Clayton Edward Kershaw is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball. A left-handed starting pitcher, Kershaw has played in the major leagues since 2008, his career earned run average and walks and hits per innings pitched average are the lowest among starters in the live-ball era with a minimum of 1,000 innings pitched. Kershaw has a career hits allowed per nine innings pitched average of 6.61—the second-lowest in MLB history—along with three Cy Young Awards and the 2014 National League Most Valuable Player Award. He has been described throughout the majority of his career as the best pitcher in baseball. Kershaw was drafted seventh overall in the 2006 MLB draft, he worked his way through the Dodgers' farm system in just one full season, reached the majors at 20 years old. When he debuted in 2008, he was the youngest player in a title he held for one full year. In 2011, he won the pitching Triple Crown and the National League Cy Young Award, becoming the youngest pitcher to accomplish either of these feats since Dwight Gooden in 1985.
During the 2013 off-season, the Dodgers signed Kershaw to a franchise record seven-year, $215 million contract extension. Kershaw pitched a no-hitter on June 2014, becoming the 22nd Dodger to do so. Being a left-handed strikeout pitcher and playing for the Los Angeles Dodgers, Kershaw has been compared to Hall of Fame pitcher Sandy Koufax, he became the first pitcher in history to lead MLB in ERA for four consecutive years when he did so in the 2011 through 2014 seasons. Off the field, Kershaw is an active participant in volunteer work, he and his wife, launched "Kershaw's Challenge" and wrote the book Arise to raise money to build an orphanage in Zambia. He has been honored with the Roberto Clemente Award and the Branch Rickey Award for his humanitarian work. Kershaw was born in Texas, his parents divorced when he was 10, he was raised by his mother. He played in youth sports leagues including Little League Baseball. Kershaw attended nearby Highland Park High School, where he played baseball and was the center for future Detroit Lions quarterback Matthew Stafford on the varsity football team.
After a growth spurt and further development of his pitches, he established himself as an elite high school prospect in 2006 when he posted a 13–0 record with an earned run average of 0.77, recorded 139 strikeouts in 64 innings pitched. In a playoff game against Northwest High School of Justin, Kershaw pitched an all-strikeout perfect game, he struck out all 15 batters he faced in the game, shortened because of the mercy rule. He pitched for USA Baseball's Junior National Team in the Pan Am Championship. Kershaw was selected by USA Today as "High School Baseball Player of the Year", was the Gatorade National Player of the Year for baseball. Entering the 2006 Major League Baseball draft, Kershaw was considered the top high school pitcher available; the Los Angeles Dodgers selected Kershaw with the seventh overall pick in the draft. He had committed to Texas A&M University, but turned down the scholarship offer to sign with the Dodgers, with a signing bonus estimated at $2.3 million. The bonus was the largest to any Dodgers draft pick at the time, was topped by Zach Lee in the 2010 draft.
Kershaw began his career with the Gulf Coast League Dodgers. He pitched in 37 innings in which he struck out 54 batters, while compiling a record of 2–0 with a 1.95 ERA. He featured a fastball that topped out at 96 miles per hour and he was rated as the top prospect in the GCL, the Dodgers' second best prospect by Baseball America behind third baseman Andy LaRoche. Kershaw was promoted to the Great Lakes Loons in 2007, with whom he recorded a record of 7–5 with a 2.77 ERA. He was selected to play on the East Team in the Midwest League All-Star Game and on the USA team in the All-Star Futures Game. On August 6, he was promoted to the Double-A Jacksonville Suns in the Southern League, where he produced a 1–2 record and 3.65 ERA in five starts and was selected as the top prospect in the Dodgers organization heading into the 2008 season. During spring training in a game against the Boston Red Sox, Kershaw gained much attention for throwing a curveball to Sean Casey that started behind Casey but at the end looped into the strike zone and struck him out looking.
Kershaw was 0–3 and had a 2.28 ERA with 47 strikeouts through 431⁄3 innings pitched in his first stint of the year with the Suns. He was called up to the majors on May 28, 2008, but optioned back to Jacksonville on July 2. Kershaw pitched 18 innings during his second trip to Jacksonville. During this stretch, he allowed only two earned runs, lowering his ERA to 1.91. He was recalled on July 22. On May 24, 2008, the Dodgers bought Kershaw's minor-league contract, he was added to the active roster. Sportswriter Tony Jackson called Kershaw's debut the most anticipated start by a Dodgers pitcher since Hideo Nomo's major league debut during the 1995 season, he made his debut starting against the St. Louis Cardinals, he struck out the first batter he faced, Skip Schumaker, the first of seven strikeouts in the game, in which he pitched six innings and allowed two runs. When he debuted, Kershaw was the youngest player in a title he held for one full year. Kershaw won his first major league game against the Washington Nationals on July 27, 2008.
He pitched six-plus shutout innings, allowing four hits, a walk, he struck out five. Kershaw finished his rookie season 5–5, with a 4.26 ERA in 22 games. He pitched two innings out of the bullpen for the Dodgers in the 2008 National League C
In baseball, innings pitched are the number of innings a pitcher has completed, measured by the number of batters and baserunners that are put out while the pitcher is on the pitching mound in a game. Three outs made is equal to one inning pitched. One out counts as one-third of an inning, two outs counts as two-thirds of an inning. Sometimes, the statistic is written 34.1, 72.2, or 91.0, for example, to represent 34 1⁄3 innings, 72 2⁄3 innings, 91 innings respectively. Runners left on base by a pitcher are not counted in determining innings pitched, it is possible for a pitcher to enter a game, give up several hits and even several runs, be removed before achieving any outs, thereby recording a total of zero innings pitched. The only active players in the top 100 all-time at the end of the 2009 season were Tom Glavine, Randy Johnson, Jamie Moyer and John Smoltz. By the end of the 2018 season, only two active players were in the top 100 all-time: CC Sabathia, Bartolo Colón; this is. Several factors are responsible for this decline: From 1876–1892, pitchers threw from fifty feet and exerted less stress on their arms.
In this era, season totals of 600 innings pitched were not uncommon. In 1892, pitchers moved back to the current distance of six inches. However, they still threw 400 innings in a season; this was because the home run was far less common and pitchers conserved arm strength throughout the game. From 1920 to the 1980s, the four-man pitching rotation was well established. Pitchers could no longer throw 400 innings in a season, as the home run meant a run could be scored at any time; the league leader in innings pitched threw somewhat more than 300 innings. Innings pitched would spike, as in the early 1970s, when Wilbur Wood pitched 376 2⁄3 innings in 1972 and 359 1⁄3 innings in 1973. From the 1980s to the present, the four-man rotation was replaced with the five-man rotation, with a weak fifth man who would be skipped on off days. Managers starting using their bullpens more and more, accelerating the decline in innings pitched. Today, only a few pitchers pitch more than 250 innings in a season. Per Baseball Reference: All-time innings pitched leaders
In baseball, a run is scored when a player advances around first and third base and returns safely to home plate, touching the bases in that order, before three outs are recorded and all obligations to reach base safely on batted balls are met or assured. A player may score by hitting a home run or by any combination of plays that puts him safely "on base" as a runner and subsequently brings him home; the object of the game is for a team to score more runs than its opponent. The Official Baseball Rules hold that if the third out of an inning is a force out of a runner advancing to any base even if another baserunner crosses home plate before that force out is made, his run does not count. However, if the third out is not a force out, but a tag out if that other baserunner crosses home plate before that tag out is made, his run will count. In baseball statistics, a player who advances around all the bases to score is credited with a run, sometimes referred to as a "run scored". While runs scored is considered an important individual batting statistic, it is regarded as less significant than runs batted in.
Both individual runs scored and runs batted in are context-dependent. A pitcher is assessed runs surrendered in his statistics, which differentiate between standard earned runs and unearned runs scored due to fielding errors, which do not count in his personal statistics. If a fielding error occurs which affects the number of runs scored in an inning, the Official Scorer – the official in-game statistician – in order to determine how many of the runs should be classified as earned, will reconstruct the inning as if the error had not occurred. For example, with two outs, suppose a runner reaches base because of a fielding error, the next batter hits a two-run home run, the following batter makes the third out, ending the inning. If the inning is reconstructed without the error, if that third batter, instead of reaching on an error, registered an out, the inning would have ended there without any runs scoring. Thus, the two runs that did score will be classified as unearned, will not count in the pitcher's personal statistics.
If a pitching substitution occurs while a runner is on base, that runner scores a run, the pitcher who allowed the player to get on base is charged with the run though he was no longer pitching when the run scored. Below are examples of an un-counted run and a run scored. With a runner on third and two outs, batter hits a ground ball to the second baseman; the runner on third races home. The second baseman fields the ball and throws on to the first baseman in time to get the batter on the force out at first for the third out of the inning. If the runner on third had touched home plate before that force out was made at first, his run would not count. With a runner on third and two outs, batter hits a fly ball over centerfielder's head, it bounces several times. The runner on third runs safely home and scores a run. Meanwhile, the batter safely reaches first tries to advance to second; the centerfielder, having retrieved the ball, throws the ball to the second baseman and the runner is tagged out as he slides into second.
Since the runner stepped on home plate before the batter was tagged out at second for the third out of the inning, his run will count. The career record for most runs scored by a major-league player is 2,295, held by Rickey Henderson; the season record for most runs scored is 198, set by Billy Hamilton of the Philadelphia Phillies in 1894. The so-called modern-day record is 177, achieved by Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees in 1921; the record for most seasons leading one of the major leagues in runs scored is 8, held by Babe Ruth. The record for most consecutive games with at least one run scored is 18, shared by the Yankees' Red Rolfe and the Cleveland Indians' Kenny Lofton; the record for most runs scored by a player in a single game is 7, set by Guy Hecker of the American Association's Louisville Colonels on August 15, 1886. The modern-day record of 6 is shared by fourteen players. Of the six modern-day players to score 6 runs in a game, the first to perform the feat was Mel Ott of the New York Giants on August 4, 1934.
The record for most runs scored by a major-league team during a single season is 1,212, set by the Boston Beaneaters in 1894. The modern-day record is 1,067, achieved by the New York Yankees in 1931; the team record for most consecutive games with at least one run scored is 308, set by the Yankees between August 3, 1931, August 2, 1933. The team record for most runs in its overall history is the Chicago Cubs with 94,138; the record for most runs scored by a team in a single game is 36, set by the Chicago Colts against the Louisville Colonels on June 29, 1897. The modern-day record of 30 was set on August 22, 2007, by the Texas Rangers against the Baltimore Orioles in the first game of a doubleheader at Oriole Park; the Rangers scored 5 runs in the fourth inning, 9 in the sixth, 10 in the eighth, 6 in the ninth. On August 25, 1922, the highest-scorin
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Edward Augustine Walsh was an American pitcher and manager in Major League Baseball. From 1906 to 1912, he had several seasons. Injuries shortened his career. Walsh holds the record for lowest career earned run average, 1.82. He is one of two modern pitchers to win 40 or more games in a single season, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946. Walsh was born in Pennsylvania, to Michael and Jane Walsh, he worked in the Luzerne County coal mines. Walsh started his professional baseball career with the 1902 Wilkes-Barre Barons. After the 1903 season, the Chicago White Sox purchased Walsh's contract for $750. Walsh made his major league debut in 1904 with the Chicago White Sox and pitched his first full season in 1906, going 17–13 with a 1.88 ERA and 171 strikeouts. In Game Three of that year's World Series, which the White Sox won over the Chicago Cubs in six games, Walsh struck out a then-World Series record 12 batters, he struck out at least one batter each inning of that game. From this season through 1912, Walsh averaged 24 victories and 220 strikeouts and posted an ERA below 2.00 five times.
He led the league in saves five times in this span. His finest individual season came in 1908 when he went 40–15 with 269 strikeouts, 6 saves and a 1.42 ERA, leading the American League in wins and strikeouts. In 1910, he posted the lowest ERA for a pitcher with a losing record. Walsh set an American League record by pitching 464 innings in a season. On August 27, 1911, Walsh no-hit the Boston Red Sox 5-0. Interviewed for the book The Glory of Their Times, Hall of Famer Sam Crawford referred to Walsh's use of a pitch, outlawed: "Big Ed Walsh. Great big, good-looking fellow, he threw a spitball. I think that ball disintegrated on the way to the plate, the catcher put it back together again. I swear, when it went past the plate, it was just the spit went by". In 1910, the White Sox opened White Sox Park, soon nicknamed Comiskey Park by the press in honor of team owner Charles Comiskey; the name was changed to Comiskey Park in 1913. An apocryphal story goes that architect Zachary Taylor Davis consulted Walsh in setting the park's field dimensions.
Choosing a design that favored himself and other White Sox pitchers, rather than hitters, Walsh made Comiskey Park a "pitcher's park" for its entire 80-year history. Walsh was a workhorse who pitched an average of 375 innings annually during the six seasons of 1907 through 1912. After the 1912 season, Walsh requested a full year off to rest his arm, he showed up for spring training the following season, contending, "The White Sox needed me—implored me to return—so I did". Walsh's playing time began dwindling in 1913, it has been claimed that he came into spring training in poorer physical shape than other members of the White Sox pitching staff, his pride led him to try to keep up with the other pitchers in terms of pitch speed before getting into adequate shape, thereby causing damage to his pitching arm. "I could feel the muscles grind and wrench during the game, it seemed to me my arm would leap out of my socket when I shot the ball across the plate", Walsh recalled. "My arm would keep me awake till morning with a pain I had never known before".
He pitched only 16 games during the 1913 season, a meager 13 games over the next three years. By 1916, Walsh's arm was dead, he wanted a year off. He attempted a comeback with the Boston Braves in 1917, but was let go, ending his major league career, he did some pitching in the Eastern League, gave umpiring a try, after which he was a coach for the White Sox for several seasons. Walsh retired with 195 wins, 126 losses, 1736 strikeouts, his career ERA of 1.82 is the lowest major league ERA posted. He has the second-lowest career WHIP in MLB history and the lowest for someone with 10 or more seasons pitched. Walsh was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946, he died on May 1959, nearly two weeks after his 78th birthday. In 1999, Walsh was ranked number 82 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, was nominated as a finalist for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. In 2011, he was inducted into the Irish American Baseball Hall of Fame. Walsh's son Ed Walsh Jr. played for the White Sox from 1928 to 1932.
Coffey, Michael. 27 Men Out: Baseball's Perfect Games. New York: Atria Books. ISBN 0-7434-4606-2. Kashatus, William C.. Diamonds in the Coalfields: 21 Remarkable Baseball Players and Umpires from Northeast Pennsylvania. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1176-4. Ed Walsh at the Baseball Hall of Fame Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference Ed Walsh at Find a Grave
Adrian "Addie" Joss, nicknamed "The Human Hairpin," was an American pitcher in Major League Baseball. He pitched for the Cleveland Bronchos known as the Naps, between 1902 and 1910. Joss, 6 feet 3 inches and weighed 185 pounds, pitched the fourth perfect game in baseball history, his 1.89 career earned. Joss was born and raised in Wisconsin, where he attended St. Mary's College in Prairie du Chien and the University of Wisconsin, he played baseball at St. Mary's and played in a semipro league where he caught the attention of Connie Mack. Joss did not sign with Mack's team, but he attracted further major league interest after winning 19 games in 1900 for the Toledo Mud Hens. Joss had another strong season for Toledo in 1901. After an offseason contract dispute between Joss and Cleveland, he debuted with the Cleveland club in April 1902. Joss led the league in shutouts that year. By 1905, Joss had completed the first of his four consecutive 20-win seasons. Off the field, Joss worked as a newspaper sportswriter from 1906 until his death.
In 1908, he pitched a perfect game during a tight pennant race that saw Cleveland finish a half-game out of first place. The 1910 season was his last, Joss missed most of the year due to injury. In April 1911, Joss became ill and he died the same month due to tuberculous meningitis, he finished his career with 234 complete games, 45 shutouts and 920 strikeouts. Though Joss played only nine seasons and missed significant playing time due to various ailments, the National Baseball Hall of Fame's Board of Directors passed a special resolution for Joss in 1977 which waived the typical ten-year minimum playing career for Hall of Fame eligibility, he was voted into the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1978. Addie Joss was born in Dodge County, Wisconsin, his parents Jacob and Theresa worked as farmers. A heavy drinker of alcohol, he died from liver complications in 1890. Joss attended elementary school in Juneau and Portage and high school at Wayland Academy in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. By age 16 he began teaching himself.
He was offered a scholarship to attend St. Mary's College in Watertown, where he played on the school's baseball team, he attended the University of Wisconsin, where he studied engineering. Officials in Watertown were impressed with the quality of play of St. Mary's and put the team on a semipro circuit. During his time on the semipro circuit, Joss employed his unique pitching windup, which involved hiding the ball until the last moment in his delivery. Connie Mack sent a scout to watch Joss and offered the young pitcher a job playing on his Albany club in the Western League, which Joss declined. In 1899, Joss played for a team in Oshkosh. After player salaries were frozen by team owners, Joss joined the junior team in Manitowoc, split into two teams, as a second baseman and was soon promoted to the senior squad, where he was developed into a pitcher, he was seen by a scout for the Toledo Mud Hens and in 1900 accepted a position with the team for $75 per month. While in Ohio he was considered "the best amateur pitcher in the state."
He earned the win in the team's 16 -- 8 victory. He won 19 games for the club in 1900. Midway through the 1901 season, the Boston Americans of the upstart American League offered $1,500 to Toledo to buy out Joss's contract; the St. Louis Cardinals of the National League matched Boston's offer. Joss continued to pitch for the Mud Hens and by the end of the 1901 season he had won 27 games and had 216 strikeouts, he became known as "the god of the Western League."After the season ended, Joss returned to Wisconsin where he led Racine to the 1901 Wisconsin baseball state championship against Rube Waddell's Kenosha squad. He enrolled at Beloit College and played American football, it was reported that Joss had signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League as early as August 18 and received a $400 advance, but Joss denied receiving any money. Mud Hens owner Charles Stroebel stated that he had signed Joss and other Mud Hens players for the 1902 season on August 12 and that the Western League was under the protection of the National League through September 1901.
Before 1901 ended, the Cleveland Bronchos offered $500 to Toledo in exchange for Joss and manager Bob Gilks, who would be a scout for Cleveland. Toledo and Joss agreed and Joss was now a member of the American League, paying a premium on baseball talent to rival the National League. Dodgers owner Charles Ebbets invited Joss for a meeting, which Joss declined, Joss let it be known that he had told Stroebel he would play for the Mud Hens for the 1902 season, received a $150 advance in February 1902. In March 1902, Joss signed with Cleveland. Toledo sportswriters took exception to Joss, one writing that "he voluntarily signed a contract for this season but when Bill Armour of Cleveland showed him the $500 bill he forgot his pledge and sneaked off like a whipped cur." Stroebel argued that Joss had returned only $100 of the $150 advance. For not
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr