World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Theodore Calvin Arnott is a politician in Ontario, Canada. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on September 6, 1990, representing the Riding of Wellington, he is a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario and represents the Riding of Wellington—Halton Hills in the Ontario Legislature. Arnott has served as Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario during the 42nd Parliament of Ontario. Arnott is one of the longest-serving MPPs in the Ontario Legislature. Ted Arnott was born in 1963 in Ontario, he grew up in Ontario where his family was in the engineering construction business. While attending school, he had a newspaper delivery route at the age of 9, worked part time as a retail store clerk, a construction labourer, a factory worker, he played minor hockey and tennis. In 1979, he received recognition from the Order of St. John of Jerusalem for rendering "assistance, instrumental in saving the life of a drowning man" at the Rockwood Conservation Area on August 20, 1978, receiving the honour from the Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police, Harold H. Graham.
After graduating from Arthur District High School, he attended Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree, with a major in Political Science, receiving a Diploma in Business Administration. From 1987-1990, he was Executive Assistant to Jack Johnson, MPP for the Riding of Wellington and Chair of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Caucus. Married in 1990, he and his wife Lisa live in Fergus and are the parents of three sons. Arnott first ran in the 1990 provincial election as the Progressive Conservative candidate in the Riding of Wellington at the age of 27. At the time of his election, Arnott was the youngest MPP in the Ontario Progressive Conservative Caucus. Between 1990-1995, he served as PC Critic to the Minister of Transportation, as Critic to the Minister of Culture and Recreation, as Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee on Estimates. In the 1995 provincial election, Arnott was re-elected in Wellington, receiving 67% of the votes cast, as part of a majority Progressive Conservative Government led by Mike Harris.
While supporting the overall objectives of the Common Sense Revolution, the party's electoral platform, during the campaign he refused to sign the Taxpayers' Protection Pledge being circulated by the Ontario Taxpayers' Federation. Despite pressure from his party, he explained at the time that he was not willing to make promises that he could not be certain of keeping, he was the only PC candidate out of 130 candidates not to sign the pledge. During the 1995-1999 term of office, he served as Chair of the Standing Committee on the Legislative Assembly, as Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of Economic Development and Trade, with responsibilities for supporting small business. Re-elected in the provincial election of 1999 in the newly created Riding of Waterloo—Wellington, he served as Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of Economic Development and to the Minister of the Environment and the Deputy Premier and Minister of Education; when Ernie Eves was elected Premier in 2002, Arnott asked not to be considered for a Cabinet position, saying the absences from home required of a Cabinet Minister would not allow him to spend sufficient time with his young family.
In the 2003 provincial election as Dalton McGuinty's Liberals were given a majority, Arnott was re-elected in Waterloo-Wellington by a margin of 5,206 votes. This was despite a poll published by the Kitchener-Waterloo Record the week before the election predicting his defeat and claiming he was 18 percentage points behind his Liberal challenger. Returning again to the role of Opposition, Arnott was appointed by the Legislature as First Deputy Chair of the Committee of the Whole House, a Presiding Officer role assisting the Speaker of the House. However, he continued to focus foremost on the needs of his Riding. In the 2007 provincial election, despite the re-election of a majority Liberal Government, Arnott was re-elected to the Legislature in the new Riding of Wellington—Halton Hills, becoming a GTA MPP for the first time, he was again appointed First Deputy Chair of the Committee of the Whole House, serving in this role until 2009. After Tim Hudak's election as PC Leader, Arnott became Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee on Public Accounts.
His knowledge of House procedure was recognized with his appointment as Deputy House Leader of the Official Opposition. After being re-elected yet again in Wellington-Halton Hills in the 2011 provincial election, Arnott was again serving in Opposition, he was again appointed as First Deputy Chair of the Committee of the Whole House. The McGuinty Liberals had been returned with a minority Government, they were unable to pass a budget without the support or abstention of the New Democratic Party Caucus, which caused great uncertainty and speculation as to when the Government might fall. In 2013, Dalton McGuinty resigned as Premier, was succeeded by Kathleen Wynne. After New Democratic Party Leader Andrea Horwath announced her party would vote against the 2014 Liberal Budget, Kathleen Wynne called a provincial election for June 12, 2014. Though the PC Party ran a poor campaign province-wide, Arnott was re-elected in Wellington-Halton Hills by a comfortable margin. Once again, he was appointed First Deputy Chair of the Committee of the Whole House.
He was named PC Critic to the Minister of Economic Development and Infrastructure, served as PC Critic to the Minister of Labour. In February 2017, he was named PC Critic to the Minister of the Climate Change. Over the years, he has intr
William Black (Ontario politician)
William David Black was speaker of the Legislature of Ontario in 1927-1929 and served as Conservative MLA for Addington from 1911 to 1943. He was born in Dundas County, the son of William Black. After leaving the family farm, Black worked as a trackman for the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1892, he married Georgia R. Griffith. Black moved to Parham in 1894, where he worked as a contractor, he was involved in lumbering and contracting in the Temagami region. Black served on the municipal council for Parham and was a justice of the peace and an issuer of marriage licenses, he served as secretary-treasurer of the Agricultural Society. He retired from politics in 1943 due to health problems. Black died in Ottawa the following year at the age of 76. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
Wycliffe College, Toronto
Wycliffe College is a graduate theological school of the University of Toronto. It is affiliated with the Anglican Church of Canada and is evangelical and low church in orientation. On the other hand, the University of Toronto's other Anglican college, the University of Trinity College, is Anglo-Catholic in outlook. While being an Anglican seminary, Wycliffe College attracts students from many Christian denominations; as a founding member of the Toronto School of Theology, students are free to participate in the wide range of courses from Canada's largest ecumenical consortium. It trains those pursuing ordination as well as those preparing for academic careers of scholarship and teaching. In response to the Liberal Catholic perspective of Trinity College, the Toronto diocesan seminary, the Church Association of the Diocese of Toronto, a lay Evangelical group at the Cathedral Church of St. James, founded the independent Protestant Episcopal Divinity School in 1877 to provide an alternative source for evangelical and low-church theological training.
Like its Oxford counterpart, Wycliffe Hall, the name "Wycliffe College" was inspired by John Wycliffe, a 14th-century English scholastic philosopher, Biblical translator and theology professor at Oxford. The name was given first to the college's building and to the college itself. To ensure its long-term viability, Wycliffe College began considering various forms of union with the University of Toronto towards the end of the 19th century. Wycliffe College became affiliated with the University of Toronto in 1885 and federated in 1889. Wycliffe College had a close association with the Anglican Church of the Epiphany in Parkdale; the church's founding rector, the Rev. Bernard Bryan, had been one of the nine men who constituted the first class at Wycliffe in 1877; this connection continued in 1959 when the Church of the Epiphany's rector, the Rev. Leslie Hunt, was appointed Principal of Wycliffe College. George Martel Miller designed Convocation Hall, 1902. Henry Bauld Gordon designed the Dining Hall and Dormitory Wing, 1907.
William Faulkner billeted at Wycliffe College while a student at the School of Aeronautics in 1918. In 1969, the Toronto School of Theology was created as an independent federation of seven schools of theology, including the divinity faculties of Wycliffe College. Within its own federation, the University of Toronto granted degrees except theology or divinity degrees. Since 1978, by virtue of a change made in its charter, the University of Toronto has granted theology degrees conjointly with Wycliffe College and other TST member institutions. An act respecting Wycliffe College, being chapter 112 of the Statutes of Ontario, 1916, was repealed and the Wycliffe College Act, 2002 was substituted. Wycliffe College's arms were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on March 15, 2007; the Wycliffe College Chapel sanctuary features several stained glass windows, including "Our Lord", "St. Paul", "St. John", "Timothy" by Robert McCausland Limited. Wycliffe College is situated in the centre of the University of Toronto campus, on the corner of Hoskin Avenue and Queen's Park.
Next door is Hart House, which houses athletic facilities, a theatre, an art gallery, reading rooms, sitting rooms, offices, a library, music rooms, student meeting and study space. Along with classrooms and a chapel, Wycliffe houses 75 graduate residents, many of whom are studying other disciplines at the University of Toronto and its affiliates. Students have access, moreover, to the services of the University of Toronto, including the athletic facilities, library systems, student union clubs; the college was accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada in 1978. In the fall semester of 2017 it had 246 students, it awards the following degrees conjointly with the University of Toronto: Master of Divinity Master of Theological Studies Doctor of Ministry Master of Arts in Theological Studies Master of Theology Doctor of PhilosophyAs a founding member of the Toronto School of Theology, students are able to participate in the wide range of courses from Canada's largest ecumenical consortium.
A Certificate in Anglican Studies is available for candidates for the Anglican priesthood and vocational diaconate who hold an MDiv from a non-Anglican seminary. Refresh is the college's annual continuing education conference. Past speakers have included Alister McGrath, Lauren Winner, N. T. Wright, William P. Young, Graham Alan Cray, Graham Kendrick. In addition to Wycliffe's collection of theological texts, students have access to the libraries of the member schools of the Toronto School of Theology, including Knox's Caven Library, St. Michael's Kelly Library and Wycliffe's John W. Graham Library, the libraries of Emmanuel College, Regis College, St. Augustine's Seminary. Students, have access to the library system of the University of Toronto, including Robarts Library, Canada's largest library and the fourth largest academic library system in North America; the Wycliffe College Institute of Evangelism provides resources, including teachers and practitioners of evangelism, print and A/V materials, conferences and seminars in order to help nurture and grow evangelizing communities.
The mission of the Institute of Evangelism is to "encourage and equip the church for the work of evangelism, empowering it to engage in this ministry confidently and expectantly." R. K. Harrison, Professor of Old Testament Studies Jakob Jocz, Professor of Systematic Theology of Jewish background Richard Longenecker New Testament scholar Oliver O'Donovan Christian ethicist John Bainbridge Webster British Anglican systematic theologian Stephen Andrews - Principal Christop
James Clark (Ontario politician)
James Howard Clark was a politician in Ontario, Canada. He was speaker of the Legislature of Ontario from 1939 to 1943 and served as Liberal MPP for Windsor—Sandwich from 1934 to 1943, he was born in Ontario. Despite his father's death while he was still young, Clark was able to complete his education at the local high school and went on to attend Victoria College. In 1914, he began the study of law at Osgoode Hall. During World War I, he served with the 96th Lake Superior Battalion and saw action at the Somme, Passchendaele, Canal du Nord and Valenciennes, he resumed his legal studies in 1919, articled in Port Arthur, was called to the Ontario bar in 1920 and entered practice in Windsor. In 1930, Clark travelled to England to argue a case before the British Privy Council, he ran unsuccessfully for the Windsor West seat in the provincial assembly in 1929 and was elected in 1934 for Windsor—Sandwich. After Norman Hipel resigned as speaker to join the provincial cabinet, Clark was named speaker. In June 1943, Clark gave a speech in Detroit in which he stated that 40 to 45 per cent of the Canadian population would "vote for annexation to the United States because there are better living conditions there".
This enraged the Canadian press and Canadian politicians. He was defeated in the general election which followed that year, he subsequently returned to the practice of law. Clark died in Windsor at the age of 64. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
Norman Otto Hipel was a Canadian politician, noted for his service as Minister of Labour for Ontario in the cabinet of Mitchell Hepburn. He served as MLA for Waterloo South. Hipel was born in rural Waterloo Township, Ontario near Breslau, Ontario on 21 March 1890, to parents Henry Hipel and Louisa Pelz, he received formal education at the Riverbank School and the Breslau Public School, but he left school early to help support his family, began work as a store clerk in a Kitchener, Ontario dry goods store. He returned home in 1906 to learn carpentry from his father, by 1911 had become a building contractor and, in 1913, he moved to Preston, in 1920 started his own construction company, N. O. Hipel Ltd, with ten employees, five horses and a portable sawmill; the company specialized in buildings that required uninterrupted floor space. In 1928 his company developed patents on barn and skating rink construction, built a large number of arenas including the Hespeler Memorial Arena erected in 1947.
Hipel was a member of the Preston Board of Trade, the Ontario Club and was a president and director of the South Waterloo Agricultural Society. He was a director on the Waterloo County Health Association board, at the time of his death was the Preston representative for the South Waterloo Memorial Hospital, now known as the Cambridge Memorial Hospital. Hipel began his political career in 1921 when he ran for and was elected to the Preston town council. In 1922 he became the town's reeve, served as mayor in 1923 and 1924. In 1930 he ran as the Ontario Liberal Party candidate to represent Waterloo South in the Ontario Legislature, was re-elected in 1934, he served as Speaker of the House from 1935 to 1938, was chosen to represent Ontario at the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937. In 1938 Hipel was appointed Minister of Labour for Ontario in the cabinet of Mitchell Hepburn; as Minister of Labour, he organized the Farm Service Force to help in the harvesting of crops during World War II, in 1939 he opened the Aircraft Mechanics Training School in Galt, where thousands were trained in radio operation and aircraft maintenance for the war effort.
With help from the federal government, he organized the War Emergency Training Program, providing education in manufacturing skilled required in the production of war materials. Hipel served as Ontario Minister of Lands and Forests in 1941 and 1943. In this position, Hipel set aside forest lands and established a school at Dorset for the training of forest rangers, he authorized the first large scale conservation project, known as the Ganaraska watershed area. In 1942 and 1943 he served as Provincial Secretary and Registrar of Ontario, was elected President of the Ontario Liberal Association in 1947. Hipel ran unsuccessfully in the 1948, he ran, for the leadership of the Ontario Liberal Party in 1950 receiving only 12 votes on the first ballot. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history City of Cambridge Hall of Fame Norman O. Hipel