Salvador B. Castro was a Mexican-American educator and activist, he was most well known for his role in the 1968 East Los Angeles high school walkouts, a series of protests against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District schools. After he retired from teaching, he continued to lecture about his experiences and the importance of education for Mexican Americans. Castro was born in Los Angeles and began kindergarten at Belvedere Elementary School in East Los Angeles, but moved to Mexico when his father was forcibly repatriated during the "Repatriation Movement". There he attended a private elementary school in Sinaloa. Returning to East L. A. while still in grade school, he experienced discrimination for speaking Spanish in the classroom. After graduating from Cathedral High School, a Catholic school, he was drafted into the Army, he saw no combat action as hostilities with Korea ceased shortly after his entry, but was stationed at bases in Atlanta and Fort Jackson, South Carolina.
Always interested in higher education, he was impressed by the campus of College of William and Mary while stationed in Virginia but he left the Army to marry his high school sweetheart, attended Los Angeles City College before transferring to L. A. State, now known as California State University Los Angeles where he obtained his B. A. in social science. He died in Los Angeles on April 15, 2013. Around 1956, while still a student at LACC, he got his first job in the educational field, as an assistant playground director in the inner city neighborhood school, he held various positions in the Los Angeles-area schools before being hired at Belmont High School in Downtown Los Angeles as an interpreter and social studies teacher. He began coaching Mexican-American students to run for positions in student government. At a campaign assembly, candidates from the new political party addressed the student body in Spanish; this prompted the suspension of the offending students. Castro, ignorant of the rule, had given the go-ahead to use Spanish, was transferred to Lincoln High School in Lincoln Heights, in East Los Angeles.
Meanwhile, Castro continued his education, undertaking a Master's program at CSULA. He joined the Mexican-American Education Committee, a group of graduate students who made recommendations to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors on ways to improve services to Mexican-American students; the only committee recommendation the supervisors acted on, was the creation of an "Urban Affairs Liaison", which had little effect on the quality of education in Los Angeles schools. Nonetheless, Castro began meeting informally with Mexican-American college students, who were by this time beginning to call themselves Chicanos and Chicanas, a network of Mexican American education activists began forming; the result of the network was the holding of Chicano Youth Leadership Conferences, training grounds for student activists, the first of, held in 1963. At conferences, students discussed inequalities between schools within the LAUSD, the need for bilingual and culturally relevant education, the need for systemic reforms that would place students on the track to higher education.
They founded the Piranya Café. As Castro helped students make demands of the school board, underground newspapers floated the idea of a boycott of East L. A. schools. When district officials ignored the students' demands, calls for a boycott grew stronger. In March 1968, students from Wilson High School walked out after the school principal cancelled a performance of the Neil Simon play Barefoot in the Park; the next day, another walkout was staged in protest of a school policy prohibiting male students from wearing their hair long. Following the small walkouts, students from the five public schools in East Los Angeles, with the aid of local Chicano college students, coordinated unified protests. Dubbed the "Chicano Blowouts", the first day of protests were peaceful, but the second day was marred by police violence against students from Roosevelt and Belmont high schools, unlike protesters at the other schools, had no protection from college students. In the wake of the demonstrations, Castro was arrested and charged with 15 counts of conspiracy to disrupt public schools and 15 counts of conspiracy to disturb the peace.
Twelve others, many of whom were Brown Berets members, were arrested and charged. The charges were dropped in 1972. Castro continued pressing for educational reform in Los Angeles-area schools. Anaheim's Savanna High School celebrates Sal Castro Day every March 27. In the 2006 HBO film Walkout, Castro's role was played by Michael Peña. Edward James Olmos directed the film. In 2006, Castro was critical of radio DJs who encouraged students to walk out of classes in protest of United States House of Representatives resolution 4437, which, if passed by the United States Senate, will impose stiffer penalties on unauthorized immigrants and their employers. While not opposed to the demonstrations themselves, Castro was concerned that those encouraging the protests did not accompany the students to protect them as he and the other organizers of the 1968 walkouts had, he publicly denounced the members of the Minuteman Project as racists. Castro continued to lecture student groups across the country and helps run leadership conferences for high school students.
On October 13, 2009, the Los Angeles Board of Education voted to name a new Middle School,located on the campus of Belmont High School, Sal Castro Middle Sc
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Border Protection, Anti-terrorism and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005
The Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 was a bill in the 109th United States Congress. It was passed by the United States House of Representatives on December 16, 2005 by a vote of 239 to 182, but did not pass the Senate, it was known as the "Sensenbrenner Bill," for its sponsor in the House of Representatives, Wisconsin Republican Jim Sensenbrenner. The bill was the catalyst for the 2006 U. S. immigration reform protests and was the first piece of legislation passed by a house of Congress in the United States illegal immigration debate. Development and the effect of the bill was featured in The Senate Speaks, Story 11 in How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories a documentary series from filmmaking team Shari Robertson and Michael Camerini; the bill, passed by the House of Representatives, contains the following provisions among others: Requires up to 700 miles of double-layered fence along the Mexico–US border at points with the highest number of illegal border crossings.
(House Amendment 648, authored by Duncan Hunter Requires the federal government to take custody of illegal aliens detained by local authorities. This would end the practice of "catch and release", where federal officials sometimes instruct local law enforcement to release detained illegal aliens because resources to prosecute them are not available, it reimburses local agencies in the 29 counties along the border for costs related to detaining illegal aliens. Mandates employers to verify workers' legal status through electronic means, phased in over several years. Requires reports to be sent to Congress one and two years after implementation to ensure that it is being used. Requires the Department of Homeland Security to report to Congress on the number of Other Than Mexicans apprehended and deported and the number of those from states that sponsor terrorism. Formalizes Congressional condemnation of rapes by smugglers along the border and urges Mexico to take immediate action to prevent them.
Requires all illegal aliens, before being deported, to pay a fine of $3,000 if they agree to leave voluntarily but do not adhere to the terms of their agreement. The grace period for voluntary departure is shortened to 60 days. Requires DHS to conduct a study on the potential for border fencing on the Canada–US border. Sets the minimum sentence for fraudulent documents at 10 years, fines, or both, with tougher sentencing in cases of aiding drug trafficking and terrorism. Establishes a Fraudulent Documents Center within DHS. Increases penalties for aggravated felonies and various frauds, including marriage fraud and document fraud. Establishes an 18-month deadline for DHS to control the border, with a progress report due one year after enactment of the legislation. Requires criminal record, terrorist watch list clearance, fraudulent document checks for any illegal immigrant before being granted legal immigration status. Reimburses states for aiding in immigration enforcement. Causes housing of a removed alien to become a felony and sets the minimum prison sentence to three years.
Allows deportation of any illegal alien convicted of driving under the influence. Adds human trafficking and human smuggling to the money-laundering statute. Increases penalties for employing illegal workers to $7,500 for first time offenses, $15,000 for second offenses, $40,000 for all subsequent offenses. Prohibits accepting immigrants from any country which delays or refuses to accept its citizens who are deported from the United States It would be a crime to assist an illegal immigrant to "remain in the United States... knowing or in reckless disregard of the fact that such person is an alien who lacks lawful authority to reside in or remain in the United States". Furthermore, the prison term applicable to a removed alien, would be applicable to anyone who knowingly aids or assists" that alien "to reenter the United States". Current laws prohibit "aiding and abetting" illegal immigrants; this bill, however, is intended to increase enforcement against human smugglers. Eliminates the Diversity Immigrant Visa program.
Prohibits grants to federal, state, or local government agencies that enact or maintain a sanctuary city policy. Incorporates satellite communications among immigration enforcement officials. Requires all United States Border Patrol uniforms to be made in the U. S. to avoid forgeries. Institutes a timeline for deployment of US-VISIT to all land-based checkpoints. Amendment 656 failed; the bill's original language changed the existing penalty for first illegal entry from a misdemeanor to a felony. This amendment from Rep. Sensenbrenner would have changed the bill's felony language back to misdemeanor, leaving this aspect of the existing law intact; the amendment was defeated by a vote of 164 to 257. Republicans voted 156 to 65 for the amendment. Democrats voted 191 to 8 against the amendment. During the spring of 2006, at the peak of the protest marches, Democrats used this felony aspect to rally protesters against the bill as a whole; this strategy is referred to as a "poison pill". The House version of the bill was opposed by a variety of migrant, social justice and religious organizations, o
Jeremy Ray Valdez
Jeremy Ray Valdez is an American actor and musician. He won the 2010 Imagen Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Feature Film for his role in La Mission. Valdez was born in Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1980, his father is of Mexican heritage and his mother is of Navajo Indian descent. Valdez resides in Los Angeles, his first gigs were national commercials for brands such as Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Six Flags and Toys R Us. Welcoming the newfound paychecks and a departure from working "almost every crazy job imaginable." Jeremy continued to hone his acting skills, landing his first television role on The Brothers Garcia. Valdez has had recurring roles on television shows including ER, Veronica Mars, Drake & Josh and guest starring roles on The Closer, NCIS, 24, CSI: NY, JAG, The Shield, CSI: Miami, Without a Trace, That's So Raven, Medical Investigation, Boston Public and One on One, he starred in the HBO TV Movie, directed by Edward James Olmos. Valdez portrays Robert Avila, an undercover police officer who poses as a high school student, in the film based on the true story of the five Mexican-American East LA high schools that organized a walkout in 1968 to protest poor school conditions.
Additionally, Jeremy starred in Junkyard Saints, a film, featured on the PBS series Independent Lens. He played the role of Adan in the film, Blaze You Out, directed by Mateo Frazier and Diego Joaquin Lopez in 2013. Valdez starred in the 2010 independent hit La Mission. Jeremy has garnered accolades and success from his role as Jesse Rivera in the film; these include a 2010 IMAGEN Award for "Best Supporting Actor". La Mission stars Valdez, alongside Benjamin Bratt, was featured at the 2009 Sundance Film Festival. Jeremy starred opposite Charles S. Dutton in the upcoming film, "The Obama Effect". In 2010 he was cast in Allan Ball's newest pilot for HBO, "All Signs of Death". In the spring of 2010, Valdez starred in the feature film Benavides Born, filmed in South Texas. Benavides Born was selected to premiere in competition; this will mark the second film in two years that Jeremy has starred in a film that will be included in the Sundance Film Festival. In March 2018 Valdez joined the cast of the Beautiful as Detective Alex Sanchez.
2018: The Bold and the Beautiful.... Detective Alex Sanchez 2013: Line of Duty.... FBI Agent Bobby 2010: NCIS.... Alfonso Vega 2009: The Closer.... Tommy Martinez 2009: La Mission.... Jesse 2007: In the Wake.... Juan 2007: The Rookie.... Jason 2006: 24.... Petty Officer Tim Rooney 2006: Veronica Mars.... Marcos Oliveres 2006: Walkout.... Robert Avila 2005: ER.... Roberto Rosales 2005: Medical Investigation.... Nestor 2005: CSI: NY.... Antonio Reyes 2004: Constantine.... Liquor Store Clerk Nico 2004: JAG.... Corporal Gabrial Salazar 2004: One on One.... Raffy 2004: The Shield.... Esteban 2004: Drake & Josh.... Paul 2004: CSI: Miami.... Carlos Gonzalez 2003: Without a Trace 2003: Independent Lens.... Lalo 2003: That's So Raven.... Ricky 2003: Truth and Dare.... Young Man 2002: American Family.... Young Eduardo 2002: Home of the Brave.... Artimeo Garcia 2001: Boston Public.... Jerry 2001: Taylor's Wall.... Arturo 2001: Family Law.... Enrique 2001: The Nightmare Room.... Spencer 2001: The Brothers Garcia.... Butter 2000: Land of 1,000 Dances....
Frankie Cannibal Jeremy Ray Valdez on IMDb
Timothy Robert DeKay is an American actor. He starred in the USA Network series White Collar, which chronicled the partnership between a con artist and an FBI agent. Tim DeKay was born June 12, 1963 to Jim DeKay and Jill Vaughn in Lansing, New York, where he and his brother Jamey grew up. Growing up DeKay enjoyed athletics, he played both varsity basketball and baseball, the latter of, a generational tradition in his family, he enjoyed the arts, performed in his high school's production of Oliver!. He attended Le Moyne College to study Business and Philosophy, where he played baseball deciding to pursue a career in theater. DeKay planned for a career in business or law, he graduated with a bachelor's degree in business administration in 1985. However, he realized. After taking a few courses in directing at Syracuse University, he attended Rutgers University, where he received a Master of Fine Arts and met his wife, actress Elisa Taylor. DeKay has performed in plays both on Broadway and off, including Ridiculous Fraud at the McCarter Theatre.
In 2009, he was both producer of the short film This Monday. It was included in several short film festivals, including Cannes Short Film Corner and The Palm Springs International Short Film Festival, his first onscreen acting job was as corporation head Larry Deon on seaQuest 2032. He was a cast member of Party of Five from 1997–1999, Carnivàle from 2003–05 and Tell Me You Love Me in 2007, he appeared in two episodes of Seinfeld: "The Soul Mate" and "The Bizarro Jerry", as Elaine's boyfriend Kevin. He would work with Julia Louis-Dreyfus again in The New Adventures of Old Christine, playing a temperamental boyfriend of Louis-Dreyfus's character in a three episode story arc, he has guest-starred on a number of other television series, including Friends, CSI, My Name Is Earl, NCIS, Chuck. In 2009, DeKay began starring in the USA Network comedy-drama White Collar as FBI agent Peter Burke, he made his directorial debut in the episode "Stealing Home", which premiered in 2012. In March 2015, it was announced that he will play FBI agent Duval Pritchard in the FOX pilot, Frankenstein.
DeKay played Duvall Pritchard in Fox Television's 2016 sci-fi drama series Second Chance. He is a member of the Actors Studio, he taught as an adjunct professor at the University of Southern California. DeKay and his wife, actress Elisa Taylor, reside in California, they have a daughter, a son, Jamis. Tim DeKay on IMDb Team DeKay, Tim DeKay fansite VIdeo of Tim Dekay's 2010 Commencement speech at LeMoyne College via YouTube
Yancey Arias is an American actor most noted for his work on television crime dramas his roles as Miguel Cadena in the NBC series Kingpin and as Gabriel Williams in the FX series Thief. Of Colombian and Puerto Rican descent, Arias was born and raised in New York City, the son of Antonio and Miriam Arias, he attended Moore Catholic High School and St. John's Preparatory School before studying theater at Carnegie Mellon University, his first big break came in the Broadway production of Miss Saigon in 1992, which he worked on in different capacities for several years. In addition to television roles, he continued to work on stage, including a starring role in The Wild Party in 2000. In 2001, he moved to Los Angeles, where he lives with actress Anna Alvim, he was on the show Knight Rider for the first half season. In July 2013, it was announced that Arias would play Carl Villante, the head of an elite investigative unit, in the ABC series Castle, he appears in the film Cesar Chavez. List of famous Puerto Ricans Yancey Arias on IMDb Yancey Arias at AllMovie Official website
Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,988 officers and 2,869 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the Chicago Police Department and the New York City Police Department; the department operates in a population of 4,030,904 people. The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous films and television shows throughout its history; the department has been associated with a number of controversies concerned with racism, police brutality, police corruption. The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, a volunteer force that assisted the existing County forces; the Rangers were soon succeeded by another volunteer group. Neither force was efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence and vice; the first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren.
By 1900, under John M. Glass, there were one for every 1,500 people. In 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200; the CBS radio show Calling All Cars hired LAPD radio dispacher Jesse Rosenquist to be the voice of the dispatcher. Rosenquist was famous because home radios could tune in to early police radio frequencies; as the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, he was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. During World War II, under Clemence B. Horrall, the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military. Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots. Horrall was replaced by retired United States Marine Corps general William A. Worton, who acted as interim chief until 1950, when William H. Parker succeeded him and would serve until his death in 1966. Parker advocated police autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability and an end to alleged police brutality.
The iconic television series Dragnet, with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station. Due to Dragnet's popularity, LAPD Chief Parker "became after J. Edgar Hoover, the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation" at that time. In the 1960s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay. Under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT team in United States law enforcement. Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era.
The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center, named after former chief William H. Parker, which still stands at 150 N. Los Angeles St; the new headquarters is 300 yards west in the purpose built Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St. south of Los Angeles City Hall, which opened in October 2009. The Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD; the board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPD's overall management and operations. The Chief of Police reports to the board; the Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department's internal disciplinary process and reviewing complaints of officer misconduct. It was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners; the current Inspector General is Mark P. Smith, the Constitutional Policing Advisor for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.
The OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation. The OIG conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the disciplinary system in order to ensure fairness and equality; as well as overseeing the LAPD's disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners. The Office of the Chief of Police has the responsibility for assisting the Chief of Police in the administration of the department; the Chief of Staff is responsible for coordinating the flow of information from command staff to ensure that the Chief is informed prior to making decisions and coordinating special administrative audits and investigations, assisting and submitting recommendations to the Chief of Police in matters involving employee relations. The Office of the Chief of Staff is composed of the Board of Police Commissioners Liaison, the Public Communications Group, the Media Relations Division, the Employee Relations Group.
The Director of the Office of Constitutional Policing and Policy Police Administrator III Arif Alikhan reports directl