drummer. Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing; some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble, the Jam, ZZ Top, Green Day, while power trios with the bass guitarist on lead vocals include Cream, The Police and Motörhead.
Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. Two-member rock and pop bands omit one of these musical elements. In many cases, two-member bands will omit a drummer, since guitars, bass guitars, keyboards can all be used to provide a rhythmic pulse. Examples of two-member bands are The White Stripes, Pet Shop Boys, Flight of the Conchords, the Ting Tings, Hall & Oates, Twenty One Pilots and T. Rex; when electronic sequencers became available in the 1980s, this made it easier for two-member bands to add in musical elements that the two band members were not able to perform. Sequencers allowed bands to pre-program some elements of their performance, such as an electronic drum part and a synth bass line. Two-member pop music bands such as Soft Cell and Yazoo used pre-programmed sequencers. Other pop bands from the 1980s which were ostensibly fronted by two performers, such as Wham!, Eurythmics and Tears for Fears, were not two-piece ensembles, because other instrumental musicians were used "behind the scenes" to fill out the sound.
Modern bands that use this format include Ninja Sex Death Grips. Two-piece bands in rock music are quite rare. However, starting in the 2000s, blues-influenced rock bands such as the White Stripes and the Black Keys utilized a guitar-and-drums scheme. Death from Above 1979 featured a bass guitarist. Tenacious D is a two-guitar band. Ratatat are a two-guitar band. W. A. S. P. Guitarist Doug Blair is known for his work in the two-piece progressive rock band signal2noise, where he acts as the lead guitarist and bassist at the same time, thanks to a special custom instrument he invented. Heisenflei of Los Angeles duo the Pity Party plays drums and sings simultaneously. Royal Blood is a two-piece band that drums along with electronic effects; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing.
Some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are Campsite 85, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble and Muse. A handful of others with the bassist on vocals include Thin Lizzy, Rush, Motörhead, the Police and Cream; some power trios feature two lead vocalists. For example, in the band Blink-182 vocals are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Matt Skiba, or in the band Dinosaur Jr. guitarist J. Mascis is the primary songwriter and vocalist, but bassist Lou Barlow writes some songs and sings as well. An alternative to the power trio are organ trios formed with an electric guitarist, a drummer and a keyboardist. Although organ trios are most associated with 1950s and 1960s jazz organ trio groups such as those led by organist Jimmy Smith, there are organ trios in rock-oriented styles, such as jazz-rock fusion and Grateful Dead-influenced jam bands, for instance Medeski Martin & Wood. In organ trios, the keyboard player plays a Hammond organ or similar instrument, which permits the keyboard player to perform bass lines and lead lines.
A variant of the organ trio are trios formed with an electric bassist, a drummer and an electronic keyboardist such as the progressive rock band Emerson, Lake & Palmer. A power trio with the guitarist on lead vocals is a popular record company lineup, as the guitarist and singer will be the songwriter. Therefore, the label only has to present one "face" to the public; the backing band may or may not be featured in publici
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Seven Ages of Rock
Seven Ages of Rock is a BBC Two series, co-produced by BBC Worldwide and VH1 Classic in 2007 about the history of rock music. It comprised six 60-minute episodes, with a final episode of 90 minutes, was broadcast on Saturdays at 21:00; each episode focused on one type of rock music, each typified by two artists or bands. The series producer was William Naylor, the executive producer for the BBC was Michael Poole, a former editor of the 1990s BBC music and culture programme The Late Show; the production was based at BBC Bristol and each programme was narrated by Julian Rhind-Tutt on the BBC and Dennis Hopper on VH1 classic. The series included additional material broadcast on BBC radio and available on the BBC website; the series makes heavy use of archive material. These early performances of musicians are interspersed with interviews with various other musicians. Naylor could use interviews from various other music series he had made for the BBC, such as with David Bowie, not available for an interview this time.
In an interview about the series, Naylor says that he has noticed the time is ripe for a revival of rock because he sees a growing popularity of uncomfortable music and a somewhat arrogant attitude what rock needs. He claims the series says what needed to be said, that England made Jimi Hendrix, he states that rock music started on 24 September 1966 in London, when Jimi Hendrix went there. The series did receive some criticism from the press as it ignored rock and roll's contribution to the birth of rock. Neil McCormick, music critic for The Daily Telegraph said: "...popular music only gelled into what we now know as rock when Hendrix arrived in London in 1966."'. Jimi Hendrix grew up in Seattle in the 1950s. Whilst in the army he came under the influence of the electric blues of artists such as Howlin' Wolf, B. B. King and Muddy Waters. After he was discharged in 1962 he became involved in the chitlin' circuit, playing with figures such as Little Richard. Former Animals member, Eric Burdon, says Hendrix could not get off the ground in the US because black blues was not popular there.
Meanwhile, the English music scene was learning to play the blues from the US records they bought, with bands forming like The Rolling Stones, who began by copying American blues numbers. When they started to write their own songs they gave them a new direction. Whites playing the blues made it more acceptable to the white US audience reintroducing the style to America; when Hendrix moved to New York City he came under the influence of British blues music that of Jeff Beck of the Yardbirds and Eric Clapton, who had become famous with John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers. While living in Harlem he came under the influence of Bob Dylan, whose "Like a Rolling Stone" revolutionised rock. For Hendrix this inspired him to begin singing, having been self-conscious about his voice. Another English band, The Who, inspired him most. With a roughness and a high octane sound, they created the modern stage presence with the theatrics of destroying their equipment, such as playing the guitar by ramming it against the floor and speakers.
Jimi Hendrix came to London in late 1966 after having been discovered and invited by his future manager Chas Chandler of The Animals, on the sole condition that he would be introduced to his guitar heroes. He arrived at the height of swinging London with Cream being the most important band around. At one of their concerts, Hendrix asked; that was audacious, playing with'God', but he blew Clapton away, who went back stage and had a hard time lighting a cigarette because his hands were shaking too much. Stealing Cream's thunder, Chandler put together The Jimi Hendrix Experience, who became famous faster than any other rock band. However, despite his UK success, Hendrix was still ignored in his home country; this was to change. The Who played first, with an aggression never before seen in the U. S. A. Hendrix stunned the crowds further with his explosive sound and showmanship culminating in setting fire to his guitar. In 1966, The Beatles had taken refuge in the studio, transforming themselves from a pop band to psychedelic pioneers.
When Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was released in 1967, Hendrix covered it on one of the experience's next shows. Having seen the power of the studio album he went on to create Electric Ladyland. However, it led to Hendrix becoming more involved in drugs and Chas Chandler leaving as manager. By 1968, America and Europe were being torn apart by conflict at abroad; the Rolling Stones tapped into these feelings with a new creative zeal. However, their performance at Altamont became one of the most violent days in rock history, after a member of Hells Angels killed Meredith Hunter, a drugged member of the audience, who drew a revolver from his jacket during the Stones' set; the Altamont festival was meant to mirror the Woodstock Festival, where Hendrix delivered a searing version of the Star-Spangled Banner, which many saw as a political statement against the Vietnam War. However, Hendrix began to tire of stage performance and at the Isle of Wight festival in 1970 he gave a lacklustre performance.
In September he died of an accidental overdose. Along with the deaths of Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin and the breaking up of The Beatles, this brought this age of rock to a close; the broadcast of the VH1 episode is differently structured and features several different songs, interview
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce