French Flanders is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings were traditionally the dominant ethnic group and where a dialect of Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken. The region lies in the modern-day region of Hauts-de-France and corresponds to the arrondissements of Lille and Dunkirk on the southern border with Belgium. Together with French Hainaut and the Cambrésis, it makes up the French Department of Nord. French Flanders is flat marshlands in the coal-rich area just south of the North Sea, it consists of two regions: French Westhoek to the northwest, lying between the Lys River and the North Sea the same area as the Arrondissement of Dunkirk. Once a part of ancient and medieval Francia since the inception of the Frankish kingdom under the Merovingian monarchs such as Clovis I, crowned at Tournai, Flanders fell under the control of the English and Spanish, becoming part of the Spanish Netherlands and retained by Spain at the end of the Eighty Years' War.
When French national military power returned under the Bourbons with King Louis XIV "The Sun King", a part of French Flanders was returned to the Kingdom. The region now called "French Flanders" was once part of the feudal state County of Flanders part of the Southern Netherlands, it was separated from the county in 1659 due to the Peace of the Pyrenees, which ended the French-Spanish conflict in the Thirty Years War, other parts of the region were added in successive treaties in 1668 and 1678. The region was ceded to the Kingdom of France, became part of the province of Flanders and Hainaut; the bulk became part of the modern French administrative Nord departément, although some western parts of the region, which separated in 1237 and became the County of Artois before the cession to the French, are now part of Pas-de-Calais. During World War II,'French Flanders' referred to all of Nord-Pas de Calais, first attached to the military administration of German-occupied Belgium part of "Belgien-Nordfrankreich" under a Reichskommissar, part of a theoretical Reichsgau of Flanders.
Rich in coal, facing the North Sea, bordered by powerful neighbors, French Flanders has been fought over numerous times in the thousand years between the Middle Ages and World War II. The traditional language of northern French Flanders, related to the Dutch language, is known as West Flemish a subdialect known as French Flemish, spoken by around 20,000 daily speakers and 40,000 occasional users; the traditional language of Walloon Flanders, is Picard. Many schools in this region teach Flemish to schoolchildren in an effort to revive the language. In 2008, the success of the movie Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis illuminated this part of France to a wide audience. Walloon Flanders Burgundian Netherlands Frisians Greater Netherlands Seventeen Provinces Wallonia Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré, 1952. French Flanders Ethnologue Report for West Flemish Flemish in France The Extent of Flemish in France in 1970, contains language maps
The Franco-Flemish War was a conflict between the Kingdom of France and the County of Flanders between 1297 and 1305. Philip IV of France became King in 1285, was determined to strengthen the French monarchy at any cost; the County of Flanders had been formally part of the French Kingdom since the Treaty of Verdun in 843, but had always de facto been if not independent from the French crown. Flanders had some of the richest cities of that time, like Bruges, Ypres and Douai; these cities tried to keep their independence from the Count of Flanders and from the rural aristocracy. But the cities were themselves divided between the rich patricians and the urban tradesmen, united in guilds. In 1288, Philip IV of France used complaints over taxes to tighten his control over Flanders. Tension built between Guy of Count of Flanders and the King. In 1294, Guy turned for help to King Edward I of England, arranging a marriage between his daughter Philippa and Edward, Prince of Wales. However, Philip imprisoned Guy and two of his sons, forced him to call off the marriage, imprisoned Philippa in Paris until her death in 1306.
Guy was summoned before the king again in 1296, the principal cities of Flanders were taken under royal protection, until Guy paid an indemnity and surrendered his territories, to hold them at the grace of the King. After these indignities, in 1297 Guy attempted to revenge himself on Philip by an alliance with Edward I of England, now at war with France. Philip responded by declaring Flanders annexed to the royal domain and sending a French army under Robert II of Artois to conquer Flanders. In January 1297 Count Guy formally broke his allegiance to King Philip IV and allied himself with King Edward I of England, Count John of Holland, Count Henry III of Bar and the King of the Germans Adolf of Nassau; the count of Flanders however would receive little support from his allies: an invasion of Champagne by the Count of Bar was beaten back, the German King encountered opposition from a French backed rival Albert I of Habsburg and fell in battle in 1298, King Edward encountered opposition by the English nobility against a Flemish enterprise and was faced with the First War of Scottish Independence.
This meant that Count Guy faced the French alone. The Count’s eldest son Robert of Bethune speedily occupied Mortagne, at the confluence of the Scheldt and the Scarpe, the castle of Helkijn. In March 1297 King Phillip IV seized all their property. Philip IV occupied the castle of l’Ecluse near Douai. In June 1297 Philip IV gathered an army of about 3,000 knights at Compiegne; the French Army marched on Arras and reached the Franco-Flemish border near Douai on 14 June 1297. The next day part of the French cavalry, led by the King's brother Charles of Valois and by Raoul de Nesle crossed the border near Râches and encountered part of the Flemish Army, consisting out of German hired troops, beaten back. After this setback Orchies surrendered to France. Valois' troops and burned the countryside up to Lille, but returned to the French main army. On 16 June 1297 the entire French Army entered Flanders marching upon Lille and burning the towns of Seclin and Loos on the way. On 17 June the city of Lille was invested and a formal siege, lasting ten weeks, began.
During the siege, French raiding parties marched through the Flemish countryside, burning or conquering the towns of Komen and Kortrijk, which surrendered to Valois. In August 1297 the French troops were reinforced when Robert of Artois returned from his successful campaign against Edward in Aquitaine. Artois' troops marched upon Cassel, except for the Flemish occupied castle, was burned, to Sint-Winoksbergen, which surrendered. By 20 August, Artois' troops had reached Veurne; the Flemish counter-attack on Artois ended in a French victory at the Battle of Furnes. Five days Lille surrendered to King Philip and the Flemish Army, led by Robert of Bethune and his 3,000-man strong army, was allowed to march out to Roeselare. Although facing problems at home, at the end of August 1297 King Edward moved an army of 895 knights and 7,560 infantry and bowmen to Flanders. Finding no support in Bruges, the King moved to Ghent and made that city his base of operations in Flanders. After the fall of Lille, the French main army marched upon Ingelmunster.
On 18 September 1297 Philip was met with a delegation from Bruges. The city was occupied by French troops led by Raoul de Nesle and Guy IV, Count of Saint-Pol but its port Damme was retaken by troops led by Robert of Bethune. Papal mediation led to an armistice, starting in October 1297 and at times prolonged until 1300. During this period negotiations between the French and English Kings and the other warring parties, including Count Guy, took place at the Papal court, while strengthening the defences of the Flemish towns in their hands. Having reached an agreement with his barons to fight the Scottish threat, in March 1298 Edward and his forces left Flanders abandoning his Flemish allies. King Edward's expedition to help Flanders was aborted and he made peace with Philip in 1298 and left Guy to his fate. By the end of 1299 Count Guy had turned over the government to his eldest son Robert. After the expiration of the armistice in January 1300, the French invaded Flanders again, starting skirmishes alongside the armistice line of 1298.
A French detachment led by Wale Paièle plundered and burned the countryside around Ypres and Cassel, Charles of Valois marched from Bruges to the outskirts of Ghent
Nord (French department)
Nord is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, the Bishopric of Cambrai; the modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders. Nord is the country's most populous department, it contains the metropolitan region of Lille, the fifth-largest urban area in France after Paris, Lyon and Toulouse. Within the department is located the part of France where the French Flemish dialect of Dutch is still spoken as a native language. Like Dutch, the dialect of Ch'ti is still spoken. Tribes of the Belgae, such as the Menapii and Nervii were the first peoples recorded in the area known as Nord. During the 4th and 5th Centuries, Roman rulers of Gallia Belgica secured the route from the major port of Bononia to Colonia, by co-opting Germanic peoples north-east of this corridor, such as the Tungri. In effect, the area known as Nord became an isogloss between the Germanic and Romance languages. Saxon colonisation of the region from the 5th to the 8th centuries shifted the isogloss further south so that, by the 9th century, most people north of Lille spoke a dialect of Old Dutch.
This has remained evident in the place names of the region. After the County of Flanders became part of France in the 9th century, the isogloss moved north and east. During the 14th Century, much of the area came under the control of the Duchy of Burgundy and in subsequent centuries was therefore part of the Habsburg Netherlands and the Spanish Netherlands. Areas that constituted Nord were ceded to France by treaties in 1659, 1668, 1678, becoming the Counties of Flanders and Hainaut, part of the Bishopric of Cambrai. On 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution, Nord became one of the original 83 departments created to replace the counties. Modern government policies making French the only official language have led to a decline in use of the Dutch West Flemish dialect. There are 20,000 speakers of a sub-dialect of West Flemish in the arrondissement of Dunkirk and it appears that this particular sub-dialect will be extinct within decades. There is, however. Nord is part of the current Hauts-de-France region and is surrounded by the French departments of Pas-de-Calais and Aisne, as well as by Belgium and the North Sea.
Situated in the north of the country along the western half of the Belgian frontier, the department is unusually long and narrow. Its principal city is Lille, which with nearby Roubaix and Villeneuve d'Ascq constitutes the center of a cluster of industrial and former mining towns totalling over a million inhabitants. Other important cities are Valenciennes and Dunkirk; the principal rivers are the following: Yser, Escaut, Sambre Nord is the most populated department, with a population of 2,617,939 and an area of 5,743 km². The President of the Departmental Council is the unaffiliated right-winger Jean-René Lecerf; the first President of the Fifth Republic, General Charles de Gaulle, was born in Lille in the department on 22 November 1890. At the forefront of France's 19th century industrialisation, the area suffered during World War I and now faces the economic and environmental problems associated with the decline of coal mining with its neighbours following the earlier decline of the Lille-Roubaix textile industry.
Until the department was dominated economically by coal mining, which extended through the heart of the department from neighbouring Artois into central Belgium. Cantons of the Nord department Communes of the Nord department Arrondissements of the Nord department French Flemish Université Lille Nord de France INSEE Prefecture website General Council website Nord at Curlie
Orchies is a commune in the department of Nord in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. Orchies is the biggest town of the Pévèle, it is known for its Musée de la chicorée, the museum of chicory. Orchies is twinned with Kelso in the Scottish Borders area of the United Kingdom; the French Romantic composer Clément Broutin was born in Orchies. Orchies railway station is served by TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais; the station is situated on a junction between the Fives-Hison railway and the Somain-Halluin Railway. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file Official web site
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm