Battle of Saipan
The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June to 9 July 1944. The Allied invasion fleet embarking the expeditionary forces left Pearl Harbor on 5 June 1944, the day before Operation Overlord in Europe was launched; the U. S. 2nd Marine Division, 4th Marine Division, the Army's 27th Infantry Division, commanded by Lieutenant General Holland Smith, defeated the 43rd Infantry Division of the Imperial Japanese Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Yoshitsugu Saito. The loss of Saipan, with the death of at least 29,000 troops and heavy civilian casualties, precipitated the resignation of Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō and left the Japanese mainland within the range of Allied B-29 bombers. In the campaigns of 1943 and the first half of 1944, the Allies had captured the Solomon Islands, the Gilbert Islands, the Marshall Islands and the Papuan Peninsula of New Guinea; this left the Japanese holding the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, Mariana Islands.
It had always been the intention of the American planners to bypass the Carolines and Palauan islands and to seize the Marianas and Taiwan. From these latter bases, communications between the Japanese archipelago and Japanese forces to the south and west could be cut. From the Marianas, Japan would be well within the range of an air offensive relying on the new Boeing B-29 Superfortress long-range bomber with its operational radius of 1,500 mi. While not part of the original American plan, Douglas MacArthur, commander of the Southwest Pacific Area command, obtained authorization to advance through New Guinea and Morotai toward the Philippines; this allowed MacArthur to keep his personal pledge to liberate the Philippines, made in his "I shall return" speech, allowed the active use of the large forces built up in the southwest Pacific theatre. The Japanese, expecting an attack somewhere on their perimeter, thought an attack on the Caroline Islands most likely. To reinforce and supply their garrisons, they needed naval and air superiority, so Operation A-Go, a major carrier attack, was prepared for June 1944.
U. S. Fifth Fleet Admiral Raymond A. Spruance in heavy cruiser Indianapolis Joint Expeditionary Force Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner in amphibious command ship Rocky Mount Northern Attack Force Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner in amphibious command ship Rocky Mount V Amphibious Corps Commanding General: Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith Commanding General: Major General Harry Schmidt Chief of Staff: Brigadier General Graves B. ErskineNorthern sector: 2nd Marine Division Commanding General: Major General Thomas E. Watson Asst. Div. Commander: Brigadier General Merritt A. Edson 2nd Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Walter J. Stuart Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. John H. Griebel 6th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel James P. Riseley Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Kenneth F. McLeod 8th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Clarence R. Wallace Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Jack P. Juhan 10th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Raphael Griffin Executive Officer: Lieut.
Col. Ralph E. Forsyth 18th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Lieut. Col. Ewart S. Laue 1st Battalion, 29th Marine RegimentCommanding Officer: Lieut. Col. Rathvon M. Tompkins Lieut. Col. Jack P. Juhan Amphibious Unit: 715th Amphibian Tractor Bttn. Southern sector: 4th Marine Division Commanding General: Major General Harry Schmidt Commanding General: Major General Clifton B. Cates Asst. Div. Commander: Brigadier General Samuel C. Cumming 14th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Louis G. DeHaven Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Randall M. Victory 20th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Lieut. Col. Nelson K. Brown Executive Officer: Captain William M. Anderson 23rd Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Louis R. Jones Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. John R. Lanigan 24th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Franklin A. Hart Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Austin R. Brunelli 25th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Merton J. Batchelder Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Clarence J. O'Donnell Amphibious Units: 708th Amphibian Tank Bttn.
773rd Amphibian Tractor Bttn. 534th Amphibian Tractor Bttn. Army: 27th Infantry Division Commanding General: Major General Ralph C. Smith Commanding General: Major General Sanderford Jarman Commanding General: Major General George W. Griner 105th Infantry Regiment 106th Infantry Regiment 165th Infantry Regiment Artillery: 104th Field Artillery Bttn. 105th Field Artillery Bttn. 106th Field Artillery Bttn. 249th Field Artillery Bttn. Engineers: 102nd Engineer Combat Bttn. 502nd Engineer Combat Bttn. XXIV Corps Artillery Commanding General: Brigadier General Arthur M. Harper 1st Provisional Gun Group 225th Field Artillery Howitzer Group Central Pacific Area Fleet HQ Commanding officer: Vice Admiral Chūichi Nagumo Chief of staff: Rear Admiral Hideo Yano 31st Army Commanding officer: Lieutenant General Hideyoshi Obata 14th Air FleetDefenses of Saipan Commanding General: Lieutenant General Saito Yoshitsugu 43rd Infantry Division 118th Infantry Regiment 135th Infantry Regiment 136th Infantry Regiment 47th Independent Mixed Brigade 316th Independent Infantry Battalion 317th Indepen
Henry W. Buse Jr.
Henry William Buse Jr. was a lieutenant general in the United States Marine Corps. He was Chief of Staff, Headquarters Marine Corps and Commanding General of the Fleet Marine Force Pacific. Following his retirement from the Marine Corps, Buse served as assistant to three former presidents of the U. S. Olympic Committee. Henry W. Buse Jr. was born on April 12, 1912 in Ridley Park and attended the local high school in 1929. He subsequently enrolled at Severn Preparatory school, a preparatory school for the Naval Academy, where he spent one year, before he was admitted to the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in June 1930, he spent the next four years at Annapolis and graduated on May 31, 1934. Buse was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps on the same date and sent to the Basic School at Philadelphia Navy Yard for an officers course. After he completed the course in April 1935, he was attached to the Marine Detachment aboard the cruiser USS Oklahoma and spent the following year on sea duty.
In June 1936, Buse was transferred to Marine Barracks Quantico, for duty with the 1st Marine Brigade, Fleet Marine Force and remained there until March 1937. He was subsequently ordered to the Marine Barracks within Naval Station Pearl Harbor and promoted to first lieutenant in July 1937. In September 1939, Buse has been sent to the Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, which he completed in February 1940, he was subsequently ordered back to Marine Barracks Quantico and assigned as company commander to the 5th Marine Regiment under Colonel Charles D. Barrett. Buse was promoted to captain in July 1940 and sailed with his regiment, attached to the 1st Brigade, to Guantánamo, two months later. While in Cuba, Buse was appointed commander of the 1st Division's Scout Company and subsequently returned to Quantico in April 1941. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the 1st Marine Division began preparing for combat deployment. Buse was transferred to the 1st Tank Battalion as its executive officer in April 1942 and promoted to the rank of major one month later.
The 1st Marine Division under Major General Alexander Vandegrift was subsequently ordered to the South Pacific Area in June 1942 and following arrival at Wellington, New Zealand, Buse was transferred to the staff of the division as Assistant Operations Officer. Major Buse participated in the landing on Guadalcanal in August 1942 and following its capture, he took part in the island's defense. For his service during the Guadalcanal campaign, he was decorated with Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V". Buse was promoted to lieutenant colonel in April 1943 and subsequently participated in the Battle of Cape Gloucester in December 1943. During the same battle, in January 1944, he took temporary command of the 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines; the 3rd Battalion was trying to capture fortified Hill 660, but its advance was halted by the enemy machine gun fire. Buse assumed command of the battalion on January 8, 1944, led his unit to the victory, capturing the strategic objectives of the operation with a minimum of casualties on his side.
For his excellent leadership and gallantry in action, he was decorated with the Silver Star. Buse remained with the 3rd Battalion until February 20, when he was transferred to the 5th Marine Regiment as its executive officer; when the regimental commander, Colonel Oliver P. Smith, was promoted to Division Assistant Commander, Buse assumed temporary command of the regiment on April 10, 1944, he led the 5th Marines during the final phase of the Cape Gloucester campaign and subsequently received his second Bronze Star Medal for the securing of the village of Talasea. Buse was succeeded by Colonel William S. Fellers and after two months of service with the 5th Marine Regiment, he was ordered back to the United States in July 1944, he was transferred to Washington, D. C. and assigned to Headquarters Marine Corps, where he was appointed executive officer of the Plans and Operations Section. In July 1946, Buse was ordered to Japan to serve as Regimental Combat Team Instructor within Troop Training Unit, Amphibious Training Command.
He subsequently participated in the amphibious training of 8th Army units. Buse was transferred to Pearl Harbor in February 1947 and appointed Assistant Chief of Staff for Logistics within Fleet Marine Force Pacific under Lieutenant General Allen H. Turnage. Buse returned to the States in February 1949 and subsequently attended the Armed Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia. Upon his graduation in June 1949, he was transferred to the Marine Corps Schools in Quantico and appointed Commanding Officer of the 22nd Marine Regiment, which served as the training unit for new Marine Corps officers at the Basic School; the 22nd Marines were inactivated at the beginning of October 1949 and its troops were incorporated into the School Troops. Buse was promoted to the rank of colonel on the same time and appointed commanding officer of the School Troops, he remained at Quantico and commanded the Special Training Regiment stationed there. Colonel Buse was transferred to Camp Lejeune in September 1950 and assumed command of the 6th Marine Regiment stationed there.
The 6th Marines were attached to the 2nd Marine Division and Buse was transferred to the divisional staff and appointed Assistant Chief of Staff for operations and training. At the end of September 1952, Buse was ordered to Korea and assigned to the staff of the 1st Marine Division under Major General Edwin A. Pollock. Buse subsequently succeeded Colonel Austin R. Brunelli as Division Chief of Staff on October 11 and participated in the defense of the western front. Buse participated in the battles of the Samichon Outpost Vegas. For his service in this capacity, he was decorated with Leg
Annapolis is the capital of the U. S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, 25 miles south of Baltimore and about 30 miles east of Washington, D. C. Annapolis is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, its population was measured at 38,394 by the 2010 census. This city served as the seat of the Confederation Congress and temporary national capital of the United States in 1783–1784. At that time, General George Washington came before the body convened in the new Maryland State House and resigned his commission as commander of the Continental Army. A month the Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris of 1783, ending the American Revolutionary War, with Great Britain recognizing the independence of the United States; the city and state capitol was the site of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which issued a call to the states to send delegates for the Constitutional Convention to be held the following year in Philadelphia.
Over 220 years the Annapolis Peace Conference, was held in 2007. Annapolis is the home of St. John's College, founded 1696. A settlement in the Province of Maryland named "Providence" was founded on the north shore of the Severn River on the middle Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1649 by Puritan exiles from the Province/Dominion of Virginia led by third Proprietary Governor William Stone; the settlers moved to a better-protected harbor on the south shore. The settlement on the south shore was named "Town at Proctor's," "Town at the Severn," and "Anne Arundel's Towne". In 1654, after the Third English Civil War, Parliamentary forces assumed control of the Maryland colony and Stone went into exile further south across the Potomac River in Virginia. Per orders from Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier royalist force, loyal to the King of England. On March 25, 1655, in what is known as the Battle of the Severn, Stone was defeated, taken prisoner, replaced by Lt. Gen. Josias Fendall as fifth Proprietary Governor.
Fendall governed Maryland during the latter half of the Commonwealth period in England. In 1660, he was replaced by Phillip Calvert as fifth/sixth Governor of Maryland, after the restoration of Charles II as King in England. In 1694, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of second Royal Governor Thomas Lawrence third Royal Governor Francis Nicholson, moved the capital of the royal colony, the Province of Maryland, to Anne Arundel's Towne and renamed the town Annapolis after Princess Anne of Denmark and Norway, soon to be the Queen Anne of Great Britain. Annapolis was incorporated as a city in 1708.17th-century Annapolis was little more than a village, but it grew for most of the 18th century until the American Revolutionary War as a political and administrative capital, a port of entry, a major center of the Atlantic slave trade. The Maryland Gazette, which became an important weekly journal, was founded there by Jonas Green in 1745. Water trades such as oyster-packing and sailmaking became the city's chief industries.
Annapolis is home to a large number of recreational boats that have replaced the seafood industry in the city. Dr. Alexander Hamilton was a Scottish-born writer who lived and worked in Annapolis. Leo Lemay says his 1744 travel diary Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton is "the best single portrait of men and manners, of rural and urban life, of the wide range of society and scenery in colonial America." Annapolis became the temporary capital of the United States after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Congress was in session in the state house from November 26, 1783 to June 3, 1784, it was in Annapolis on December 23, 1783, that General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. For the 1783 Congress, the Governor of Maryland commissioned John Shaw, a local cabinet maker, to create an American flag; the flag is different from other designs of the time. The blue field extends over the entire height of the hoist. Shaw created two versions of the flag: one which started with a red stripe and another that started with a white one.
In 1786, delegates from all states of the Union were invited to meet in Annapolis to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce. Delegates from only five states—New York, Virginia, New Jersey, Delaware—actually attended the convention, known afterward as the "Annapolis Convention." Without proceeding to the business for which they had met, the delegates passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Philadelphia convention drafted and approved the Constitution of the United States, still in force. On April 24, 1861, the midshipmen of the Naval Academy relocated their base in Annapolis and were temporarily housed in Newport, Rhode Island until October 1865. In 1861, the first of three camps that were built for holding paroled soldiers was created on the campus of St. John's College; the second location of Camp Parole would
Commandant of the Marine Corps
The Commandant of the Marine Corps is the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CMC reports directly to the United States Secretary of the Navy and is responsible for ensuring the organization, policy and programs for the Marine Corps as well as advising the President, the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of the Navy on matters involving the Marine Corps. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel and resources to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands; the Commandant performs all other functions prescribed in Section 5043 in Title 10 of the United States Code or delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in his administration in his name. As with the other joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces.
The Commandant is nominated by the President for a four-year term of office and must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a four-star general while serving in office. "The Commandant is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the total performance of the Marine Corps. This includes the administration, internal organization, requirements and readiness of the service; the Commandant is responsible for the operation of the Marine Corps material support system." Since 1801, the official residence of the Commandant has been located in the Marine Barracks in Washington, D. C. and his main offices are in Virginia. The responsibilities of the Commandant are outlined in Title 10, Section 5043, the United States Code and the position is "subject to the authority and control of the Secretary of the Navy"; as stated in the U. S. Code, the Commandant "shall preside over the Headquarters, Marine Corps, transmit the plans and recommendations of the Headquarters, Marine Corps, to the Secretary and advise the Secretary with regard to such plans and recommendations, after approval of the plans or recommendations of the Headquarters, Marine Corps, by the Secretary, act as the agent of the Secretary in carrying them into effect, exercise supervision, consistent with the authority assigned to commanders of unified or specified combatant commands under chapter 6 of this title, over such of the members and organizations of the Marine Corps and the Navy as the Secretary determines, perform the duties prescribed for him by section 171 of this title and other provisions of law and perform such other military duties, not otherwise assigned by law, as are assigned to him by the President, the Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary of the Navy".
Thirty-seven men have served as the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The first Commandant was Samuel Nicholas, who took office as a captain, though there was no office titled "Commandant" at the time, the Second Continental Congress had authorized that the senior-most Marine could take a rank up to Colonel; the longest-serving was Archibald Henderson, sometimes referred to as the "Grand old man of the Marine Corps" due to his thirty-nine-year tenure. In the history of the United States Marine Corps, only one Commandant has been fired from the job: Anthony Gale, as a result of a court-martial in 1820. Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps Military Secretary to the Commandant of the Marine Corps Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps. Allan Reed Millett and Jack Shulimson, eds.. Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-012-9. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Ulbrich, David J..
Preparing for Victory: Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps, 1936-183. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781591149033. Official website
2nd Marine Division (United States)
The 2nd Marine Division is a division of the United States Marine Corps, which forms the ground combat element of the II Marine Expeditionary Force. The division is based at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and headquartered at Julian C. Smith Hall; the 2nd Marine Division earned renown in World War II, distinguishing itself at Guadalcanal, Saipan and Okinawa. The lineal forebearer of the 2nd Marine Division is the 2nd Marine Brigade, activated on 1 July 1936 at San Diego, California. Subsequently, the brigade was deployed during August -- September 1937 to China; the 2nd Marine Brigade relocated during February -- April 1938 to California. Major General Clayton B. Vogel, its first commander, activated the 2nd Marine Division at a parade and review at the Marine Corps Base, San Diego, during a sunny Saturday afternoon of 1 February 1941; the division consisted of the 2nd, 6th, 8th Marines infantry regiments. By mid-1941, because of the growing threat of a German invasion to Iceland, the 6th Marine Regiment, a battalion from 10th Marines and other scattered units were pulled from the division and sent to garrison Reykjavik.
After the outbreak of war the 8th Marine Regiment with an assortment of other division assets formed the 2nd Marine Brigade and were dispatched to garrison American Samoa. During World War II, the 2nd Marine Division participated in operations in the Pacific Theater of Operations: The Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Solomon Islands campaign – 4 January to 8 February 1943. 2nd Marines, reinforced: Guadalcanal–Tulagi landings, 7 to 9 August 1942. 8th Marines, reinforced: capture and defense of Guadalcanal, 2 November 1942 to 8 February 1943. The Battle of Tarawa, in the Gilbert Islands campaign – 20 November to 4 December 1943; the Battle of Saipan, in the Mariana Islands campaign – 15 June to 24 July 1944. The Battle of Tinian – 24 July to 10 August 1944; the Battle of Okinawa – 1 April to 10 April 1945.. Elements of the division were part of the occupation of Nagasaki, arriving twenty-five days after the nuclear strike; the 2nd and 8th Marines were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation while attached to the 1st Marine Division from 7 August and 4 November 1942 for the Guadalcanal operation.
The 2nd Marine Division was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands, 20–24 November 1943: "For outstanding performance in combat during the seizure and occupation of the Japanese-held Atoll of Tarawa, Gilbert Islands, November 20 to 24, 1943. Forced by the treacherous coral reefs to disembark from their landing craft hundreds of yards off the beach, the Second Marine Division became a vulnerable target for devastating Japanese fire. Dauntlessly advancing in spite of mounting losses, the Marines fought a gallant battle against crushing odds, clearing the limited beachheads of snipers and machine guns, reducing powerfully fortified enemy positions and annihilating the fanatically determined and entrenched Japanese forces. By the successful occupation of Tarawa, the Second Marine Division has provided our forces with strategic and important air and land bases from which to continue future operations against the enemy. During the war two Seabee battalions were posted to the 2nd.
The 18th Naval Construction Battalion was assigned to the 18th Marines as the third battalion of the regiment. They received a Presidential Unit Citation for doing Tarawa with the 2nd Marine Division but did Saipan and Tinian as well; the 18th Marines were inactivated and the Seabees stayed on Tinian to work on the airfield. They were replaced by the 71st NCB for the 2nd's assault on Okinawa; the Division didn't take part in a major action again until 1958 when elements participated in the U. S. intervention into the Lebanon crisis of 1958. 2nd Marine Division units helped to reinforce Guantanamo Bay during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 and landed in the Dominican Republic in 1965 as part of Operation Power Pack. Other peacekeeping operations carried on by the Division include being part of the Multi National Peacekeeping Force in Lebanon from August 1982 until February 1984; the Division suffered the loss of 241 Sailors during the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing. Towards the end of the 1980s, Division Marines participated in Operation Just Cause, the invasion of Panama.
The 1990s began with elements of the Division participating in Operation Sharp Edge, the evacuation of American and allied civilians out of war torn Liberia. This was followed by deployments to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield and the liberation of Kuwait in Operation Desert Storm; the 2nd Marine Division played a major role repelling the attempted Iraqi invasion of Saudi Arabia, known as the Battle of Khafji. The 2nd Marine Division faced heavy resistance during the Battle of Kuwait International Airport. Marine Reserve unit Bravo Company, 4th Tank Battalion, 4th Marine division was assigned to the 2nd Marine Division. On February 25, 1991, Day 2 of the Desert Storm ground war, Bravo Company 4th Tank Battalion was in a coil formation and awak
Waterbury is a town in Washington County in central Vermont, United States. It is the name of a village within that town; the population of the town was 5,064 at the 2010 census. The location where Waterbury now lies was once the frontier between the Mahican and Pennacook people. European settlement of the area dates from 1763, when King George III granted a charter for land in the Winooski River valley. James Marsh became the first permanent white settler in the region in 1783. Many of the early settlers came from Waterbury and named their new town in honor of the hometown; the village of Waterbury was incorporated in 1882 with a population of over 2,000. The Central Vermont Railroad came to Waterbury in 1849; the railroad expanded a passenger station for the railroad in 1875, making the station a more major stop on the Vermonter. The Green Mountain Seminary was built in Waterbury Center in 1869; the state opened the Vermont State Asylum for the Insane here in 1891. The hospital, renamed the Vermont State Hospital, grew to occupy over 40 buildings, but by the 1980s the number of patients had declined to the point where only one building was required.
The remainder of the campus came to be used for state offices. Like many New England towns, Waterbury's economy was based around the local river mill industry and the surrounding agricultural producers; the mills produced products such as lumber and finished wood products, wicker products, leather and alcohol. The agriculture was based on sheep through the 19th century but switched over to dairy farming by the 20th century. Waterbury had a ski factory in the Derby & Ball Company. In 1927, like many other Vermont communities, was devastated by flooding. Inscriptions on the sides of some buildings in Waterbury village purport to show where the level of the water rose during the 1927 flood; the village recovered, in 1938 the Waterbury Dam was built on the Little River by the Army Corps of Engineers to control future flooding in areas downstream of the town center. On August 29, 2011, Tropical Storm Irene flooded downtown Waterbury and filled the buildings of the Vermont State Hospital, Vermont's public psychiatric complex, with up to 6 feet of water.
Patients from the mental hospital were temporarily housed in various locations around Vermont, over 1,100 of the 1,586 state employees were working in office space in other towns as of October 2011. The state was expected to decide by 2012 whether to relocate all or part of the workforce back to Waterbury. Waterbury is the location of Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream, whose factory tours have become Vermont's most popular tourist attraction. Other local businesses include: SunCommon, Hen of the Wood Restaurant, ] Annex, the Alchemist microbrewery, Cold Hollow Cider Mill, Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Lake Champlain Chocolates, as well as several well-reputed bars and restaurants. Businesses in the town, which sits between several major mountains including Mount Mansfield thrive during the month of October, when tourism swells thanks to fall foliage; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,915 people, 2,011 households, 1,321 families residing in the town. The population density was 810.4 people per square mile.
There were 2,106 housing units at an average density of 347.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.80% White, 0.26% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.26% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population. There were 2,011 households out of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.4 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $44,940, the median income for a family was $60,547. Males had a median income of $35,566 versus $25,838 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,858. About 3.3% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.0% of those under age 18 and 4.9% of those age 65 or over. The State of Vermont operates the Waterbury Office Complex; the Vermont Department of Corrections has its headquarters in the Waterbury Office Complex. Waterbury belongs to the Washington West Supervisory Union. Students attend Thatcher Brook Primary School for grades preschool and Kindergarten through 4th grade, Crossett Brook Middle School for grades 5–8, Harwood Union High School for grades 9–12. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides daily service to Waterbury, operating its Vermonter between St. Albans and Washington, D. C; the Green Mountain Transit Agency provides public transit bus services to Burlington, Montpelier and Stowe.
Waterbury is served by Interstate 89, U. S. Route 2, Route 100. Radio station WDEV -550 AM & 96.1 FM, is located in town, with its offices and studios on Stowe Street. WWMP – 103.3 FM is licensed to Waterbury and has its transmission tower located on Ricker Mountain, but its offices and studios are located in South Burlington. Charles J. Adams, Vermont Attorney General Harold D. Campbell, Major general in the
United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, educates officers for commissioning into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps; the 338-acre campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles east of Washington, D. C. and 26 miles southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites and monuments, it replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a Member of Congress. Students are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation.
1,200 "plebes" enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can be cross-commissioned as officers in other U. S. services, the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary; the academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept; the United States Naval Academy's campus is located in unincorporated Anne Arundel County, adjacent to Annapolis, at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay. In its 2016 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as the No. 1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 12th best overall liberal arts college in the U.
S. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is tied for No. 1 with the U. S. Military Academy and the U. S. Air Force Academy, is tied for the No. 5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. In 2016, Forbes ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as No. 24 overall in its report "America's Top Colleges". Prospective candidates must either be nominated by certain public officials—or be the child of a Medal of Honor recipient, which entitles a qualified candidate to automatic admission without nomination. Nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources. Candidates must pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process; the class of 2020 had 1,355 offers of appointment made to 17,043 applicants. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes.
The U. S. government pays for tuition and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015. From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, supplies and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during "firstie" year. Midshipmen fourth-class to midshipmen second-class receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses. Students at the naval academy are addressed as an official military rank and paygrade; as midshipmen are in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term covers both females. Upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning.
If they are selected to serve as a pilot, they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries; the most recent graduating class, that of 2017, inducted 1,200 midshipmen in 2013 and graduated 1,053 in 2017. 768 were commissioned as 259 as Marine 2nd Lieutenants. This graduating class was composed of 242 women and 811 men Since 1959, midshipmen have been eligible for an interservice commission in the Air Force or Army, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Starting in 2004, midshipmen became eligible to seek Coast Guard commissions; every year, a small number of graduates do this -- four. In 2017, two members of the class were commissioned as Air Force 2nd Lieutenants. A small number of foreign students are admitted each year. In 2017, 17 foreign midshipmen were graduated. At the beginning of their second-class year, midshipmen make their commitment known as signing their "2-for-7."
This represents a commitment to f