A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets are developed as computerized simulations of paper accounting worksheets, the program operates on data entered in cells of a table. Each cell may contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate, a spreadsheet may refer to one such electronic document. Spreadsheet users can adjust any stored value and observe the effects on calculated values and this makes the spreadsheet useful for what-if analysis since many cases can be rapidly investigated without manual recalculation. Modern spreadsheet software can have multiple interacting sheets, and can display either as text and numerals. Besides performing basic arithmetic and mathematical functions, modern spreadsheets provide built-in functions for financial and statistical operations. Such calculations as net present value or standard deviation can be applied to data with a pre-programmed function in a formula.
Spreadsheet programs provide conditional expressions, functions to convert between text and numbers, and functions operate on strings of text. Spreadsheets have replaced paper-based systems throughout the business world, although they were first developed for accounting or bookkeeping tasks, they now are used extensively in any context where tabular lists are built and shared. LANPAR, available in 1969, was the first electronic spreadsheet on mainframe and time sharing computers, LANPAR was an acronym, LANguage for Programming Arrays at Random. VisiCalc was the first electronic spreadsheet on a microcomputer, and it helped turn the Apple II computer into a popular, Lotus 1-2-3 was the leading spreadsheet when DOS was the dominant operating system. Excel now has the largest market share on the Windows and Macintosh platforms, a spreadsheet program is a standard feature of an office productivity suite, since the advent of web apps, office suites now exist in web app form. A spreadsheet consists of a table of cells arranged into rows and columns, X locations, the columns, are normally represented by letters, A, B, C, etc. while rows are normally represented by numbers,1,2,3, etc.
A single cell can be referred to by addressing its row and column and this electronic concept of cell references was first introduced in LANPAR and a variant used in VisiCalc, and known as A1 notation. Additionally, spreadsheets have the concept of a range, a group of cells, for instance, one can refer to the first ten cells in the first column with the range A1, A10. LANPAR innovated forward referencing/natural order calculation which didnt re-appear until Lotus 123, in modern spreadsheet applications, several spreadsheets, often known as worksheets or simply sheets, are gathered together to form a workbook. A workbook is physically represented by a file, containing all the data for the book, the sheets, worksheets are normally represented by tabs that flip between pages, each one containing one of the sheets, although Numbers changes this model significantly. Cells in a multi-sheet book add the name to their reference, for instance
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has influenced many aspects of real estate development, urban planning. These ideas can all be circled back to two concepts, building a sense of community and the development of ecological practices, the organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in 1993. They believe their strategies can reduce congestion by encouraging the population to ride bikes, walk. They hope that this set up will increase the supply of affordable housing, the Charter of the New Urbanism covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the re-development of brownfield land. The ten Principles of Intelligent Urbanism phrase guidelines for new urbanist approaches, new urbanist developments are often accompanied by New Classical, postmodern, or vernacular styles, although that is not always the case.
Until the mid 20th century, cities were generally organized into, but with the advent of cheap automobiles and favorable government policies, attention began to shift away from cities and towards ways of growth more focused on the needs of the car. This new system of development, with its rigorous separation of uses, arose after World War II, the majority of U. S. citizens now live in suburban communities built in the last fifty years, and automobile use per capita has soared. Although New Urbanism as a movement would only arise later. Social philosopher and historian Lewis Mumford criticized the development of post-war America. The French architect François Spoerry has developed in the 60s the concept of architecture that he applied to Port Grimaud. The success of project had a considerable influence and led to many new projects of soft architecture like Port Liberté in New Jersey or Le Plessis Robisson in France. The term new urbanism itself started being used in context in the mid-1980s. Named the Ahwahnee Principles, the presented the principles to about one hundred government officials in the fall of 1991.
Calthorpe, Moule, Plater-Zyberk and Solomon founded the Chicago-based Congress for the New Urbanism in 1993, the CNU has grown to more than three thousand members, and is the leading international organization promoting New Urbanist design principles. It holds annual Congresses in various U. S. cities, the Canons are a set of operating principles for human settlement that reestablish the relationship between the art of building, the making of community, and the conservation of our natural world. They promote the use of heating and cooling solutions, the use of locally obtained materials, and in general. New Urbanism is a movement that spans a number of different disciplines
Public transport modes include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail, high-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport runs to a timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. Share taxis offer services in many parts of the world. Paratransit is sometimes used in areas of low demand and for people who need a door-to-door service, there are distinct differences in urban public transit between Asia, North America, and Europe. In Asia, mass transit operations are run by profit-driven privately owned and publicly traded mass transit. In North America, mass transit operations are run by municipal transit authorities. In Europe, mass transit operations are run by both state-owned and private companies. Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger.
Services can be profitable through high ridership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated. Fully subsidized, zero-fare services operate in some towns and cities, for geographical and economic reasons, there are differences internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries, conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, and the earliest public transport was water transport, on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades, the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger railway opened in 1806, it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the usability of different types of public transport, and its overall appeal, can be measured by seven criteria, although they overlap somewhat.
These are speed, safety, proximity, speed is calculated from total journey time including transfers. Proximity means how far passengers have to walk or otherwise travel before they can begin the public transport leg of their journey, timeliness is how long they have to wait for the vehicle. Directness records how far a journey using public transport deviates from the shortest route, an airline provides scheduled service with aircraft between airports
Walkability is a measure of how friendly an area is to walking. Walkability has health and economic benefits, Walkability is an important concept in sustainable urban design. One proposed definition for walkability is, The extent to which the environment is friendly to the presence of people living, visiting, enjoying or spending time in an area. Walkability is examined based on the built environment. Reid Ewing and Robert Cerveros five Ds of the environment, diversity, destination accessibility. Combinations of these influence a individuals decision to walk. Before cars and bicycles were mass-produced, walking was the way to travel. It was the way to get from place to place for much of human history. In the 1930s, economic growth led to increased automobile manufacturing, cars were becoming more affordable, leading to the rise of the automobile during the Post–World War II economic expansion. The detrimental effects of automobile emissions soon led to concern over pollution. Alternatives, including improved public transportation and walking infrastructure, have attracted attention from planners and policymakers.
Walkability indices have been found to correlate with both Body Mass Index and physical activity of local populations, physical activity can prevent chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity and osteoporosis. A further justification for walkability is founded upon evolutionary and philosophical grounds, after millennia of human development firmly based upon gait, the modern city has separated walking from thinking. Because there are cars, less walking is detracting from human progress. One of most important benefits of walkability is the decrease of the footprint in the community. Carbon emissions can be reduced if more people choose to walk rather than drive or use public transportation, the benefits of less emissions include improved health conditions and quality of life, less smog, and less of a contribution to global climate change. The benefits of walkability are best guaranteed if the system of public corridors is walkable - not limited to certain specialized routes.
More sidewalks and increased walkability can promote tourism and increase property value, in recent years, the demand for housing in a walkable urban context has increased
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States and the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 684,451 residents as of 2015, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. In July 2013, it was the major city in the United States. The city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border, a major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015. The Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named Seattle in 1852, after Chief Siahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Logging was Seattles first major industry, but by the late-19th century, growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing.
The Seattle area developed as a technology center beginning in the 1980s, in 1994, Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle. The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District, to the Central District, the jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock subgenre grunge, archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay, the first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River.
Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party, members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28,1851. The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, after a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, david Swinson Doc Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Sealth of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name Seattle appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23,1853, in 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14,1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of managing the city
Permeability (spatial and transport planning)
Permeability or connectivity describes the extent to which urban forms permit movement of people or vehicles in different directions. The terms are used interchangeably, although differentiated definitions exist. Permeability is generally considered an attribute of an urban design, as it permits ease of movement. Urban forms which lack permeability, e. g. those severed by arterial roads, or with many long culs-de-sac, are considered to discourage movement on foot, there is some empirical research evidence to support this view. Permeability is a principle of New Urbanism, which favours urban designs based upon the ‘traditional’ street grid. New Urbanist thinking has influenced Government policy in the United Kingdom, connected or ‘permeable’ networks encourage walking and cycling and make places easier to navigate through. There are two principal reservations concerning permeability, the first relates to property crime. Although the issue is contested, there is some evidence to suggest that permeability may be positively correlated with crimes such as burglary.
New research has expanded the discussion on this disputed issue, a recent study did extensive spatial analysis and correlated several building, site plan and social factors with crime frequencies and identified nuances to the contrasting positions. The study looked at, among others, a) dwelling types, b) unit density c) movement on the street, d) culs–de-sac or grids and it re-established that simple, linear culs-de-sac with good numbers of dwellings that are joined to through streets tend to be safe. As for permeability, it suggests that areas should be permeable enough to allow movement in all directions. The over-provision of poorly used permeability is a crime hazard, the second reservation concerns the effects of permeability for private motor vehicles. Melia proposed the terms unfiltered permeability and filtered permeability to distinguish between the two approaches, the principal advantage claimed for this approach is that it leads to a more even spread of motor traffic throughout the area and so avoids the need for distributor roads.
There are a range of arguments advanced by the proponents of Shared space that where speeds are low, filtered permeability is the concept, supported by organisations such as Sustrans, that networks for walking and cycling should be more permeable than the road network for motor vehicles. This, it is argued will encourage walking and cycling by giving them an attractive environment free from traffic. This is the case in some Dutch towns such as Drachten, a study conducted in Washington State found that the fused grid was associated with significantly higher levels of walking than the other two alternatives. It showed a 7 to 10 percent range of reduction in driving with respect to the remainder six neighbourhood layouts in the set, stephen Marshall has sought to differentiate the concepts of connectivity and permeability. This omission is often the result of unavailability of data for connectors that do not appear on maps, the potential effect of connectors that are accessible only to pedestrians and bicycles on mode choice and extent of travel is missed
Cycling, called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. Persons engaged in cycling are referred to as cyclists, bikers, or less commonly, apart from two-wheeled bicycles, cycling includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now approximately one billion worldwide. They are the means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is widely regarded as an effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fuels, less air or noise pollution. These lead to financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can significantly increase the areas they can serve, in many countries, the most commonly used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle. These have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road, utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis.
As the bicycle is so effective as a means of various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles. Certain countries rely heavily on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita, road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly. The design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles, the price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate a legal race bike cannot weigh less than 6.8 kg, being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying. The drivetrain components of the bike should be considered, a middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears.
If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred, the relatively lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available, many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a repair kit, a spare inner tube, and tire levers
Geographic information system
A geographic information system is a system designed to capture, manipulate, analyze and present spatial or geographic data. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries, in general, the term describes any information system that integrates, edits, analyzes and displays geographic information. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts and systems. GIS is a term that can refer to a number of different technologies, processes. It is attached to operations and has many applications related to engineering, management, transport/logistics, telecommunications. For that reason, GIS and location intelligence applications can be the foundation for many location-enabled services that rely on analysis, GIS can relate unrelated information by using location as the key index variable. Locations or extents in the Earth space–time may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence, and x, y, and z coordinates representing, latitude, all Earth-based spatial–temporal location and extent references should be relatable to one another and ultimately to a real physical location or extent.
This key characteristic of GIS has begun to open new avenues of scientific inquiry, the first known use of the term geographic information system was by Roger Tomlinson in the year 1968 in his paper A Geographic Information System for Regional Planning. Tomlinson is acknowledged as the father of GIS, one of the first applications of spatial analysis in epidemiology is the 1832 Rapport sur la marche et les effets du choléra dans Paris et le département de la Seine. The French geographer Charles Picquet represented the 48 districts of the city of Paris by halftone color gradient according to the number of deaths by cholera per 1,000 inhabitants and this was one of the earliest successful uses of a geographic methodology in epidemiology. The early 20th century saw the development of photozincography, which allowed maps to be split into layers, for one layer for vegetation. This work was drawn on glass plates but plastic film was introduced, with the advantages of being lighter, using less storage space and being less brittle.
When all the layers were finished, they were combined into one using a large process camera. Once color printing came in, the idea was used for creating separate printing plates for each color. Computer hardware development spurred by nuclear weapon research led to general-purpose computer mapping applications by the early 1960s, the year 1960 saw the development of the worlds first true operational GIS in Ottawa, Canada by the federal Department of Forestry and Rural Development. A rating classification factor was added to permit analysis. CGIS was an improvement over computer mapping applications as it provided capabilities for overlay, measurement and it supported a national coordinate system that spanned the continent, coded lines as arcs having a true embedded topology and it stored the attribute and locational information in separate files. As a result of this, Tomlinson has become known as the father of GIS, CGIS lasted into the 1990s and built a large digital land resource database in Canada
It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14,411 feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States. Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles and other equipment, food processing and metal products, chemicals. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, flood control, the Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The area was part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. The area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, Washington is the only U. S. state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U. S. capital, which is named for George Washington, Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State, or, in more formal contexts. Washingtonians and other residents of the Pacific Northwest refer to the state simply as Washington, calling the nations capital Washington, D. C. or, Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches in Pullman, the Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state
Bicycle-friendly policies and practices help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by bicycle with other traffic. The level of bicycle-friendliness of an environment can be influenced by many factors resulting from town planning and cycling infrastructure decisions, if urban form influences these issues and circular settlement patterns as in Elizabeth, NJ may promote cycling. Alternatively, the low-density, non-circular settlement patterns characteristic of urban sprawl as in nearby Downtown Newark tends to discourage cycling, in 1990, the Dutch adopted the ABC guidelines, specifically limiting developments that are major attractants to locations that are readily accessible by non-car users. The manner in which the roads network is designed, built. Settlements that provide a dense roads network consisting of interconnected streets tend to encourage cycling. A community’s infrastructure can affect its citizens’ health, especially in regard to obesity, cities that incorporate bicycle routes have a higher percentage of bicycle commuters.
Studies have shown even moderate increases in physical activity can have a substantial effect on health. Bicycling to work has shown to decrease mortality by as much as 40%. Bicycling is often used as an alternative to travel by car, when infrastructure is built to allow consumers to choose between automobile and other forms of travel, it reduces a communitys automobile dependency and allows for more efficient land usage. The British tourist board award holiday accommodation providers who are friendly with a Cycle Friendly award. Websites such as Beds for Cyclists allow you to search through these, after the League of American Bicyclists designated New Orleans as a Bicycle Friendly City in 2011, bike tour companies like French Quarter Bike Tours subsequently became popular
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day