William Charles Piguenit was an Australian landscape painter. Piguenit was born in Tasmania, to Frederick Le Geyt Piguenit and Mary Ann née Igglesden. Frederick had been transported to Van Diemen's Land in 1830, with Frederick's fiancee, Mary Ann, following him, they married in Hobart in 1833 William’s first artistic influences came from his mother, who set up a school for young ladies where she taught "French and drawing". In 1850 William became a draftsman with the Tasmanian Lands & Survey Department, working in particular on the Geological Survey of Tasmania. During this period of employment Piguenit provided lithographic illustrations for The Salmon Ponds and vicinity, New Norfolk, Tasmania, he took painting lessons from the Scottish painter Frank Dunnett but until he got a good price for a painting from Sir James Agnew, he had little success as a painter. Piguenit left the public service in 1873 to devote his time more to painting and his oils and watercolours of Tasmanian landscapes soon brought favourable reviews.
He was a participant in the venture to the western part of Tasmania – as found in the book Walk to the West. After moving to NSW in 1880 Piguenit's subjects included the Darling and Hawkesbury Rivers as well as the Lane Cove River close to his Hunters Hill home, it was at this time that he became one of the founders of the Art Society of New South Wales. During a visit to Tasmania he was noticed by the governor's wife, Lady Hamilton and a large number of his drawings were purchased by the government for the Hobart gallery, his Flood in the Darling was purchased for the National Art Gallery of New South Wales in 1895. In 1898 and 1900 he visited Europe, exhibiting at Paris. Returning to Australia he won the Wynne Prize in 1901 with his Thunder storm on the Darling in 1903 he was commissioned by the National Art Gallery of New South Wales trustees to paint Mount Kosciusko. By the end of the century he was regarded as the leading Australian-born landscape painter. Piguenit was buried in the Field of Mars cemetery.
Inscription on headstone: IN LOVING MEMORY OF WILLIAM CHARLES PIGUENIT DIED 17th JULY 1914. "UNTO THE UPRIGHT THERE ARISETH LIGHT IN THE DARKNESS" Art Gallery of New South Wales Art Gallery of South Australia An Australian fjord, n.d. Geelong Art Gallery National Gallery of Australia Hell's Gates, Davey River, Tasmania, 1871 Near Liverpool, New South Wales, c.1908 On the Nepean, New South Wales, n.d. National Library of Australia Mt. Olympus, Lake St. Clair, Tasmania, 1878 On the Craycroft, Tasmania, 1878 Tasmanian landscape, c. 1880 Mount King William from Lake George, Tasmania, 1887State Library of Tasmania On the Derwent, n.d. In the Grose Valley, 1887 Lane Cove from below the Bridge, near Sydney N. S. Wales, n.d. Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery The Tower of Strength, c. 1900 Visual arts of Australia French Australian Diary, 1871, 1873, 1875, State Library of QueenslandAccount of trips from Hobart Town to Port Davey 14 February 1871 – 9 March 1871, from Hobart Town to Lake St. Clair 8 Feb. 1873-10 Mar. 1873 and from Hobart Town to Queensland 13 September 1875 – 13 October 1875, including i.a. notes concerning sketches and landscape scenery.
WC Piguenit at the Art Gallery of New South Wales Serle, Percival. "Piguenit, William Charles". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Webberley, Helen. Tasmanian Geographic Vol 11, 2014
An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, may refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event is the initial occurrence or, the inaugural of the event. One year would be the first anniversary of that event; the word was first used for Catholic feasts to commemorate saints. Most countries celebrate national anniversaries called national days; these could be the date of independence of the nation or the adoption of a new constitution or form of government. The important dates in a sitting monarch's reign may be commemorated, an event referred to as a "jubilee". Birthdays are the most common type of anniversary, on which someone's birthdate is commemorated each year; the actual celebration is sometimes moved for practical reasons, as in the case of an official birthday. Wedding anniversaries are often celebrated, on the same day of the year as the wedding occurred. Death anniversary; the Latin phrase dies natalis has become a common term, adopted in many languages in intellectual and institutional circles, for the anniversary of the founding of an institution, such as an alma mater.
In ancient Rome, the Aquilae natalis was the "birthday of the eagle", the anniversary of the official founding of a legion. Anniversaries of nations are marked by the number of years elapsed, expressed with Latin words or Roman numerals. Latin terms for anniversaries are straightforward those relating to the first twenty years, or multiples of ten years, or multiples of centuries or millennia In these instances, the name of the anniversary is derived from the Latin word for the respective number of years. However, when anniversaries relate to fractions of centuries, the situation is not as simple. Roman fractions were based on a duodecimal system. From 1⁄12 to 8⁄12 they were expressed as multiples of twelfths and from 9⁄12 to 11⁄12 they were expressed as multiple twelfths less than the next whole unit—i.e. A whole unit less 3⁄12, 2⁄12 or 1⁄12 respectively. There were special terms for quarter and three-quarters. Dodrans is a Latin contraction of de-quadrans which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (de means "from".
Thus for the example of 175 years, the term is a quarter century less than the next whole century or 175 =. In Latin, it seems that this rule did not apply for 1½. While secundus is Latin for "second", bis for "twice", these terms are not used such as in sesqui-secundus. Instead sesqui is used by itself. Many anniversaries have special names. Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home by Emily Post, published in 1922, contained suggestions for wedding anniversary gifts for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 years. Wedding anniversary gift suggestions for other years were added in editions and publications. Speaking, the longer the period, the more precious or durable the material associated with it. See wedding anniversary for a general list of the wedding anniversary symbols. Furthermore, there exist numerous overlapping contradictory lists of anniversary gifts, separate from the'traditional' names; the concepts of a person's birthday stone and zodiac stone, by contrast, are fixed for life according to the day of the week, month, or astrological sign corresponding to the recipient's birthday.
List of historical anniversaries Quinquennial Neronia Wedding anniversary
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Lake St. Clair
Lake St. Clair is a freshwater lake that lies between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. state of Michigan. It was named after Clare of Assisi, on whose feast day it was navigated and christened by French Catholic explorers in 1679, it is part of the Great Lakes system, along with the St. Clair River and Detroit River, Lake St. Clair connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie, it has a total surface area of an average depth of just 11 feet. This lake is situated about six miles northeast of the downtown areas of Detroit and Windsor, Ontario. Along with the St. Clair River and Detroit River, Lake St. Clair connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie. Lake St. Clair measures about 22.5 nautical miles from north to south and about 21 nautical miles from east to west. Its total surface area is about 430 square miles; this is a rather shallow lake for its size, with an average depth of about 11 feet, a maximum natural depth of 21.3 feet. However, it is 27 feet deep in the navigation channel, dredged for lake freighter passage by the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers; the lake is fed by the St. Clair River, which flows to the south from Lake Huron and has an extensive river delta where it enters Lake St. Clair; this is the largest delta of the Great Lakes System. Other rivers which feed Lake St. Clair are the Thames River and Sydenham River which originate in Southwestern Ontario, the Clinton River which originates in Michigan; the outflow from Lake St. Clair travels from its southwestern end into the Detroit River, into Lake Erie; the tarry time of the water in Lake St. Clair averages about seven days, but this can vary from as little as two to as many as thirty days, depending on the direction of the winds, the water circulation patterns, the amount of water, flowing out of Lake Huron. For water flowing through the navigation channel, the time period is only about two days. Lake St. Clair is 17 times smaller in area than Lake Ontario, it is included in the list of "Great Lakes" but is sometimes referred to as "the sixth Great Lake."
There have been isolated proposals for its official recognition as a Great Lake, which might enable it to attract public funding designated to the Great Lakes for scientific research and other projects. First Nations/Native Americans used the lake as part of their extensive navigation of the Great Lakes; the Mississaugas called present-day Lake St. Clair Waawiyaataan, meaning " the whirlpool", the Wea tribe's name derived from the lake's Miami cognate Waayaahtanonki; the Mississaugas established a village near the lake in the latter part of the 17th century. Early French mapmakers had identified the lake by a variety of French and Iroquois names, including Lac des Eaux de Mer. A variety of Native names were associated with sweetness, as the lake was freshwater as opposed to saltwater; these included Otsiketa, Kandequio or Kandekio and Oiatinonchikebo. The Iroquois called present-day Lake Huron, "The Grand Lake of the Sweet Sea" This association was conveyed on French maps as Mer Douce and Dutch maps as the Latin Mare Dulce.
On August 12, 1679, the French explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle arrived with an expedition. He named the body of water Lac Sainte-Claire as the expedition discovered it on the feast day of Saint Clare of Assisi; the historian on the voyage, Louis Hennepin, recorded. As early as 1710, the English identified the lake on their maps as Saint Clare. By the Mitchell Map in 1755, the spelling appeared as St. Clair, the form that became most used; some scholars credit the name as honoring the American Revolutionary War General Arthur St. Clair Governor of the Northwest Territory, but the name Lake St. Clair was in use with the current spelling long before St. Clair became a notable figure. Together the place name and general's name influenced settlers' naming a proliferation of nearby political jurisdictions: the Michigan county and township of St. Clair, as well as the cities of St. Clair and St. Clair Shores; the origin of the name has been confused with one Patrick Sinclair, a British officer who purchased land on the St. Clair River at the outlet of the Pine River.
There, in 1764, he built Fort Sinclair, in use for nearly twenty years before being abandoned. Unlike most smaller lakes in the region—but like the Great Lakes—Lake comes at the front of its proper name, rather than the end. Lake St Clair's location, downstream from the largest freshwater delta in the Great Lakes, has a large effect on its turbidity. Current water quality is quite good despite past incidents and a history of chemical bio-accumulation. A number of cities source drinking water from or just downstream of the lake and quality is monitored. In the early 1970s, the Canadian and American governments closed the commercial fishery over concerns of bio-accumulation of mercury; the industry responsible for this contamination was the Dow Chemical Chlor-Alkali Plant in Sarnia, Ontario. Since 1949, Dow Chemical had been operating mercury cell plants for the production of chlorine and other chemicals
Mount Olympus (Tasmania)
Mount Olympus is a mountain in the Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park in Tasmania, Australia. It is the 24th highest mountain in Tasmania at 1,472 metres above sea level and is situated about 8 kilometres South-East of Mount Gould and about 4 kilometres west of Lake St. Clair. In 1835 George Frankland named it Mount Olympus. Mount Olympus was painted by William Charles Piguenit, it was purchased by the Art Gallery of New South Wales in 1875 and was the Gallery's first oil painting acquisition, "the first Australian work purchased by public subscription", the first work acquired by the gallery of an Australian-born artist. Another of Piguenit's Olympus paintings is held by the National Library of Australia. Nothofagus gunnii was first collected by Ronald Campbell Gunn in 1847 from Olympus, it is "Australia's only cold climate winter-deciduous tree", is found in areas above 800 metres with rainfall of more than 1800mm, is one of the plants that indicates Gondwana. List of highest mountains of Tasmania List of mountains in Australia
Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of 225,000, it is the least populated Australian state capital city, second smallest if territories are taken into account. Founded in 1804 as a British penal colony, Hobart known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. Prior to British settlement, the Hobart area had been occupied for as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe; the descendants of these Aboriginal Tasmanians refer to themselves as'Palawa'. Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has expanded from the mouth of Sullivans Cove in a north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater. Penal transportation ended in the 1850s, after which the city experienced periods of growth and decline.
The early 20th century saw an economic boom on the back of mining and other primary industries, the loss of men who served in the world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration. Despite the rise in migration from Asia and other non-English speaking parts of the world, Hobart's population remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic, has the highest percentage of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities. In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462; the city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world, its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre kunanyi/Mount Wellington, much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land. It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.
The metropolitan area is referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city. The first European settlement began in 1803 as a military camp at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804, along with the military and convicts from the abandoned Port Phillip settlement, the camp at Risdon Cove was moved by Captain David Collins to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivans Cove; the city known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the British secretary of state for war and the colonies. The area's indigenous inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe. Violent conflict with the European settlers, the effects of diseases brought by them reduced the aboriginal population, replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition.
He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:... The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared. I was chiefly built or building. Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, the whole of Tasmania 36,505; the Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Ocean whaling and sealing trades. The settlement grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding. Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, was renamed Hobart from the beginning of 1881. Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent River in the state's south-east. Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian mudstone. Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent River. Both of these areas rest on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the south, in the Derwent estuary.
South of the Derwent estuary lies the Tasman Peninsula. The Eastern Shore extends from the Derwent valley area in a southerly direction hugging the Meehan Range in the east before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive; these flatter areas of the eastern shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Range into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdale. Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent estuary itself. Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate; the highest temperature recorded was 41.8 °C on 4 January 2013 and the lowest was −2.8 °C on 25 June 1972 and 11 July 1981. Annually, Hobart receives 40.8 clear days. Compared to other major Australian cities, Hobart has the fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day. However, during the summer it has the most