East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia. It comprises the half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse. The countrys size is about 15,410 km2, nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesias 27th province the following year. The Indonesian occupation of East Timor was characterised by a highly violent decades-long conflict between separatist groups and the Indonesian military, in 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory. East Timor became the first new state of the 21st century on 20 May 2002 and joined the United Nations. In 2011, East Timor announced its intention to gain status in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations by applying to become its eleventh member. It is one of two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being the Philippines.
In Indonesian, the country is called Timor Timur, thus using the Portuguese name for the island followed by the word for east, the official names under the Constitution are Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste in English, República Democrática de Timor-Leste in Portuguese and Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste in Tetum. Humans first settled in East Timor 42,000 years ago, descendants of at least three waves of migration are believed still to live in East Timor. The first is described by anthropologists as people of the Veddo-Australoid type, around 3000 BC, a second migration brought Melanesians. The earlier Veddo-Australoid peoples withdrew at this time to the mountainous interior, proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina. Hakka traders are among those descended from this final group, Timorese origin myths tell of ancestors that sailed around the eastern end of Timor arriving on land in the south. Some stories recount Timorese ancestors journeying from the Malay Peninsula or the Minangkabau highlands of Sumatra, austronesians migrated to Timor, and are thought to be associated with the development of agriculture on the island.
Thirdly, Proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina, before European colonialism, Timor was included in Chinese and Indian trading networks, and in the 14th century was an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves and wax. It was the abundance of sandalwood in Timor that attracted European explorers to the island in the early 16th century. During that time, European explorers reported that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms, the Portuguese established outposts in Timor and Maluku. Effective European occupation of a part of the territory began in 1769, when the city of Dili was founded. For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a trading post until the late nineteenth century, with minimal investment in infrastructure, health
Seram is the largest and main island of Maluku province of Indonesia, despite Ambon Islands historical importance. It is located just north of smaller Ambon Island, Seram is traversed by a central mountain range, the highest point of which, Mount Binaiya, is covered with dense rain forests. Its remarkably complex geology is because of its location at the meeting of several tectonic microplates, Seram actually falls on its own microplate, which has been twisted around by 80° in the last 8 million years by the relatively faster movement of the Papua microplate. Meanwhile, along with the push of the Australian Plate. On the island are important karst areas, in the mountains near Sawai is the cave Hatu Saka, currently the deepest cave in Indonesia. In Taniwell district, on the north coast, is the underground river Sapalewa, Seram Island is remarkable for its high degree of localised bird endemism. The mammals found on Seram include Asian species as well as Australasian marsupials, the montane area of Seram supports the greatest number of endemic mammals of any island in the region.
It harbors 38 mammal species and includes nine species that are endemic or near endemic and these include the Seram bandicoot, Moluccan flying fox, Seram flying-fox, Manusela mosaic-tailed rat, spiny Ceram rat and the Ceram rat, all considered threatened. Saltwater crocodiles exist within some of the rivers, including the Salawai River. In the eastern part of the island, Manusela National Park has been established in 1997, most central Moluccans consider Seram to be their original ancestral home and it is still known colloquially as Nusa Ina. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Seram was generally within the sphere of influence of Ternate, the expedition of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted and explored the entire southern coast of Seram in early 1512, for the first time for Europeans. Portuguese missionaries were there in the 16th century. Dutch trading posts were opened in the early 17th century, in the 1780s, Seram provided a key base of support for Prince Nuku of Tidores long-running rebellion against Dutch rule.
From 1954 until 1962 the islands mountain terrain was the scene of a guerilla struggle against Indonesian rule by the counter revolutionary Republic of South Moluccas movement led by Soumokil. Seram includes three of the regencies within the province of Maluku, West Seram, capital at Dataran Hunipopu, had a population of 140,657, and Eastern Seram, capital at Dataran Hunimoa, had a population of 78,336. The Central Maluku Regency, with its capital at Masohi, includes the part of Ceram. Seram has been associated with the animism of the indigenous Alfur. Today, most of the population of Seram today is either Muslim or Christian due to conversion and immigration
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals
Bali is an island and province of Indonesia. The province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and it is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. Its capital, Denpasar, is located in the part of the island. With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and 4,225,000 as of January 2014, the island is home to most of Indonesias Hindu minority. According to the 2010 Census,83. 5% of Balis population adhered to Balinese Hinduism, followed by 13. 4% Muslim, Christianity at 2. 5%, Bali is a popular tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy and it is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali, in March 2017, Tripadvisor named the island the worlds top destination in its Travelers choice award.
Bali is part of the Coral Triangle, the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species, in this area alone over 500 reef building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about 7 times as many as in the entire Caribbean, most recently, Bali was the host of the 2011 ASEAN Summit,2013 APEC and Miss World 2013. Bali is the home of the Subak Irrigation System, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bali was inhabited around 2000 BC by Austronesian people who migrated originally from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are closely related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the islands west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi, each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 dont mention a king, until 914 and they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously.
Mpu Sindoks great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989 and this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, and Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150, jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and particularly Hindu culture. The name Bali dwipa has been discovered from inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation, some religious and cultural traditions still practiced today can be traced to this period
Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the central and southern regions of the Maluku Islands, the main city and capital of Maluku province is Ambon on the small Ambon Island. The province had a population of 1,533,506 at the 2010 Census, all the Maluku Islands were part of a single province from 1950 until 1999.03 percent, the field of business administration. Malukus economy in 2014 has increased compared to growth in 2013, the GDP growth rate of Maluku in 2014 reached 6.70 percent, while in 2013 amounted to 5.26 percent. The highest economic growth in the field of electricity and gas supply business by 31.11 percent, while the business sector GDP is another economy in 2014 experienced positive growth
Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the states of East Timor, on the eastern part, and Indonesia, on the western part. The Indonesian part, known as West Timor, constitutes part of the province of East Nusa Tenggara, within West Timor lies an exclave of East Timor called Oecusse District. The island covers an area of 30,777 square kilometres, the name is a variant of timur, Malay for east, it is so called because it lies at the eastern end of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Anthropologists identify eleven distinct ethno-linguistic groups in Timor, the largest are the Atoni of western Timor, and the Tetum of central and eastern Timor. Most indigenous Timorese languages belong to the Timor–Babar branch of the Austronesian languages spoken throughout the Indonesian archipelago, the non-Austronesian languages are thought to be related to languages spoken on Halmahera and in Western New Guinea. Some are so mixed it is difficult to tell which family they descend from, the official languages of East Timor are Tetum and Portuguese, while in West Timor it is Indonesian.
Indonesian is spoken and understood in East Timor. Islam and Animism make up most of the remainder at about 5% each across the island, Timor is located north of Australia, and is one of the easternmost Sunda Islands. Timor is the island of the Outer Banda Arc, which has been upthrust by collision with the Australian continent. Timor has older geology and lacks the volcanic nature of the northern Lesser Sunda Islands, the orientation of the main axis of the island differs from its neighbors. These features have been explained as the result of being on the edge of the Indo-Australian Plate as it meets the Eurasian Plate. The climate includes a dry season with hot winds blowing over from Australia. Rivers on the island include the Southern and Northern Laclo Rivers in East Timor, the largest towns on the island are the provincial capital of Kupang in West Timor and the Portuguese colonial towns of Dili the capital, and Baucau in East Timor. Poor roads make transport to inland areas difficult, in East Timor especially, East Timor is a poor country, with health issues including malaria and dengue fever.
Sources of revenue include gas and oil in the Timor Sea, coffee growing, the natural vegetation was tropical dry broadleaf forests with an undergrowth of shrubs and grasses supporting a rich wildlife. However much of the original forest has been cleared for farming, especially on the coasts of Timor, apart from one large block in the centre of Timor only patches remain. This ecoregion is part of the Wallacea area with a mixture of plants and animals of Asian and Australasian origin, it lies in the part of Wallacea
Java is an island of Indonesia. With a population of over 141 million or 145 million as of 2015 Census released in December 2015, the Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java and it was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s, Java dominates Indonesia politically and culturally. Formed mostly as the result of eruptions, Java is the 13th largest island in the world. A chain of mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island, Sundanese, of these, Javanese is the dominant, it is the native language of about 60 million people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian as their first or second language, while the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs and cultures.
Java is divided into four provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Banten, the origins of the name Java are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time. There are other sources, the word jaú and its variations mean beyond or distant. And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous, Yawadvipa is mentioned in Indias earliest epic, the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Ramas army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa and it was hence referred to in India by the Sanskrit name yāvaka dvīpa. Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram, another source states that the Java word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning home. The great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemys Geographia composed around 150 CE Roman Empire, Iabadiu is said to mean barley island, to be rich in gold, and have a silver town called Argyra at the west end.
The name indicate Java, and seems to be derived from Hindu name Java-dvipa, Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south and it is the worlds 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin, it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or another been active volcanoes
Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earths total land area and 8. 7% of the Earths total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its large size and population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, the western boundary with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The most commonly accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural River, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A. D. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination, the Silk Road became the main East-West trading route in the Asian hitherland while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route.
Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties, the boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, and the Suez Canal. This makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia, the border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. In Sweden, five years after Peters death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia, the Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg, the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary.
Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century, the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is usually placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, the border between Asia and the loosely defined region of Oceania is usually placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several different geographic meanings since their inception. The chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, The narrowing of Southeast Asia to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process, Asia is larger and more culturally diverse than Europe. It does not exactly correspond to the borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds there is no or is no substantial physical separation between them
North Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It covers the part of the Maluku Islands. The provincial capital is Sofifi, on Halmahera, and the largest population center is the island of Ternate, in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the islands of North Maluku were the original Spice Islands. At the time, the region was the source of cloves. The Dutch, Portuguese and local sultanates including Ternate and Tidore fought each other for control of the lucrative trade in these spices. The population of North Maluku was 1,038,087 at the 2010 Census making it one of the provinces in Indonesia. The islands of North Maluku are mostly of volcanic origin, with the volcanoes of Dukono on Halmahera, Gamalama on Ternate still active and the whole of Tidore consisting of a large stratovolcano. The predominant trees of the forest are Anisoptera thurifera, Hopea gregaria, Hopea iriana, Shorea assamica, Shorea montigena, Shorea selanica, and Vatica rassak. The endemic mammals found include the Obi mosaic-tailed rat, masked flying fox.
There are over two hundred different birds on the islands, twenty-six of which are endemic, a number for this small island group. The islands are home to the largest bee in the world. The islands have a tropical rainforest climate, logging has occurred more recently on Halmahera and Morotai. North Maluku Province was subdivided into seven regencies and two cities, listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census. An eighth regency, covering Taliabu Island, was formed in 2013 from the westernmost island in the Sula Islands Residency, # The figures for the new Taliabu Island Regency are included in those for Sula Islands Regency. The northern part of the Maluku Islands is the location of four major sultanates, while they no longer hold official or political power, these sultanates still hold enormous cultural respect. The construction consists of sea-rock, sand and egg as the adhesive, kotanaka Fortress Orange Fortress Kalamata Fortress Dever Lacting Fortress Bernaveld Fortress Baileo
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods, the shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf. The continental margin, between the shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, extending as far as 500 km from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope. The continental rises gradient is intermediate between the slope and the shelf, on the order of 0. 5–1°, the largest shelf – the Siberian Shelf in the Arctic Ocean – stretches to 1,500 kilometers in width. The South China Sea lies over another extensive area of shelf, the Sunda Shelf, which joins Borneo, Sumatra.
Other familiar bodies of water that overlie continental shelves are the North Sea, the average width of continental shelves is about 80 km. The depth of the shelf varies, but is limited to water shallower than 150 m. The slope of the shelf is quite low, on the order of 0. 5°, vertical relief is minimal. Though the continental shelf is treated as a province of the ocean, it is not part of the deep ocean basin proper. Passive continental margins such as most of the Atlantic coasts have wide and shallow shelves, active continental margins have narrow, relatively steep shelves, due to frequent earthquakes that move sediment to the deep sea. The shelf usually ends at a point of increasing slope, the sea floor below the break is the continental slope. Below the slope is the rise, which finally merges into the deep ocean floor. The continental shelf and the slope are part of the continental margin, the shelf area is commonly subdivided into the inner continental shelf, mid continental shelf, and outer continental shelf, each with their specific geomorphology and marine biology.
The character of the shelf changes dramatically at the shelf break, with a few exceptions, the shelf break is located at a remarkably uniform depth of roughly 140 m, this is likely a hallmark of past ice ages, when sea level was lower than it is now. The continental slope is steeper than the shelf, the average angle is 3°. The slope is cut with submarine canyons. The physical mechanisms involved in forming these canyons were not well understood until the 1960s, the continental shelves are covered by terrigenous sediments, that is, those derived from erosion of the continents
East Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara is the southernmost province of Indonesia. It is located in the part of the Lesser Sunda Islands. It has an area of 48,718.1 km2, and the population at the 2010 Census was 4,683,827. The provincial capital is Kupang on West Timor, the province consists of more than 500 islands, the three largest being Flores and the western half of Timor. The eastern part of Timor is the independent country of East Timor, East Nusa Tenggara is the only province in Indonesia where Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Nusa Tenggara Timur, in Indonesian, means eastern southeastern islands, compare to Nusa Tenggara Barat, after the declaration of Indonesian independence in 1945, the eastern part of Indonesia declared the State of East Indonesia. The state was included in the United States of Indonesia as part of the agreement with the Dutch contained in the transfer its sovereignty to Indonesia in 1949. In 1950, United States of Indonesia dissolved itself into a unitary state, in 1958, by Indonesian law No.
64/1958, three provinces were established in the Lesser Sunda Islands, namely Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, the area of East Nusa Tenggara province included the western part of Timor island, Flores and other several small islands in the region. The province was sub-divided into twelve regencies and the City of Kupang, following the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998 and the passage of a new regional autonomy law, there was a dramatic proliferation of regional governments across Indonesia. Several new regencies were created in East Nusa Tenggara by the division of existing regencies, In 1999, in 2002, Rote and Ndao Islands were split off from Kupang Regency, to form a new Rote Ndao Regency. In 2003, Manggarai Regency was split into two and a new West Manggarai Regency was established, in 2007, the administration of East Nusa Tenggara province was expanded by the establishment of four new regencies - Central Sumba and Southwest Sumba and East Manggarai. In October 2008 a further regency - Sabu Raijua - was formed part of the remaining Kupang Regency.
In December 2012 yet another regency - Malaka - was created out of the half of Belu Regency. Therefore, as of early 2013, there were twenty-one regencies plus the one city in the province. Located in the east of Lesser Sunda Islands, East Nusa Tenggara faces the Indian Ocean in the south, the province is bordered by other provinces, West Nusa Tenggara in the west. In the east, the province is bordered by East Timor, the province consists of about 566 islands, the largest and most dominant are Flores and the western part of Timor. The other is smaller islands include Adonara, Komodo, Menipo, Rincah, Rote Island, Semau, the highest point in the province is Mount Mutis in the South Central Timor Regency,2,427 meters above sea level
Provinces of Indonesia
Indonesian territory is composed of 34 provinces. A province is the highest tier of the local government divisions of Indonesia, provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into sub-districts. Each province has its own government, headed by a governor. The governor and members of representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Five provinces have special status, for the use of the law as the regional law of the province. Special Region of Yogyakarta, a sovereign monarchy within Indonesia with the sultan Hamengkubuwono as hereditary Governor, SR Yogyakarta refused to call themselves as the province according to Law No. 12/2012 about The Speciality of Special Region of Yogyakarta, for implementation of sustainable development. West Papua, for granting implementation of sustainable development, the provinces are officially grouped into seven geographical units. This clickable map shows provinces of Indonesia as of 25 October 2012, click on a province name to go to its main article.
A considerable number of new provinces have been proposed in addition to the 34 existing provinces of Indonesia, as of 2013, the government has targeted the creation of eight new provinces by 2020, by splitting several of the existing provinces. On 25 October 2013, the Indonesian House of Representatives began reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies and 8 new provinces