The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which aspired to major league status, it is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of every season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2018, American League teams have won 66 of the 114 World Series played since 1903, with 27 of those coming from the New York Yankees alone; the New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and the Boston Red Sox. A minor league known as the Western League which existed 1885 to 1899, with teams in Great Lakes states, the newly organized Western League developed into a rival major league after the previous American Association disbanded after ten seasons as a competitor to the older National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, founded in 1876.
In its early history of the late 1880s, the minor Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league. Johnson led the Western League into elevation as claiming major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League of Professional Baseball Clubs in 1901; the American League was founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin at the former Republican Hotel by five Irishmen. George Herman Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees; the American League has one notable difference versus the rival National League, in that in modern times since 1973 it has had the designated hitter rule. Under the rule, a team may use a batter in its lineup, not in the field defensively, replacing the pitcher in the batting order, compared to the old rule that made it mandatory for the pitcher to bat. In the last two decades, the season schedule has allowed occasional interleague play.
Until the late 1970s, league umpires working behind home plate wore large, balloon-style chest protectors worn outside the shirt or coat, while their brethren in the National League wore chest protectors inside the shirt or coat. In 1977, new umpires had to wear the inside chest protector, although those on staff wearing the outside protector could continue to do so. Most umpires made the switch to the inside protector, led by Don Denkinger in 1975 and Jim Evans the next year, although several did not, including Bill Haller, Lou DiMuro, George Maloney, Jerry Neudecker, who became the last MLB umpire to use the outside protector in 1985. In 1994, the league, along with the National League, reorganized again, into three divisions and added a third round to the playoffs in the form of the American League Division Series, with the best second-place team advancing to the playoffs as a wild-card team, in addition to the three divisional champions. In 1998, the newly franchised Tampa Bay Devil Rays joined the league, the Arizona Diamondbacks joined the National League: i.e. each league each added a fifteenth team.
An odd number of teams per league meant that at least one team in each league would have to be idle on any given day, or alternatively that odd team out would have had to play an interleague game against its counterpart in the other league. The initial plan was to have three five-team divisions per league with inter league play year-round—possibly as many as 30 interleague games per team each year. For various reasons, it soon seemed more practical to have an number of teams in both leagues; the Milwaukee Brewers agreed moving from the AL Central to the NL Central. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers were moved from the AL East to the AL Central, making room for the Devil Rays in the East. Following the move of the Houston Astros, in the NL for 51 years since beginning as an expansion team in 1962, to the American League in 2013, both leagues now consist of 15 teams, a far cry from their original 8 for the first half-century of the 20th century. For the first 96 years, American League teams faced their National League counterparts only in exhibition games or in the World Series.
Beginning in 1997, interleague games have been played during the regular season and count in the standings. As part of the agreement instituting interleague play, the designated-hitter rule is used only in games where the American League team is the home team. There were eight charter teams in 1901, the league's first year as a major league, the next year the original Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis to become the St. Louis Browns; these franchises constituted the league for 52 seasons, until the Browns moved to Baltimore and took up the name Baltimore Orioles. All eight original franchises remain in the American League, although only four remain in the original cities; the eight original teams and their counterparts in the "Classic Eight" were: original Baltimore Orioles (went b
Robin Roberts (baseball)
Robin Evan Roberts was a Major League Baseball starting pitcher who pitched for the Philadelphia Phillies. He spent the latter part of his career with the Baltimore Orioles, Houston Astros, Chicago Cubs, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1976. Roberts was born in Springfield, the son of an immigrant Welsh coal miner, he arrived in Michigan as part of an Army Air Corps training program. After World War II, Roberts returned to Michigan State College to play basketball, not baseball. Roberts led the Spartans' basketball team in field-goal percentage in 1946–1947, was captain of the team during the 1946–1947 and 1949–1950 seasons, earned three varsity letters in basketball, he wore number 17 for the Spartans. After his second season playing basketball, Roberts tried out for the Michigan State baseball team, becoming a pitcher because it was the position that coach John Kobs needed most. After playing for Michigan State and spending his second summer playing in Vermont with the Barre–Montpelier Twin City Trojans, he was signed by the Phillies.
Roberts made his major league debut on June 18, 1948, in 1950 he led his Phillies—whose overall youth earned them the nickname the Whiz Kids—to their first National League pennant in 35 years. Roberts started three games in the last five days of the season, defeating the favored Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field, in a pennant-deciding, season-ending, 10-inning game; this marked his 20th victory of the season and Roberts became the Phillies' first 20-game-winner since Grover Cleveland Alexander in 1917. Roberts started a game in the 1950 World Series. From 1950 to 1955 inclusive, Roberts won at least 20 games each season, leading the NL in victories from 1952 to 1955. Six times he led the league in games started, five times in complete games and innings pitched, he once pitched 28 complete games in a row, with one game being 17 innings. During his career, Roberts never walked more than 77 batters in any regular season, he helped himself with his bat, hitting 55 doubles, 10 triples, five home runs with 103 RBIs.
His 28 wins in 1952, the year he won The Sporting News Player of the Year Award, were the most in the National League since 1935, the year when Dizzy Dean won 28 games. Although he had 28 wins in 1952, Roberts had his best season in 1953, posting a 23–16 record and leading the NL pitchers in strikeouts with 198. In a career-high 346⅔ innings pitched he walked just 66 batters, his 2.75 ERA was second in the league behind Warren Spahn's 2.10. One of the most memorable highlights of his career occurred on May 13, 1954, when Roberts gave up a lead-off home run to the Cincinnati Reds' Bobby Adams and he retired 27 consecutive batters to win 8–1, on a one-hit game. Roberts had a better winning percentage than did the Phillies in games in which he had no decision. Overall, the Phillies were 1,020–1,136 from 1948–1961, a winning percentage of.4731. Roberts was 234–199 in that span, for a winning percentage of.5404. After the 1961 season, Roberts was sold to the New York Yankees, who acquired the slumping pitcher from the Phillies for more than the $20,000 league waiver price.
On February 6, 1962, the Phillies announced that Roberts's uniform number 36 would be retired by the team on March 21, 1962, when the Yankees would visit Clearwater to play the Phillies in a spring training game. It was the first uniform number to be retired by the organization. Roberts started for the Yankees in the spring game, gave up four runs in three innings, was the winning pitcher in the Yankees' 13–10 victory, he was released by the Yankees in May 1962 without having appeared in a regular-season game for the Yankees. He signed with the Baltimore Orioles on May 21, 1962, he went 42–36 with a 3.09 ERA in 3 1⁄2 seasons with the Orioles. In his final year in Baltimore, he was the first road roommate and mentor to Jim Palmer, who made his major league debut in relief of Roberts in the third inning of a 12–9 loss to the Boston Red Sox in Fenway Park on April 17, 1965. Palmer said 47 years "Robin Roberts helped teach me though he knew I was going to take his job." Dissatisfied with his new role as a spot starter and long reliever, Roberts requested his release, granted by the Orioles on July 27, 1965.
Roberts signed with the Houston Astros on August 5. He signed with the Chicago Cubs on July 13, 1966, with the additional capacity of assisting pitching coach Freddie Fitzsimmons. Roberts was reunited with fellow Whiz Kid Curt Simmons, his final major league game was with the Cubs on September 1966 at Forbes Field. He was released by the Cubs on October 3, 1966, he pitched for the Reading Phillies during 1967. Roberts was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1976. Ahead of the August 1976 induction, Roberts was named honorary captain of the National League for the 1976 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, hosted by the Phillies at Veterans Stadium. After one season as a color commentator on Phillies broadcasts, Roberts coached the University of South Florida Bulls baseball team from 1977–1985, he led the team to its first NCAA Tournament in 1982. His uniform number 36 was honored on the center field wall at USF's now-demolished baseball venue, Red McEwen Field. During the baseball off–season, Roberts toured with the Robin Roberts All–Stars basketball team.
The team played such as the Harlem Globetrotters. Roberts was the president of the Gold King Seafood Company in Philadelphia during his baseball career; this was central to an appearance Roberts made on What's My Line
Claude Wilson Osteen, nicknamed "Gomer" because of his resemblance to television character Gomer Pyle, is a former Major League Baseball left-handed pitcher. He pitched for six different teams: the Cincinnati Redlegs/Reds, Washington Senators, Los Angeles Dodgers, Houston Astros, St. Louis Cardinals, Chicago White Sox; the most significant portion of his career was with the Dodgers. A "bonus baby" who never received a season-long chance to start in Cincinnati, Osteen was traded on Sept. 16, 1961, from Cincinnati to the Washington Senators for pitcher Dave Sisler. With the Senators, Osteen got a chance to start in the majors, albeit with a sub.500 team. In the winter of 1964, Osteen was traded from the Senators to the Dodgers in a 7-player deal, with four players going to the Senators. Osteen developed into one of the game's better starters in Los Angeles. After two years with an earned run average under 3.00, Osteen was considered a top starter and a workhorse. In those two years and the Dodgers reached two straight World Series, the last two Osteen would reach in his career.
In the 1965 World Series, the Dodgers would beat the Minnesota Twins in seven games, Osteen pitched brilliantly. He had a 0.64 ERA in the Series with a 1-1 record including a shutout, which came after teammates Don Drysdale and Sandy Koufax lost their respective games, the first two games of the Series. In the 1966 World Series, the Dodgers would lose to the Baltimore Orioles in four games. Osteen lost a 1-0 pitcher's duel with Wally Bunker in Game 3 despite giving up only three hits in seven innings. Osteen's final postseason statistics include a 0.86 ERA with seven strikeouts in 21 innings pitched. In 1967, he reached his first All-Star game, he picked up 14 complete games on the year, with five shutouts. In 1968 Osteen was one of the game's consistent hard-luck losers. Despite a respectable 3.08 ERA, he only won 12 of 30 decisions. The 12 victories would be his fewest in a season from 1964–1973. In 1969, Osteen won 20 games for the first time and set a number of career highs: 20 wins 321 innings 183 strikeouts 7 shutouts 16 complete games 41 startsIn the 1970s, Osteen was still pitching an average of 260 innings a year.
In the 1970 all-star game, Osteen pitched three shutout innings and got the win in a game most remembered for the play in which Pete Rose barreled into Ray Fosse to score the winning run in the 12th inning. Coincidentally, like Osteen, the pitcher and hitter involved in the walk-off single were Tennessee natives: Jim Hickman collected the hit off losing pitcher Clyde Wright. In 1972, Osteen had a strong year, finishing with 7 complete game victories in his last 9 starts; that year, he was 20-11 with a 2.64 ERA in 252 innings pitched. He made his 3rd and final All-Star team in 1973, in his last real quality season, his last season with the Dodgers; that year, he had a 3.31 ERA with a 2nd-place Dodger team. In his 33 starts on the season, he had 3 shutouts, he had won in double figures each year from 1964–1973. Prior to the 1974 season, the Dodgers traded Osteen to the Houston Astros for outfielder Jimmy Wynn. Wynn helped the Dodgers win the 1974 N. L. pennant. Osteen played his final game on September 1975 with the White Sox.
He was released by them on April 5 of the next year. During an 18-year baseball career, Osteen compiled 196 wins, 1,612 strikeouts, a 3.30 earned run average. As a batter, Osteen had a. 188 batting average with 76 runs batted in. He was used as pinch hitter on a number of occasions, he became a pitching coach for the Cardinals, Philadelphia Phillies, Texas Rangers and the Dodgers as well as various minor league teams. 3-time All-Star Top 10 in the league in games started, 10 times 2nd in the league in shutouts 3 times, top 10 in the league 3 more times Top 10 in the league in innings pitched, 6 times Top 10 in ERA, 3 times Ranks #75 in all-time innings pitched Ranks #44 in all-time shutouts Ranks #50 in all-time games started List of St. Louis Cardinals coaches Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference Warning: Template:Baseballstats cube= parameter should be updated to a numeric value; the Tennessee Encyclopedia
James Alvin Palmer is a retired American right-handed pitcher who played all of his 19 years in Major League Baseball with the Baltimore Orioles and was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1990. Palmer was the winning pitcher in 186 games in the 1970s, the most wins in that decade by any MLB pitcher, he won at least twenty games in each of eight seasons and received three Cy Young Awards and four Gold Gloves during the decade. His 268 career victories are an Orioles record. A six-time American League All-Star, he was one of the rare pitchers who never allowed a grand slam in any major league contest. Palmer appeared in the postseason eight times and was a vital member of three World Series Champions, six AL pennant winners and seven Eastern Division titleholders, he is the only pitcher in the history of the Fall Classic with a win in each of three decades. He is the youngest to pitch a complete-game shutout in a World Series, doing so nine days before his 21st birthday in 1966, he was one of the starters on the last rotation to feature four 20-game winners in a single season in 1971.
Since his retirement as an active player in 1984, Palmer has worked as a color commentator on telecasts of MLB games for ABC and ESPN and for the Orioles on Home Team Sports, Comcast SportsNet Mid-Atlantic and the Mid-Atlantic Sports Network. He has been a popular spokesman, most famously for Jockey International for twenty years, he was nicknamed Cakes in the 1960s because of his habit of eating pancakes for breakfast on the days he pitched. James Alvin Palmer was born in Manhattan, New York City on October 15, 1945. Research conducted by his third wife Susan in 2017 revealed that his biological father and mother were Michael Joseph Geheran and Mary Ann Moroney, both Irish immigrants from Counties Leitrim and Clare respectively. Joe was a married 41-year-old man about town, while Mary Ann was an unmarried 37-year-old domestic worker for the Feinstein family, prominent in the garment industry. Moroney gave up her infant for adoption and concealed information in the New York City birth registry where Palmer is listed as Baby Boy Kennedy, whose father was Maroney and mother was Kennedy.
Maroney was the incorrect spelling of her surname as listed when she registered at Ellis Island, while Kennedy was her sister Katharine's married name. Moroney married John Lane and both had a daughter Patricia Lane, Palmer’s biological half-sister who died of leukemia at age 40 in 1987. Geheran died in 1959 and Moroney in 1979. Two days after his birth, Palmer was adopted by Moe Wiesen and his wife Polly, a wealthy Manhattan dress designer and a boutique owner who both lived on Park Avenue, his sister Bonnie was adopted by the Wiesens. After his adoptive father died of a heart attack in 1955, the nine-year-old Jim, his mother and his sister moved to Beverly Hills, California where he began playing in youth-league baseball, he formally changed his last name upon his mother's marriage to actor Max Palmer in 1956. Showing talent at the amateur level, upon graduating from Arizona's Scottsdale High School in 1963, Palmer signed a minor-league contract at the age of 18. A high-kicking pitcher known for an exceptionally smooth delivery, Palmer picked up his first major-league win on May 16, 1965, beating the Yankees in relief at home.
He hit the first of his three career major-league home runs, a two-run shot, in the fourth inning of that game off of Yankees starter Jim Bouton. Palmer finished the season with a 5–4 record. In 1966, Palmer joined the starting rotation. Baltimore won the pennant behind Frank Robinson's Triple Crown season. Palmer won his final game against the Kansas City Athletics to clinch the AL pennant. In Game 2 of that World Series at Dodger Stadium, he became the youngest pitcher to win a complete-game, World Series shutout, defeating the defending world champion Los Angeles Dodgers, 6–0; the underdog Orioles swept the series over a Los Angeles team that featured Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, Claude Osteen. The shutout was part of a World Series record-setting 33 1⁄3 consecutive shutout innings by Orioles pitchers; the Dodgers' last run was against Moe Drabowsky in the third inning of Game 1. Palmer, Wally Bunker and Dave McNally pitched shutouts in the next three games. During the next two seasons, Palmer struggled with arm injuries.
He was sent to minor-league rehabilitation. He regained his form after undergoing surgery, working in the 1968 Instructional League and playing winter baseball, he had been placed on waivers in September 1968 and was left unprotected for the Kansas City Royals and Seattle Pilots in the expansion draft one month but was not claimed. In 1969, Palmer returned healthy, rejoining an Orioles rotation that included 20-game winners Dave McNally and Mike Cuellar; that August 13, Palmer threw a no-hitter against Oakland, just four days after coming off the disabled list. He finished the season with a mark of 123 strikeouts, a 2.34 ERA, and.800 winning percentage. The favored Orioles were beaten in the 1969 World Series by the New York Mets with Palmer taking the loss in Game 3. In 1970, Cuellar went 24–8, McNally 24–9, Palmer 20–10. Only one other team in MLB history, the 1920 Chicago White Sox, has had four 20-game winners. Palmer won 21 games in 1972, went 22–9, 158, 2.40 in 1973, walking off with his first Cy Young Award.
His success was interrupted in 1974 when he was downed for eight weeks with elbow problems
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Bunker Hill Monument
The Bunker Hill Monument was erected to commemorate the Battle of Bunker Hill, among the first major battles between British and Patriot forces in the American Revolutionary War, fought there June 17, 1775. The 221-foot granite obelisk was erected between 1825 and 1843 in Charlestown, with granite from nearby Quincy conveyed to the site via the purpose-built Granite Railway, followed by a trip by barge. There are 294 steps to the top. An exhibit lodge built adjacent to the monument in the late 19th century houses a statue of fallen hero Dr. Joseph Warren. Bunker Hill is one of the sites along the Freedom Trail and is part of Boston National Historical Park; the monument underwent a $3.7 million renovation, completed in 2007, that included repairs, handicap accessibility improvements, new lighting. The Bunker Hill Museum across the street was dedicated in June of that year and includes many exhibits about the battle. No admission charge applies to the monument; the monument was one of the first in the United States.
An earlier memorial at the site had been erected in memory of fallen Bunker Hill hero Dr. Joseph Warren, a Mason, in 1794 by King Solomon's Lodge of Masons, was an 18-foot wooden column topped with a gilt urn. In front of the obelisk is a statue of Col. William Prescott, a native of Groton, another hero of Bunker Hill. According to popular stories, he coined the famous Revolutionary War phrase, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes" during the battle. However, various writers attribute it to Israel Putnam, John Stark, Prescott or Gridley, while a few question whether it was said at all; the monument is not on Bunker Hill, but instead on Breed's Hill, where most of the fighting in the misnamed Battle of Bunker Hill took place. The Monument Association, which had purchased the battlefield site, was forced to sell off all but the hill's summit in order to complete the monument. Breed's Hill is a glacial drumlin located in the Charlestown section of Massachusetts, it is located in the southern portion of the Charlestown Peninsula, a oval, but now more triangular, peninsula, connected to Cambridge in colonial times by a short, narrow isthmus known as the Charlestown Neck.
It is best known as the location where in 1775, early in the American Revolutionary War, most of the fighting in the Battle of Bunker Hill took place. In the 19th and early 20th centuries the peninsula's shape and connections to other landforms were altered, with the waters of the Charles River between Cambridge and Charlestown filled in. Much of the hill is now occupied by residential construction, but the summit area is the location of the Bunker Hill Monument and other memorials commemorating the battle; the hill is about 62 feet high, is topped by Monument Square, site of the Bunker Hill Monument. The hill slopes steeply to the east and west. In addition to its historic sites and tourist-oriented facilities, the hill is the site of a great deal of residential property, as well as supporting municipal and retail infrastructure, it is about 700 yards from Bunker Hill. The Americans, having caught word of a British plan to fortify the Charlestown peninsula, decided to get to the peninsula first, fortify it, present sufficient threat to cause the British to leave Boston.
On June 16, 1775, under the leadership of General Putnam and Colonel Prescott, the Americans stole out onto the Charlestown Peninsula with instructions to establish defensive positions on Bunker Hill. A redoubt, a small and temporary defensive fortification, was constructed on nearby Breed's Hill due to its closer proximity to Boston compared to Bunker Hill; the next morning, June 17, the British were astonished to see the rebel fortifications upon the hill and set out to reclaim the peninsula. The resulting conflict was called the Battle of Bunker Hill because, where Prescott intended—and was ordered—to build the fortifications; some people considered Breed's Hill a part of Bunker Hill, while others called it Charlestown Hill. British soldiers under Howe sent 2,400 men to attack Breed's Hill. A force of 1,500 colonists held off three British attacks retreated when the colonists ran out of gunpowder. 450 colonists were wounded, compared to 1,150 British casualties. In 1825, the Bunker Hill Monument Association began construction of the Bunker Hill Monument, acquiring 15 acres of land for the purpose.
William Ticknor, a well-known Boston lawyer and antiquarian, first suggested the memorial. An interested group of men met for breakfast at the home of Colonel Thomas Handasyd Perkins, including William Tudor, Daniel Webster, Professor George Ticknor, Doctor John C. Warren, William Sullivan, George Blake. On May 10, 1823, the first public meeting was called; each member subscribed five dollars, on June 7, 1823, the Bunker Hill Monument Association was established and the work of raising money was begun. Famed nineteenth-century philanthropist Amos Lawrence contributed $10,000 to the monument's erection. In the spring of 1825 the directors had purchased about 15 acres on the slope of Breed's Hill, but had not yet chosen a design; the first design committee consisted of Webster, noted engineer Loammi Baldwin, Jr. George Ticknor, Gilbert Stuart, Washington Allston. One hundred dollars was offered for the best design. Choice was soon narrowed to a column and an obelisk and a new committee was appointed to procure designs and estimate expenses for each.
At the next meeting the majority voted. The directors laid the cornerstone on June 17, 1825; the Marquis de Lafaye
The Baltimore Orioles are an American professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. As one of the American League's eight charter teams in 1901, this particular franchise spent its first year as a major league club in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the Milwaukee Brewers before moving to St. Louis, Missouri, to become the St. Louis Browns. After 52 often-beleaguered years in St. Louis, the franchise was purchased in November 1953 by a syndicate of Baltimore business and civic interests led by attorney/civic activist Clarence Miles and Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr; the team's current majority owner is lawyer Peter Angelos. The Orioles adopted their team name in honor of the official state bird of Maryland. Nicknames for the team include the "O's" and the "Birds"; the Orioles experienced their greatest success from 1966 to 1983, when they made six World Series appearances, winning three of them. This era of the club featured several future Hall of Famers who would be inducted representing the Orioles, such as third baseman Brooks Robinson, outfielder Frank Robinson, starting pitcher Jim Palmer, first baseman Eddie Murray, shortstop Cal Ripken Jr. and manager Earl Weaver.
The Orioles have won a total of nine division championships, six pennants, three wild card berths. After suffering a stretch of 14 straight losing seasons from 1998 to 2011, the team qualified for the postseason three times under manager Buck Showalter and general manager Dan Duquette, including a division title and advancement to the American League Championship Series for the first time in 17 years in 2014. However, the 2018 team finished with a franchise-worst record of 47–115, prompting the team to move on from Showalter and Duquette following the season's conclusion; the Orioles' current manager is Brandon Hyde, while Mike Elias serves as general manager and executive vice president. The Orioles are well known for their influential ballpark, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which opened in 1992 in downtown Baltimore; the modern Orioles franchise can trace its roots back to the original Milwaukee Brewers of the minor Western League, beginning in 1894, when the league reorganized. The Brewers were there when the WL renamed itself the American League in 1900.
At the end of the 1900 season, the American League removed itself from baseball's National Agreement. Two months the AL declared itself a competing major league; as a result of several franchise shifts, the Brewers were one of only two Western League teams that didn't fold, move or get kicked out of the league. In its first game in the American League, the team lost to the Detroit Tigers 14–13 after surrendering a nine-run lead in the 9th inning. To this day, it is a major league record for the biggest deficit overcome that late in the game. In the first American League season in 1901, they finished last with a record of 48–89, its lone Major League season, the team played at Lloyd Street Grounds, between 16th and 18th Streets in Milwaukee. After one year in Milwaukee the club relocated to St Louis, for a while enjoyed some success in the 1920s behind Hall of Fame first baseman George Sisler. However, the team's fortunes declined from on, as playing success and gate receipts instead went to the Browns' own tenants at Sportsman's Park, the National League Cardinals.
During this period the Browns only won one pennant, in the 1944 season stocked with wartime replacement players, lost to the Cardinals in the third and last World Series played in one ballpark. In 1953, with the Browns unable to afford stadium upkeep, owner Bill Veeck sold Sportsman's Park to the Cards and attempted to move the club back to Milwaukee, but this was vetoed by the other Major League owners. Instead, Veeck sold his franchise to a partnership of Baltimore businessmen; the Miles-Krieger -Hoffberger group renamed their new team the Baltimore Orioles soon after taking control of the franchise. The name has a rich history in Baltimore. In 1901, Baltimore and John McGraw were awarded an expansion franchise in the growing American League, naming the team the Orioles. After a battle with Ban Johnson, the Head of the American League in 1902, McGraw took many of the top players including Walter Scott "Steve" Brodie, Dan McGann, Roger Bresnahan, Joe McGinnity to the New York Giants; as an affront to Johnson, McGraw kept the black and orange colors of the New York Giants, which San Francisco wears to this day.
In 1903, the franchise—the remaining players and debts, the corporation—was transferred to New York where they were nicknamed the Highlanders until circa 1912, by which time Yanks or Yankees had taken over as their popular moniker. As a member of the high-minor league level International League, the Orioles competed at what is now known as the AAA level from 1903 to 1953; when Oriole Park burned down in 1944, the team moved to a temporary home, Municipal Stadium, where they won the Junior World Series. Their large postseason crowds caught the attention of the major leagues leading to a new MLB franchise in Baltimore. After starting the 1954 campaign with a two-game split agai