DeKalb County, Alabama
DeKalb County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 71,109, its county seat is Fort Payne and it is named after Major General Baron Johan DeKalb. DeKalb County was created by the Alabama legislature on January 9, 1836, from land ceded to the Federal government by the Cherokee Nation, it was named for a hero of the American Revolution. DeKalb County was the one time home of the famous Cherokee Native American Sequoyah; the county's eastern edge, along the state line, was the epicenter of an earthquake on April 29, 2003, measuring 4.6 on the Richter scale. Power was knocked out in the area and pictures thrown to the floor, foundations cracked, one chimney fell to the ground, it was felt over a significant portion of the southeastern states, including quite in northeastern Alabama and neighboring northern Georgia, nearby eastern Tennessee. It was felt in western upstate South Carolina, far west-southwestern North Carolina and southeastern Kentucky, east-northeastern Mississippi.
On the whole, DeKalb County is a dry county. In 2005, a change in local laws enabled Fort Payne to become the only location in the county to allow the legal sale of alcohol. Collinsville allowed alcohol sales. DeKalb County saw one of the highest death tolls in Alabama during a massive tornadic system in April 2011, the 2011 Super Outbreak, with 31 deaths reported in the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 779 square miles, of which 777 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Jackson County - north Dade County, Georgia - northeast Walker County, Georgia - east Chattooga County, Georgia - east Cherokee County - southeast Etowah County - south Marshall County - west Little River Canyon National Preserve As of the census of 2010, there were 71,109 people, 26,842 households, 19,361 families residing in the county; the population density was 92 people per square mile. There were 31,109 housing units at an average density of 39.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84.5% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 9.9% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races.
13.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 64,452 people, 25,113 households, 18,432 families residing in the county; the population density was 83 people per square mile. There were 28,051 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.55% White, 1.68% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.10% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. 5.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in DeKalb County were English 78.31%, Scotch-Irish 8.29%, Scottish 3.33%, Irish 3.31%, Welsh 1.22%, African 1.68% Interstate 59 U. S. Route 11 State Route 35 State Route 40 State Route 68 State Route 75 State Route 117 State Route 176 State Route 227 Norfolk Southern Railway DeKalb County is Republican. Eighty-three percent of its voters supported Donald Trump in 2016, no Democrat has carried it since Southerner Jimmy Carter did so in 1976.
Populist appeal in the county during the period of “Redemption” meant that during the “Solid South” era DeKalb County sometimes supported victorious Republican presidential candidates, as it did during the three Republican landslides of the 1920s. Fort Payne Henagar Rainsville Battelle Bootsville Rawlingsville National Register of Historic Places listings in DeKalb County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in DeKalb County, Alabama Landmarks of DeKalb County DeKalb County History
Whitfield County, Georgia
Whitfield County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census shows a population of 102,599; the county seat is Dalton. The county was created on December 30, 1851. Whitfield County is part of the Dalton, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Chattanooga-Cleveland-Dalton, TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. During the Civil War, the men of Whitfield County answered the call to enlist in the Confederate Army; the following units were raised in Whitfield County. 2nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company H, Whitfield Infantry 2nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company H, Georgia Volunteers 34th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company A, Fitzgerald Rifles 36th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company B 36th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company C 36th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company G 36th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company H 36th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company I 39th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company C, Wells Guards 60th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company B, Fannin Guards 60th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company C, Walker Independents 60th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company D, Whitfield Volunteers 60th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E, Bartow Avengers 60th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company F, Gilmer Volunteers 1st Regiment Georgia State Guards, "Tunnel Hill Guards" Commanded by Captain Rev. Hamiliton Young "Dalton Machine Guards" Commanded by Captain James H. Bard Several engagements took place in and around Whitfield County including: Battle of Varnell's Station: May 9, 1864.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 291 square miles, of which 290 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. The majority of Whitfield County is located in the Conasauga River sub-basin in the ACT River Basin, with a part of the western edge of the county is located in the Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga sub-basin of the Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin. A small portion of the southern edge of the county is located in the Oostanaula River sub-basin in the larger ACT River Basin. Bradley County, Tennessee Murray County Gordon County Walker County Catoosa County Hamilton County, Tennessee Chattahoochee National Forest As of the 2000 Census, there were 29,385 households out of which 36.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 20.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.24. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,377, the median income for a family was $44,652. Males had a median income of $30,122 versus $23,709 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,515. About 8.60% of families and 11.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.70% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 102,599 people, 35,180 households, 26,090 families residing in the county; the population density was 353.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 39,899 housing units at an average density of 137.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 76.6% white, 3.7% black or African American, 1.3% Asian, 0.6% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 15.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 31.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 12.1% were American, 11.0% were Irish, 8.4% were English, 7.5% were German. Of the 35,180 households, 41.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families, 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.36. The median age was 34.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,345 and the median income for a family was $48,991. Males had a median income of $34,150 versus $27,315 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,780. About 15.6% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over.
Northwest Whitfield High School Southeast Whitfield High School Coahulla Creek High School Eastbrook Middle School New Hope Middle School North Whitfield Middle School Valley Point Middle School Westside Middle School Crossroads
Hamilton County, Tennessee
Hamilton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 336,463, making it the fourth-most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is Chattanooga. The county was named for the first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton County is part of TN-GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hamilton County was formed on October 25, 1819 from portions of Rhea County and Cherokee Nation land, it was named after Alexander Hamilton, an officer in the American Revolutionary War, member of the Continental Congress, the first US Secretary of Treasury, one of the founding fathers of the United States. Hamilton County was the site of an important saltpeter mine during the Civil War. Saltpeter was obtained by leaching the earth from caves. Lookout Mountain Cave was a major source of saltpeter during the Civil War; the mine was operated by Robert Cravens. In May 1861, Cravens contracted with the Tennessee Military and Financial Board to deliver 20,000 pounds of saltpeter.
On the 24th of the same month, he reported that he had ten hoppers set up in his cave. Cravens was mining Nickajack Cave in nearby Marion County. In 1862 he quit mining at Lookout Mountain Cave and rented the cave to the Confederate Nitre and Mining Bureau, which mined the cave from June 1862 through July 1863. Mining ceased when Chattanooga was occupied by Federal forces in 1863. In 1919 James County, Tennessee went bankrupt and became a part of Hamilton County in April 1919. James County had been established by the Tennessee General Assembly in January 1871 and was named after Reverend Jesse J. James. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 576 square miles, of which 542 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water. Hamilton County is one of the few counties in the United States to border 10 other counties. Raccoon Mountain Caverns is a show cave located 8 miles northwest of downtown Chattanooga, it was explored in 1929 by Leo Lambert who developed trails and installed lights and opened the cave to the public on June 28, 1931.
The cave was opened under the name Tennessee Caverns. The operators of the cave claim; the Crystal Caverns Cave Spider, Nesticus furtivus, is only known from this one cave. Cave guides will spot one of these rare spiders and point it out to the tourists. Ruby Falls Cave is a show cave located on the side of Lookout Mountain south of downtown Chattanooga, it was discovered by accident on December 28, 1928 when it was intersected by an elevator shaft, being drilled to develop Lookout Mountain Cave as a commercial cave. Ruby Falls Cave was intersected at a depth of 260 from the surface and Lookout Mountain Cave was reached at a depth of 420 feet below the surface; the entire project was the work of cave developer Leo Lambert. He named the new cave's waterfall after his wife Ruby; the lower cave, Lookout Mountain Cave, opened to the public on December 30, 1929. Ruby Falls opened to the public on June 16, 1930. Ruby Falls Cave, with its spectacular waterfall proved the more popular of the two caves and it is the only cave open to the public at the present time.
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Booker T. Washington State Park Chickamauga Wildlife Management Area Cumberland Trail Falling Water Falls State Natural Area Harrison Bay State Park North Chickamauga Creek State Natural Area I-24 I-75 US 11 US 27 US 41 US 64 US 72 US 74 US 76 US 127 SR 2 SR 17 SR 27 SR 58 SR 60 SR 111 SR 153 SR 307 SR 312 SR 317 SR 319 SR 320 SR 321 Hamilton County has a County Mayor and nine districts, each of which elect a Commissioner to serve on the county's legislative County Commission. Hamilton County has an elected Sheriff. Recent past sheriffs: Jerry Pitts 1976-78 H. Q. Evatt 1978-1994 John Cupp 1994-2006 Billy Long 2006-08 Jim Hammond 2008-current As of the census of 2000, there were 307,896 people, 124,444 households, 83,750 families residing in the county; the population density was 568 people per square mile. There were 134,692 housing units at an average density of 248 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.32% White, 20.14% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races.
1.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 124,444 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.20% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,930, the median income for a family was $48,037. Males had a median income of $35,413 versus $24,505 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,593.
About 9.20% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.80% of those under age 18 and 11.20% of those age 65 or over. Politically, Hamilton County is conservative. Along with
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
The Chickamauga Campaign of the American Civil War was a series of battles fought in northwestern Georgia from August 21 to September 20, 1863, between the Union Army of the Cumberland and Confederate Army of Tennessee. The campaign started for Union commander William S. Rosecrans, with the Union army occupying the vital city of Chattanooga and forcing the Confederates to retreat into northern Georgia, but a Confederate attack at the Battle of Chickamauga forced Rosecrans to retreat back into Chattanooga and allowed the Confederates to lay siege to the Union forces. In his successful Tullahoma Campaign in the summer of 1863, William S. Rosecrans moved southeast from Murfreesboro, outmaneuvering Braxton Bragg and forcing him to abandon Middle Tennessee and withdraw to the city of Chattanooga, suffering only 569 Union casualties along the way. Union general-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Rosecrans move to take Chattanooga. Seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and the heartland of the South.
Chattanooga was a vital rail hub, an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke, located on the navigable Tennessee River. Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, Stringer's Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position. Although Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee contained about 52,000 men at the end of July, the Confederate government merged the Department of East Tennessee, under Maj. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, into Bragg's Department of Tennessee, which added 17,800 men to Bragg's army, but extended his command responsibilities northward to the Knoxville area; this brought a third subordinate into Bragg's command who had little or no respect for the commanding general. Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee had made their animosity well known. Buckner's attitude was colored by Bragg's unsuccessful invasion of Buckner's native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger. A positive aspect for Bragg was Hardee's request to be transferred to Mississippi in July, but he was replaced by Lt. Gen. D.
H. Hill, a general who did not get along with Robert E. Lee in Virginia; the Confederate War Department asked Bragg in early August if he could assume the offensive against Rosecrans if he were given reinforcements from Mississippi. He demurred, concerned about daunting geographical obstacles and logistical challenges, preferring to wait for Rosecrans to solve those same problems and attack him, he was concerned about a sizable Union force under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, threatening Knoxville. Bragg withdrew his forces from advanced positions around Bridgeport, which left Rosecrans free to maneuver on the northern side of the Tennessee River, he concentrated his two infantry corps around Chattanooga and relied upon cavalry to cover his flanks, extending from northern Alabama to near Knoxville. Rosecrans ordered a brigade to shell Chattanooga from the western side of the Tennessee River and skirmish with the main Confederate force in the city to divert attention away from the flanking column sent southwest of the city.
Other Union units were deployed along the river to the east. The diversion was successful, with Bragg concentrating his army east of Chattanooga. After concluding that his position was untenable, Bragg abandoned the city on September 6 and retreated into northern Georgia. Bragg intended to attack General James S. Negley's isolated division of the Union XIV Corps, commanded by George H. Thomas, before Rosecrans could concentrate the rest of his army at that location, he ordered the divisions of Thomas Hindman and Patrick Cleburne to concentrate together and launch a joint attack under Hindman's command. Due to delays in conveying orders, Cleburne's division failed to arrive in time on the 10th, while Thomas reinforced the isolated division with the rest of his corps. After the two divisions were united the next day, they failed to launch a coordinated attack on Thomas' positions and were repulsed. Believing that Thomas L. Crittenden's XXI Corps was isolated from the rest of the Union army, Bragg ordered his army to concentrate near Lee's and Gordon's Mills.
Detachments from Thomas' Corps and Confederate cavalry collided on September 19, with both commanders feeding reinforcements into the engagement. The day ended without a clear victory by either side; the next day, Bragg ordered attacks in an echelon formation starting with the left flank at dawn but Polk, commanding the Confederate left wing, failed to properly supervise his command. The attacks failed to dislodge the Union army from its positions. Shortly after 11 a.m. an attack by Longstreet's corps struck a gap in the Union line, routing most of the Union army. Thomas formed his corps on Snodgrass Hill and held off further Confederate attacks for the remainder of the afternoon before retreating back to Chattanooga near sundown. Rosecrans retreated into Chattanooga after the battle of Chickamauga. Reinforcements were sent from the Army of the Potomac. Both Crittenden and Alexander McCook, commander of the XX Corps, were replaced on September 28 for alleged misconduct at Chickamauga, although they were both cleared of the charge.
U. S. Grant made commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi and placed in command of the Union forces near Chattanooga, decided to replace Rosecrans with Thomas on October 19. At the time of Chickamauga, the Army of Tennessee was suffering from a sh
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti