Scottish National Gallery
The Scottish National Gallery is the national art gallery of Scotland. It is located on The Mound in central Edinburgh, close to Princes Street; the building was designed in a neoclassical style by William Henry Playfair, first opened to the public in 1859. The gallery houses Scotland's national collection of fine art, spanning Scottish and international art from the beginning of the Renaissance up to the start of the 20th century; the Scottish National Gallery is run by National Galleries of Scotland, a public body that owns the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Because of its architectural similarity, the Scottish National Gallery is confused by visitors with the neighbouring Royal Scottish Academy Building, a separate institution which works with the Scottish National Gallery; the origins of Scotland's national collection lie with the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland, founded in 1819. It began to acquire paintings, in 1828 the Royal Institution building opened on The Mound.
In 1826, the Scottish Academy was founded by a group of artists as an offshoot of the Royal Institution, in 1838 it became the Royal Scottish Academy. A key aim of the RSA was the founding of a national collection, it began to build up a collection and from 1835 rented exhibition space within the Royal Institution building. In the 1840s, plans were put in place for a new building to house the RSA; the noted Scottish architect William Henry Playfair was commissioned to prepare designs, on 30 August 1850, Prince Albert laid the foundation stone. The building was divided along the middle, with the east half housing the exhibition galleries of the RSA, the western half containing the new National Gallery of Scotland, formed from the collection of the Royal Institution. In 1912 the RSA moved into the Royal Institution building, which remains known as the Royal Scottish Academy Building; when it re-opened, the gallery concentrated on building its permanent collection of Scottish and European art for the nation of Scotland.
In the early 21st century, the National Galleries launched the Playfair Project, a scheme to create a new basement entrance to the National Gallery in Princes Street Gardens and an underground connecting space, called the Weston Link, between the Gallery and the renovated Royal Scottish Academy building. The new underground space opened in 2004. In 2012, the gallery's umbrella organisation, National Galleries of Scotland, underwent a rebranding exercise, National Gallery of Scotland was renamed the Scottish National Gallery. William Playfair's building — like its neighbour, the Royal Scottish Academy — was designed in the form of an Ancient Greek temple atop a stylobate steps. While Playfair designed the RSA in the Doric order, the National Gallery building was surrounded by Ionic columns topped with tetrastyle porticoes; the pair of porticoes at the main entrance reflect the building's original dual purpose, to house the two collections of the NGS and the RSA, these served as two separate entrances.
Playfair worked to a much more limited budget than the RSA project, this is reflected in his comparatively austere architectural style. He may have drawn inspiration from an 1829 scheme for an arcade of shops by Archibald Elliot II, son of Archibald Elliot. Playfair's National Gallery was laid out in a cruciform plan; when the RSA moved into the former Royal Institution building in 1912, the English architect William Thomas Oldrieve was engaged to remodel the NGS interior to house the National Gallery collection exclusively. In the 1970s, when the gallery was under the direction of the Department of the Environment, the building was extended. An upper floor was added at the south end in 1972, creating five new small galleries, in 1978 a new gallery was opened in the basement to house the Gallery's Scottish Collection; the new Princes Street Gardens entrance and underground space opened in 2004 was designed by John Miller and Partners. Construction cost £ 32 million; the area contains a lecture theatre, education area, restaurant, an interactive gallery, a link to the RSA building.
In January 2019, construction work began on a project to alter the lower level areas and to create extended exhibition space. It is planned. Architectural features The research facilities at the Scottish National Gallery include the Prints and Drawings Collection of over 30,000 works on paper, from the early Renaissance to the late nineteenth century; the Research Library covers the period from 1300 to 1900 and holds 50,000 volumes of books, journals and microfiches, as well as some archival material relating to the collections and history of the National Gallery. The Print Room or Research Library can be accessed by appointment. At the heart of the National Gallery's collection is a group of paintings transferred from the Royal Scottish Academy Building; this includes masterpieces by Van Dyck and Giambattista Tiepolo. The National Gallery did not receive its own purchase grant until 1903. In the Gallery's main ground floor rooms are displayed a number of major large-scale canvases such as Benjamin West's Alexander III of Scotland Rescued from the Fury of a Stag, Rubens's The Feast of Herod
Loch Lomond is a freshwater Scottish loch which crosses the Highland Boundary Fault considered the boundary between the lowlands of Central Scotland and the Highlands. Traditionally forming part of the boundary between the counties of Stirlingshire and Dunbartonshire, Loch Lomond is split between the council areas of Stirling and Bute and West Dunbartonshire, its southern shores are about 23 kilometres northwest of the centre of Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The Loch forms part of the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park, established in 2002. Loch Lomond is 36.4 kilometres long and between 1 and 8 kilometres wide, with a surface area of 71 km2. It is the largest lake in Great Britain by surface area. In the British Isles as a whole there are several larger loughs in the Republic of Ireland; the loch has a maximum depth of about 153 metres in the deeper northern portion, although the southern part of the loch exceeds 30 metres in depth. The total volume of Loch Lomond is 2.6 km3, making it the second largest lake in Great Britain, after Loch Ness, by water volume.
The loch contains many islands, including Inchmurrin, the largest fresh-water island in the British Isles. Loch Lomond is a popular leisure destination and is featured in the song "The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond"; the loch is surrounded by hills, including Ben Lomond on the eastern shore, 974 metres in height and the most southerly of the Scottish Munro peaks. A 2005 poll of Radio Times readers voted Loch Lomond as the sixth greatest natural wonder in Britain; the depression in which Loch Lomond lies was carved out by glaciers during the final stages of the last ice age, during a return to glacial conditions known as the Loch Lomond Readvance between 20,000 and 10,000 years ago. The loch lies on the Highland Boundary Fault, the difference between the Highland and Lowland geology is reflected in the shape and character of the loch: in the north the glaciers dug a deep channel in the Highland schist, removing up to 600 m of bedrock to create a narrow, fjord-like finger lake. Further south the glaciers were able to spread across the softer Lowland sandstone, leading to a wider body of water, more than 30 m deep.
In the period following the Loch Lomond Readvance the sea level rose, for several periods Loch Lomond was connected to the sea, with shorelines identified at 13, 12 and 9 metres above sea level. The change in rock type can be seen at several points around the loch, as it runs across the islands of Inchmurrin, Creinch and Inchcailloch and over the ridge of Conic Hill. To the south lie green fields and cultivated land; the loch contains thirty or more other islands, depending on the water level. Several of them are large by the standards of British bodies of freshwater. Inchmurrin, for example, is the largest island in a body of freshwater in the British Isles. Many of the islands are the remains of harder rocks. English travel writer, H. V. Morton wrote: What a large part of Loch Lomond's beauty is due to its islands, those beautiful green tangled islands, that lie like jewels upon its surface. Writing some 150 years earlier than Morton, Samuel Johnson had however been less impressed by Loch Lomond's islands, writing: But as it is, the islets, which court the gazer at a distance, disgust him at his approach, when he finds, instead of soft lawns and shady thickets, nothing more than uncultivated ruggedness.
Powan are one of the commonest fish species in loch, which has more species of fish than any other loch in Scotland, including lamprey, brook trout, loach, common roach and flounder. The river lamprey of Loch Lomond display an unusual behavioural trait not seen elsewhere in Britain: unlike other populations, in which young hatch in rivers before migrating to the sea, the river lamprey here remain in freshwater all their lives, hatching in the Endrick Water and migrating into the loch as adults; the surrounding hills are home to species such as black grouse, golden eagles, pine martens, red deer and mountain hares. Many species of wading birds and water vole inhabit the loch shore. During the winter months large numbers of geese migrate to Loch Lomond, including over 1 % of the entire global population of Greenland white-fronted geese, up to 3,000 greylag geese; the Scottish dock, sometimes called the Loch Lomond dock, is in Britain unique to the shores of Loch Lomond, being found on around Balmaha on the western shore of the loch.
It was first discovered growing there in 1936. One of the loch's islands, Inchconnachan, is home to a colony of wallabies; as well as forming part of the Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park, Loch Lomond holds multiple other conservation designations. 428 ha of land in the southeast, including five of the islands, is designated as national nature reserve: the Loch Lomond National Nature Reserve. Seven islands and much of the shoreline form a Special Area of the Loch Lomond Woods; this designation overlaps with the national nature reserve, is protected due to the presence of Atlantic oak woodlands and a population of otters. Four islands and a section of the shoreline are designated as a Special Protection Area due to their importance for breeding capercaillie
Joseph Noel Paton
Sir Joseph Noel Paton FRSA, LL. D. was a Scottish artist and sculptor. He was a poet and had a deep-seated interest in, knowledge of, Scottish folklore and Celtic legends, he was born in Wooer's Alley, Fife, on 13 December 1821 to Joseph Neil Paton and Catherine MacDiarmid, damask designers and weavers in the town. He is the brother of the sculptor Amelia Robertson Hill, the landscape artist Waller Hugh Paton, he had one brother and two sisters and Alexia, who died in childhood. In his life, Paton erected a monument on the grave site of his parents and siblings, their graves were originally unmarked. Paton attended Dunfermline School and Dunfermline Art Academy, further enhancing the talents he had developed as a child, he followed the family trade by working as the design department director in a muslin factory for three years. Most of his life was spent in Scotland but he studied at the Royal Academy, London in 1843, where he was tutored by George Jones. While studying in London Paton met John Everett Millais, who asked him to join the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
In 1858, he married the couple had eleven children. Their eldest son, Diarmid Noel Paton, became a regius professor of physiology in Glasgow during 1906 while another son, Frederick Noel Paton, was appointed as director of commercial intelligence to the government of India in 1905 but was a noted illustrator; the invitation to be an official member of the Brotherhood was turned down by Paton although he painted in the Pre-Raphaelite style and became a painter of historical, fairy and religious subjects. Together with Daniel Maclise, Paton was a folklore expert. Paton's knowledge of Celtic legends and Scottish folklore is reflected in his paintings. During his short spell in London, Paton became acquainted with Samuel Carter Hall, editor of The Art Journal, he commissioned Paton to design some of the illustrations for his 1842 book The Book of British Ballads. Other commissions to design book illustrations included the 1844 edition of Shelley's lyrical drama Prometheus Unbound, an 1845 publication of Shakespeare's The Tempest and an 1863 version of Coleridge's poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
In 1844 Paton's first painting, Ruth Gleaning, was exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy. He won a number of prizes for his work including for two of his most famous works The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania and The Reconciliation of Oberon and Titania, both of which are available to public view at the National Gallery of Scotland. An earlier study of the Quarrel painting was completed in 1846 and featured as Paton's diploma picture at the Royal Scottish Academy that year; the Academy purchased the earlier work for £700. Made an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1847 and a fellow in 1850. In 1865, he was appointed Queen's Limner for Scotland, he published two volumes of poetry and produced a number of sculptures. Two years he received the knighthood and in 1878 was conferred the degree LL. D. by the University of Edinburgh. In 1860 he was living at 37 Drummond Place in the New Edinburgh. Paton was a well known antiquary. In 1859 he raised and commanded the 1st Edinburgh Artillery Volunteer Corps, composed of artists with the painter John Faed as his lieutenant.
He died in Edinburgh at his home 33 George Square on 26 December 1901, is buried in Dean Cemetery. His second son. F W F Noel Paton, was Director General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics for India, his daughter, Hamilton Lora, is buried 10m to his east with Robert Scott Moncrieff. Cymocles Discovered By Atis In The Bowre Of Blisse, Spencer's Fairie Queene, Book II, Chapter V Calvary Sermon on the Mount The Pursuit of Pleasure The Bluidie Tryst Home Hesperus In Memoriam By a Painter Poem Mors Janua Vitae Spindrift Poem The Fairy Raid: Carrying Off a Changeling - Midsummer Eve, 1867 Oskold and the Ell-maids The Man with the Muck-Rake In Die Malo How an Angel rowed Sir Galahad across the Dern Mere Oberon and the Mermaid The Spirit of Religion at Dunfermline City Chambers Sir Galahad Warriors List of
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
National Gallery of Victoria
The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and most visited art museum; the NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection across two sites: NGV International, located on St Kilda Road in the Melbourne Arts Precinct of Southbank, the Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia, located nearby at Federation Square. The NGV International building, designed by Sir Roy Grounds, opened in 1968, was redeveloped by Mario Bellini before reopening in 2003, it is on the Victorian Heritage Register. Designed by Lab Architecture Studio, the Ian Potter Centre opened in 2002 and houses the gallery's Australian art collection. Victoria was granted separation from New South Wales in 1850, becoming effective on 1 July 1851. In the wake of the Victorian gold rush that began in August 1851, the new colony became Australia's richest, Melbourne, its capital, the largest and wealthiest city in Australia. With Melbourne's rapid growth came calls for the establishment of a public art gallery, in 1859, the Government of Victoria pledged £2000 for the acquisition of plaster casts of sculpture.
These works were displayed in the Museum of Art, opened by Governor Sir Henry Barkly in May 1861 on the lower floor of the south wing of the Public Library on Swanston Street. Further money was set aside in the early 1860s for the purchase of original paintings by British and Victorian artists; these works were first displayed in December 1864 in the newly opened Picture Gallery, which remained under the curatorial administration of the Public Library until 1882. Grand designs for a building fronting Lonsdale and Swanston streets were drawn by Nicholas Chevalier in 1860 and Frederick Grosse in 1865, featuring an enormous and elaborate library and gallery, but the visions were never realised. On 24 May 1874, the first purpose built gallery, known as the McArthur Gallery, opened in the McArthur room of the State Library, the following year, the Museum of Art was renamed the National Gallery of Victoria; the McArthur Gallery was only intended as a temporary home until the much grander vision was to be realised.
However such an edifice did not eventuate and the complex was instead developed incrementally over several decades. The National Gallery of Victoria Art School, associated with the gallery, was founded in 1867 and remained the leading centre for academic art training in Australia until about 1910; the School's graduates went on to become some of Australia's most significant artists. In 1887, the Buvelot Gallery was opened, along with the Painting School studios. In 1892, two more galleries were added: Stawell and La Trobe; the gallery's collection was built from both gifts of works of art and monetary donations. The most significant, the Felton Bequest, was established by the will of Alfred Felton and from 1904, has been used to purchase over 15,000 works of art. Since the Felton Bequest, the gallery had long held plans to build a permanent facility, however it was not until 1943 that the State Government chose a site, Wirth's Park, just south of the Yarra River. £3 million was put forward in February 1960 and Roy Grounds was announced as the architect.
In 1959, the commission to design a new gallery was awarded to the architectural firm Grounds Romberg Boyd. In 1962, Roy Grounds split from his partners Frederick Romberg and Robin Boyd, retained the commission, designed the gallery at 180 St Kilda Road; the new bluestone clad building was completed in December 1967 and Victorian premier Henry Bolte opened it on 20 August 1968. One of the features of the building is the Leonard French stained glass ceiling, one of the world's largest pieces of suspended stained glass, which casts colourful light on the floor below; the water-wall entrance is another well-known feature of the building. In 1999, redevelopment of the building was proposed, with Mario Bellini chosen as architect and an estimated project cost of $161.9 million. The proposal was to leave the original architectural fabric intact including the exterior facade and Leonard French stained glass ceiling, but to modernise the interior. During the redevelopment, many works were moved to a temporary external annex known as NGV on Russell, at the State Library with its entrance on Russell Street.
A major fundraising drive was launched on 10 October 2000 to redevelop the ageing facility and although the state government committed the majority of the funds, private donations were sought in addition to federal funding. The drive achieved its aim and secured $15 million from the Ian Potter Foundation on 11 July 2000, $3 million from Lotti Smorgon, $2 million from the Clemenger Foundation, $1 million each from James Fairfax and the Pratt Foundation. NGV on Russell closed on 30 June 2002 to make way for the staged opening of the new St Kilda Road gallery, it was opened by premier Steve Bracks on 4 December 2003. The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia in Federation Square was designed by Lab Architecture Studio to house the NGV's Australian art collection, it opened in 2002. As such, the NGV's collection is now housed in two separate buildings, with Grounds' building renamed NGV International; the NGV's Asian art collection began in 1862, one year after the gallery's founding, when Frederick Dalgety donated two Chinese plates.
The Asian collection has since grown to include significant works from across the continent. The NGV's Australian art collection encompasses Indigenous art and artefacts, Australian colonial art, Australian Impressionist art, 20th century and contemporary art; the 1880s saw the birth and development of
George Square, Edinburgh
George Square is a city square in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is in the south of the city centre, adjacent to the Meadows, it was laid out in 1766 outside the overcrowded Old Town, was a popular residential area for Edinburgh's better-off citizens. In the 1960s much of the square was redeveloped by the University of Edinburgh, despite the protests of the Cockburn Association and the Georgian Group of Edinburgh. Most but not all buildings on the square now belong to the university. Principal buildings include the George Square Theatre, Main Library, David Hume Tower and Appleton Tower; the square was laid out by the builder James Brown, comprised modest Georgian, terraced houses. Away from the overcrowded Old Town, George Square became popular with nobles. Well-known residents included Sir Walter Scott, the judge Lord Braxfield, the politician Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville; the square was named after George Brown. In June 1792 the square was the starting point of the infamous Dundas Riots, aimed at the house of the Lord advocate, Robert Dundas of Arniston, who lived on the square.
The central gardens contain a memorial to Winifred Rushforth. Redevelopment of the square began in the late 19th century when numbers 4 to 7 were redeveloped as George Watson's Ladies College. In the 1920s the college expanded to absorb 8 to 10; these minor interventions were mild in comparison with the changes of the 1960s: the whole south side was demolished, together with half the east side, to provide new facilities for Edinburgh University. Combined with the redevelopments on Potterow to the north-east and acquisition of the McEwan Hall, this made George Square the new focal hub of the whole university; the central gardens are owned and are not a public park as such. However they are available to public use, though only the southern access is open; the garden contains a memorial to Dr Winifred Rushforth entitled "The Dreamer". The garden contains several "Baillie lamps" which were placed in front of the Edinburgh Baillies and latterly placed in front of councillor's houses. Richard Huie John Campbell, Lord Stonefield Waller Hugh Paton John Struthers Rev William King Tweedie plus a short time at Very Rev Patrick Clason Simon Somerville Laurie Jane Welsh Carlyle Robert Kaye Greville Joseph Noel Paton Charles Lawson Dawson Turner Dr Andrew Fyfe William Archer Porter Tait Edmund Taylor Whittaker George Turnbull of Abbey St Bathans and his son John Gerard Baldwin Brown Robert Dundas of Arniston Charles Maclaren Thomas M'Crie the Younger 33 George Square was used as HM Geological Survey of Scotland with notable employees including John Horne.
The University of Edinburgh began drawing up plans to redevelop the square in the 1950s. Architects Basil Spence and Robert Matthew were involved in the plans. Opposition to demolition of the Georgian Square was led by the Cockburn Association, the Georgian Group of Edinburgh, established by Colin McWilliam and others to resist the proposals. In the end, the western side of the square was retained. On the northern side, the 19th century George Watson's Ladies College was retained alongside the modern Hugh Robson Building. Georgian terraces were retained along half of the east side, while the southern side was redeveloped; the David Hume Tower stands at the south-east corner, adjacent to the main lecture theatre and the business school. The Main Library occupies most of the southern side of the square. During August each year, the square becomes an important hub for events at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. Many of the university buildings, notably George Square Theatre and the lecture theatres in the David Hume Tower complex are converted to use as venues by venue operator Assembly.
The gardens are filled with bars and pop-up venues, including, in recent years while nearby Bristo Square is being renovated, the well-known Underbelly purple cow venue. Historic Environment Scotland. "Edinburgh, George Square, General". Canmore. Retrieved 18 May 2012. Robertson, Eleanor. "The Story of the Society". Architectural Heritage Society of Scotland. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. "George Square". Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 18 May 2012. Media related to George Square, Edinburgh at Wikimedia Commons