Turtles are a class of educational robots designed in the late 1940s and used in computer science and mechanical engineering training. These devices are traditionally built low to the ground with a hemispheric shell and a power train capable of a small turning radius; the robots are equipped with sensor devices which aid in avoiding obstacles and, if the robot is sufficiently sophisticated, allow it some perception of its environment. Turtle robots are common projects for robotics hobbyists. Turtle robots are associated with the work of Seymour Papert and the common use of the Logo programming language in computer education of the 1980s. Turtles designed for use with Logo systems come with pen mechanisms allowing the programmer to create a design on a large sheet of paper; the original Logo turtle, built by Paul Wexelblat at BBN, was named "Irving" and was demonstrated at the former Muzzey Junior High in Lexington, Massachusetts. "Irving" could give audio feedback with a bell. The development of the robotic Logo turtle led to the use of the term to describe the cursor in video screen implementations of the language and its turtle graphics package.
Root Robotics, LOGO inspired turtle-like robot performing the original functionality of the "Irving" robot but a smaller scale that drives on the classroom whiteboard. BEAM robotics, the branch of robotics pioneered in part by William Grey Walter, specializing in autonomous devices using simple analog control systems iRobot Create and its predecessor Roomba, turtle-like robots designed for domestic use Player Project, a free robotics suite. Curses, an interactive fiction game by Graham Nelson that includes a voice-operated turtle in one of its more difficult puzzles Unicycle cart, for a mathematical model of the dynamics of a turtle robot Butiá robot, turns xo computer in a logo controlled robot Robot Turtles, the board game that teaches programming to 4 to 8 yr olds Littlecodr, a card game to help kids from 4 yrs on learn the building blocks of writing code, where players replace the turtle. LogoTurtle, a 3D breadboard electronics floor turtle for hobbyist construction; the Story of Turtle Robots in Pictures.
Articles about Turtle and Roamer robots. Photo gallery of Walter's original turtles and a Lego-based replica Pictures and information about early UK analog turtle designs from the Bristol Robotics Laboratory A Logo Primer or Whats with the Turtles Logo Foundation
Mark W. Tilden is a robotics physicist who produces complex robotic movements from simple analog logic circuits with discrete electronic components, without a microprocessor, he is controversial because of his libertarian Tilden's Laws of Robotics, is known for his invention of BEAM robotics and the WowWee Robosapien humanoid robot. Born in the UK in 1961, raised in Canada, Tilden started at the University of Waterloo moved on to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he developed simple robots such as the SATbot which instinctively aligned itself to the magnetic field of the earth, de-mining insectoids, "Nervous Network" theory and applications, interplanetary explorers, behavioral research into many solar-powered "Living Machines" of his own design. Tilden referred to his early robots as "wimpy" for the results of their programming using Isaac Asimov's Three Rules of Robotics, he accordingly promulgated another set of three rules for what he called "wild" robots survivalists. Having left government service and moved to Hong Kong, Tilden works as a freelance robotics designer and lecturer.
His commercial products are marketed through WowWee Toys. Biomorphic robot-based items include B. I. O. Bugs, Constructobots, G. I Joe Hoverstrike, RoboSapien, Robosapien v2, Robopet, Roboreptile, RS Media, Roboboa, the humanform Femisapien and the Roomscooper floor-cleaning robot. Tilden and his robots have been featured on several television specials, such as "Robots Rising", "The Shape of Life", "TechnoSpy", "Extreme Machines - Incredible Robots", "The Science behind Star Wars", as well as many magazines, newspaper publications and books. A comprehensive article on Tilden by Thomas Marsh is viewable online through the "Robot" Magazine website. Tilden was a technical consultant for the robot scenes in the 2001 movie Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, his robots are continuous background props in the TV series The Big Bang Theory. Movies which feature his robots in prominent roles include The 40 Year Old Virgin, Paul Blart Mall Cop and X-Men: The Last Stand. Tilden appeared in the 2016 documentary film Machine of Human Dreams, which showed the work of several prominent technologists based in Hong Kong.
Behavior based robotics Robot EvoSapien - A website dedicated on Hacking the Robosapien Robot, lots of mods, useful information, codings, videos, including the new line of Mark Tilden Robots. EvoRaptor A Website dedicated to the Roboraptor, videos, videos and lots more. Created 2005 by M. W Tilden and Wow hacked by fans and the Maker community. RoboCommunity - The official WowWee Robotics user community detailing hacks and how-it-was-made pictorial articles on Mark's robots. Superstreng Podcast- A September 2006 podcast interview with Mark Tilden, conducted by Eirik Newth for Norwegian science radio show Superstreng. Robotsrule - Detailed information site on many commercially available entertainment robots. Solarbotics - On-line store for parts, plans and history of BEAM robotics. BEAM Discussion Group - Active on-line discussion group of BEAM robots, builders and history. "Robot" Magazine - Detailed article on Mark Tilden's history and robotics approach, with images. Discover Magazine - Article about Mark Tilden
Stiquito is a small, inexpensive hexapod robot used by universities, high schools, hobbyists, since 1992. Stiquito's "muscles" are made of nitinol, a shape memory alloy that expands and contracts emulating the operation of a muscle; the application of heat causes a crystalline structure change in the wire. Nitinol contracts when heated and returns to its original size and shape when cooled. Stiquito was developed by Jonathan W. Mills of Indiana University as an inexpensive vehicle for his research, he soon found. It has been used to introduce students to the concepts of analogue electronics, digital electronics, computer control, robotics, it has been used for advanced topics such as subsumption architectures, artificial intelligence, advanced computer architecture. These books contain instructions for building the Stiquito robot, instructions for designing and building control circuits, examples of student projects that use Stiquito. Most the books contain all the supplies needed to build the robot.
James M. Conrad and Jonathan W. Mills. Stiquito: Advanced Experiments with a Simple and Inexpensive Robot. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-7408-3; this first book contains chapters written by the co-author, their students, other roboticists. These chapters describe the Stiquito Robots, their applications, examples of Stiquito's robot cousins. Of note is a chapter by well known robot inventor Mark Tilden; the kit included inside the book is the original Stiquito robot. James M. Conrad and Jonathan W. Mills. Stiquito for Beginners: An Introduction to Robotics. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-7514-4; this second book has more of an educational bent. It includes experiments with electricity and nitinol, it has several examples of computer/microcontroller control of the Stiquito Robot. The kit included inside the book is the original Stiquito robot. James M. Conrad. Stiquito Controlled! Making a Truly Autonomous Robot. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.
ISBN 0-471-48882-8. This third book includes more educational material on Stiquito Computer/microcontroller control of the Stiquito Robot; the kit included inside the book is the TI MSP430-based controller board and the Stiquito robot, “Stiquito Controlled”. The first book was compiled from material written between 1991 and 1996; the chapter has more of a "research" feel since it shows the base robot and slight variations and applications of it. The second book was compiled from materials written for education, it includes instructions of control using supplemental kits. The third book is educationally-based, it is a slight departure from the first two books because the third book are centered around a microcontroller board and its leg actuation electronics. Stiquito home page Audio interview with James Conrad about the history of Stiquito Robots Podcast 8 August 2014
A walking vehicle is a vehicle that moves on legs rather than wheels or tracks. Walking vehicles have been constructed with anywhere from one to more than eight legs, they are classified according to the number of legs with common configurations being one leg, two legs, four legs, six legs. There are a few prototypes of walking vehicles. All of these are experimental or proof of concept, as such may never see mass production. While the mobility of walking vehicles is arguably higher than that of wheeled or tracked vehicles, their inherent complexity has limited their use to experimental vehicles. Examples of manned walking vehicles include General Electric's Walking truck, the University of Duisburg-Essen's ALDURO. Timberjack, a subsidiary of John Deere, built a practical hexapod Walking Forest Machine. One of the most sophisticated real-world walking vehicles is the Martin Montensano-built'Walking Beast', a 7-ton quadrapod experimental vehicle suspended by four hydraulic binary-configuration limbs with much greater dexterity.
Some walking machines such as the BigDog, an autonomous robot, have been designed for the potential military applications. The largest walking machine made is the Big Muskie dragline excavator, used in mining operations; the Dragon of Furth im Wald, a quadrupedal animatronic dragon created for a German festival, was recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the "World's biggest walking robot". It is operated by remote control rather than a pilot. Dutch artist Theo Jansen has created many walking machines called strandbeest that wander on Dutch beaches.. At the end of 2016, Korea Future Technology built a prototype of a robot called METHOD-1, that could qualify as a Mecha; the robot could walk, its driver could control the robot's arms individually
Nickel titanium known as Nitinol, is a metal alloy of nickel and titanium, where the two elements are present in equal atomic percentages e.g. Nitinol 55, Nitinol 60. Nitinol alloys exhibit two related and unique properties: shape memory effect and superelasticity. Shape memory is the ability of nitinol to undergo deformation at one temperature recover its original, undeformed shape upon heating above its "transformation temperature". Superelasticity occurs at a narrow temperature range just above its transformation temperature; the word Nitinol is derived from its composition and its place of discovery:. William J. Buehler along with Frederick Wang, discovered its properties during research at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in 1959. Buehler was attempting to make a better missile nose cone, which could resist fatigue and the force of impact. Having found that a 1:1 alloy of nickel and titanium could do the job, in 1961 he presented a sample at a laboratory management meeting; the sample, folded up like an accordion, was flexed by the participants.
One of them applied heat from his pipe lighter to the sample and, to everyone's surprise, the accordion-shaped strip contracted and took its previous shape. While the potential applications for nitinol were realized practical efforts to commercialize the alloy did not take place until a decade later; this delay was because of the extraordinary difficulty of melting and machining the alloy. These efforts encountered financial challenges that were not overcome until the 1980s, when these practical difficulties began to be resolved; the discovery of the shape-memory effect in general dates back to 1932, when Swedish chemist Arne Ölander first observed the property in gold-cadmium alloys. The same effect was observed in Cu-Zn in the early 1950s. Nitinol's unusual properties are derived from a reversible solid-state phase transformation known as a martensitic transformation, between two different martensite crystal phases, requiring 10,000–20,000 psi of mechanical stress. At high temperatures, nitinol assumes an interpenetrating simple cubic structure referred to as austenite.
At low temperatures, nitinol spontaneously transforms to a more complicated monoclinic crystal structure known as martensite. There are four transition temperatures associated to the austenite-to-martensite and martensite-to-austenite transformations. Starting from full austenite, martensite begins to form as the alloy is cooled to the so-called martensite start temperature, or Ms, the temperature at which the transformation is complete is called the martensite finish temperature, or Mf; when the alloy is martensite and is subjected to heating, austenite starts to form at the austenite start temperature, As, finishes at the austenite finish temperature, Af. The cooling/heating cycle shows thermal hysteresis; the hysteresis width depends on processing. Its typical value is a temperature range spanning about 20-50 K but it can be reduced or amplified by alloying and processing. Crucial to nitinol properties are two key aspects of this phase transformation. First is that the transformation is "reversible", meaning that heating above the transformation temperature will revert the crystal structure to the simpler austenite phase.
The second key point is. Martensite's crystal structure has the unique ability to undergo limited deformation in some ways without breaking atomic bonds; this type of deformation is known as twinning, which consists of the rearrangement of atomic planes without causing slip, or permanent deformation. It is able to undergo about 6–8% strain in this manner; when martensite is reverted to austenite by heating, the original austenitic structure is restored, regardless of whether the martensite phase was deformed. Thus the name "shape memory" refers to the fact that the shape of the high temperature austenite phase is "remembered," though the alloy is deformed at a lower temperature. A great deal of pressure can be produced by preventing the reversion of deformed martensite to austenite — from 35,000 psi to, in many cases, more than 100,000 psi. One of the reasons that nitinol works so hard to return to its original shape is that it is not just an ordinary metal alloy, but what is known as an intermetallic compound.
In an ordinary alloy, the constituents are randomly positioned in the crystal lattice. The fact that nitinol is an intermetallic is responsible for the complexity in fabricating devices made from the alloy; the scenario described above is known as the thermal shape memory effect. To fix the original "parent shape," the alloy must be held in position and heated to about 500 °C; this process is called shape setting. A second effect, called superelasticity or pseudoelasticity, is observed in nitinol; this effect is the direct result of the fact that martensite can be formed by applying a stress as well as by cooling. Thus in a certain temperature range, one can apply a stress to austenite, caus
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, others. Robotics deals with the design, construction and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing; these technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations and for lots of purposes, but today many are used in dangerous environments, manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance; this is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, speech and anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature; the concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow until the 20th century.
Throughout history, it has been assumed by various scholars, inventors and technicians that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a growing field, as technological advances continue. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is used in STEM as a teaching aid; the advent of nanorobots, microscopic robots that can be injected into the human body, could revolutionize medicine and human health. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design and operation of robots; this field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics and bioengineering. The word robotics was derived from the word robot, introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. U. R., published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota; the play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – similar to the modern ideas of androids.
Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround, where he introduced his concept of The Three Laws of Robotics. However, the original publication of "Liar!" Predates that of "Runaround" by ten months, so the former is cited as the word's origin. In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of the basis of practical robotics. Autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century; the first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply and more reliably, than humans. They are employed in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are used in manufacturing, assembly and packaging, transport and space exploration, weaponry, laboratory research and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods. There are many types of robots. For example, a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar tracks; the mechanical aspect is the creator's solution to completing the assigned task and dealing with the physics of the environment around it. Form follows function. Robots have electrical components. For example, the robot with caterpillar tracks would need some kind of power to move the tracker treads; that power comes in the form of electricity, which will have to travel through a wire and originate from a battery, a basic electrical circuit. Petrol powered machines that get their power from petrol still require an electric current to start the combustion process, why most petrol powered machines like cars, have batteries.
The electrical aspect of robots is used for movement and operation (robots need some level of electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to activate and perform b