History of fishing
Fishing is the practice of catching fish. It is a prehistoric practice dating back at least 40,000 years. Since the 16th century, fishing vessels have been able to cross oceans in pursuit of fish, since the 19th century it has been possible to use larger vessels and in some cases process the fish on board. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping; the term fishing may be applied to catching other aquatic animals such as shellfish, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching aquatic mammals, such as whales, where the term whaling is more appropriate, or to farmed fish. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is a recreational sport. According to FAO statistics, the total number of fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide indirect employment to over 500 million people. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back at least to the Upper Paleolithic period which began about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeological features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food. Spearfishing with barbed poles was widespread in palaeolithic times. Cosquer cave in Southern France contains cave art over 16,000 years old, including drawings of seals which appear to have been harpooned; the Neolithic culture and technology spread worldwide between 8,000 years ago. With the new technologies of farming and pottery came basic forms of the main fishing methods that are still used today.
From 7500 to 3000 years ago, Native Americans of the California coast were known to engage in fishing with gorge hook and line tackle. In addition, some tribes are known to have used plant toxins to induce torpor in stream fish to enable their capture. Copper harpoons were known to the seafaring Harappans well into antiquity. Early hunters in India include the Mincopie people, aboriginal inhabitants of India's Andaman and Nicobar islands, who have used harpoons with long cords for fishing since early times; the ancient river Nile was full of fish. The Egyptians invented various implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in tomb scenes and papyrus documents. Simple reed boats served for fishing. Woven nets, weir baskets made from willow branches and hook and line were all being used. By the 12th dynasty, metal hooks with barbs were being used; as is common today, the fish were clubbed to death after capture. Nile perch and eels were among the most important fish; some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime.
There are numerous references to fishing in ancient literature. An early example from the Bible in Job 41:7: Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears? Unlike in Minoan culture, fishing scenes are represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. There is a wine cup, dating from c. 500 BC, that shows a boy crouched on a rock with a fishing-rod in his right hand and a basket in his left. In the water below there is a rounded object of the same material with an opening on the top; this has been identified as a fish-trap. It is not a net; this object is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180; this is the earliest such work. Oppian describes various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop and tridents, various traps "which work while their masters sleep".
Oppian's description of fishing with a "motionless" net is very interesting: The fishers set up light nets of buoyant flax and wheel in a circle round about while they violently strike the surface of the sea with their oars and make a din with sweeping blow of poles. At the flashing of the swift oars and the noise the fish bound in terror and rush into the bosom of the net which stands at rest, thinking it to be a shelter: foolish fishes which, frightened by a noise, enter the gates of doom; the fishers on either side hasten with the ropes to draw the net ashore. The Greek historian Polybius, in his Histories, describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head. Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show fishing from boats with rod and line as well as nets. Various species such as conger, sea urchin and cuttlefish are illustrated. In a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called retiarius was armed with a trident and a casting-net, he would fight against the murmillo, who carrie
Harold Innis and the cod fishery
Harold Adams Innis was a professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on Canadian economic history and on media and communication theory. He helped develop the staples thesis which holds that Canada's culture, political history and economy have been decisively influenced by the exploitation and export of a series of staples such as fur, wood, mined metals and fossil fuels. Innis's communications writings explore the role of media in shaping the culture and development of civilizations. After the publication of his book The Fur Trade in Canada Innis turned to a study of an earlier staple — the cod fished for centuries off the eastern coasts of North America the Grand Banks of Newfoundland; the result was The Cod Fisheries: The History of an International Economy published 10 years after the fur trade study. Innis tells the detailed history of competing empires in the exploitation of a teeming, natural resource -- a history that ranges over five hundred years.
He begins by citing a report recounting John Cabot's 1497 voyage to North America that marvels about how "the sea there is swarming with fish, which can be taken not only with the net but in baskets let down with a stone, so that it sinks in the water." This abundance attracted various European nations, but Spain dominated the fishery until the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. The British took over with the French and American colonists, as their main rivals. Throughout his 590-page study, Innis focuses on the complex inter-relationships among economics and technology, he writes, for example, that the English were able to dominate the fishery after developing a method of curing their catches onshore transporting the dried fish to Mediterranean countries where there was a demand for a higher protein diet. This combined with consumer preferences for dried fish over cod packed in brine meant higher prices in Catholic countries where the church required the regular consumption of fish. Thus, dried cod sold in Spain allowed England to receive substantial amounts of the precious metals that the Spanish were bringing from their colonies in the New World.
"Cod from Newfoundland was the lever by which she wrested her share of the riches of the New World from Spain."Innis shows how the cod fishery was interwoven economically with the slave trade and international markets for such other products as sugar and rum. He argues that rivalry between the British and the colonists in New England led to the American Revolution. While his study of the fur trade focused on the continental interior with its interlocking rivers and lakes, The Cod Fisheries looks outward at global trade and empire showing the far-reaching effects of one staple product, both on imperial centres and on marginal colonies such as Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and New England. Biographer, John Watson argues that the book foreshadowed Innis's work exploring the relationships between communications technologies and the rise and fall of empires
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the Pope, he was instead proclaimed Emperor elect by Pope Julius II at Trent, thus breaking the long tradition of requiring a papal coronation for the adoption of the imperial title. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Eleanor of Portugal, he ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 to his father's death in 1493. Maximilian expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, though he lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459.
His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint, Maximilian of Tebessa, who Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. One source relates that, during the siege's bleakest days, the young prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants and men-at-arms for bits of bread; the young prince was an excellent hunter, his favorite hobby was the hunting for birds as a horse archer. At the time, the dukes of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the French royal family, with their sophisticated nobility and court culture, were the rulers of substantial territories on the eastern and northern boundaries of France; the reigning duke, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and, to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian.
After the Siege of Neuss, he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on 19 August 1477. Maximilian's wife had inherited the large Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her father's death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs; the Duchy of Burgundy was claimed by the French crown under Salic Law, with Louis XI of France vigorously contesting the Habsburg claim to the Burgundian inheritance by means of military force. Maximilian undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI and defeated the French forces at Guinegate, the modern Enguinegatte, on 7 August 1479. Maximilian and Mary's wedding contract stipulated that their children would succeed them but that the couple could not be each other's heirs. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded.
After Mary's death in a riding accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilian's aim was now to secure the inheritance to his and Mary's son, Philip the Handsome. Some of the Netherlander provinces were hostile to Maximilian, and, in 1482, they signed a treaty with Louis XI in Arras that forced Maximilian to give up Franche-Comté and Artois to the French crown, they rebelled twice in the period 1482–1492, attempting to regain the autonomy they had enjoined under Mary. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and Maximilian himself, but they were defeated when Frederick III intervened. Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. After the regency ended and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis, thus a large part of the Netherlands stayed in the Habsburg patrimony. Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his father's initiative and crowned on 9 April 1486 in Aachen.
He became ruler of the Holy Roman Empire upon the death of his father in 1493. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule when he took power, as they had occupied the territory under the reign of Frederick. In 1490, Maximilian entered Vienna; as the Treaty of Senlis had resolved French differences with the Holy Roman Empire, King Louis XII of France had secured borders in the north and turned his attention to Italy, where he made claims for the Duchy of Milan. In 1499/1500 he drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile; this brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. However, Maximilian was unable to hinder the French from taking over Milan; the prolonged Italian Wars resulted in Maximilian joining the Holy League to counter the French. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France.
His campaigns in Italy were not as successful, his progress there was checked. The situation in Italy was not the only problem; the Swiss won a decisive victory against the Empire in the Battle of Dornach on 22 July 1499. Maximilian had no choice but to agree to a peace treaty signed on 22 September 1499 in Basel that granted the Swiss Confederacy independence from the Holy Roman Empire. In addition, the Cou
A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. The term may be used of all vessels operating out of a particular port, all vessels engaged in a particular type of fishing, or all fishing vessels of a country or region. Although fishing vessels are not formally organized as if they were a naval fleet often the constraints of time and weather are such that they must all leave or return together, thus creating at least the appearance of an organized body. Fishermen operating a particular type of vessel or in a particular port belong to a local association which disseminates information and may be used to coordinate activities, such as how best to prevent overfishing in particular areas. In 2002 the world fishing fleet numbered about four million vessels. About one-third were decked; the remaining undecked boats were less than 10 metres long, 65 percent were not fitted with mechanical propulsion systems. The FAO estimates; the average size of decked vessels is about 20 gross tons. Only one percent of the world fishing fleet is larger than 100 gross tons.
China has half of these larger vessels. There is no international instrument in force concerning the safety of fishing vessels. International conventions and agreements awaiting ratification which concern safety at sea are exclusively aimed at vessels 24 metres in length and over, therefore do not apply to artisan vessels in developing countries. Safety regulations for all fishing vessels are left entirely to national discretion; the fishing fleet was an ironic reference to the shipping of unmarried young women from the UK to India during the middle and latter years of the Raj, for the purposes of becoming married to colonial administrators and plantation supervisors. FAO: CWP Handbook of Fishery Statistical Standards: Section L: Fishery Fleet FAO: Fishing vessels
A levee, dyke, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is earthen and parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines. Speakers of American English, use the word levee, from the French word levée, it originated in New Orleans a few years after the city's founding in 1718 and was adopted by English speakers. The name derives from the trait of the levee's ridges being raised higher than both the channel and the surrounding floodplains; the modern word dike or dyke most derives from the Dutch word dijk, with the construction of dikes in Frisia well attested as early as the 11th century. The 126 kilometres long Westfriese Omringdijk, completed by 1250, formed by connecting existing older dikes; the Roman chronicler Tacitus mentions that the rebellious Batavi pierced dikes to flood their land and to protect their retreat. The word dijk indicated both the trench and the bank, it parallels the English verb to dig.
In Anglo-Saxon, the word dic existed and was pronounced as dick in northern England and as ditch in the south. Similar to Dutch, the English origins of the word lie in digging a trench and forming the upcast soil into a bank alongside it; this practice has meant that the name may be given to the bank. Thus Offa's Dyke is a combined structure and Car Dyke is a trench - though it once had raised banks as well. In the midlands and north of England, in the United States, a dike is what a ditch is in the south, a property-boundary marker or small drainage-channel. Where it carries a stream, it may be called a running dike as in Rippingale Running Dike, which leads water from the catchwater drain, Car Dyke, to the South Forty Foot Drain in Lincolnshire; the Weir Dike is a soak dike in Bourne North Fen, near Twenty and alongside the River Glen, Lincolnshire. In the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads, a dyke may be a drainage ditch or a narrow artificial channel off a river or broad for access or mooring, some longer dykes being named, e.g. Candle Dyke.
In parts of Britain Scotland, a dyke may be a field wall made with dry stone. The main purpose of artificial levees is to prevent flooding of the adjoining countryside and to slow natural course changes in a waterway to provide reliable shipping lanes for maritime commerce over time. Levees can be found along the sea, where dunes are not strong enough, along rivers for protection against high-floods, along lakes or along polders. Furthermore, levees have been built for the purpose of empoldering, or as a boundary for an inundation area; the latter can be a controlled inundation by the military or a measure to prevent inundation of a larger area surrounded by levees. Levees have been built as field boundaries and as military defences. More on this type of levee can be found in the article on dry-stone walls. Levees can be permanent earthworks or emergency constructions built hastily in a flood emergency; when such an emergency bank is added on top of an existing levee it is known as a cradge. Some of the earliest levees were constructed by the Indus Valley Civilization on which the agrarian life of the Harappan peoples depended.
Levees were constructed over 3,000 years ago in ancient Egypt, where a system of levees was built along the left bank of the River Nile for more than 600 miles, stretching from modern Aswan to the Nile Delta on the shores of the Mediterranean. The Mesopotamian civilizations and ancient China built large levee systems; because a levee is only as strong as its weakest point, the height and standards of construction have to be consistent along its length. Some authorities have argued that this requires a strong governing authority to guide the work, may have been a catalyst for the development of systems of governance in early civilizations. However, others point to evidence of large scale water-control earthen works such as canals and/or levees dating from before King Scorpion in Predynastic Egypt, during which governance was far less centralized. Another example of a historical levee that protected the growing city-state of Mēxihco-Tenōchtitlan and the neighbouring city of Tlatelōlco, was constructed during the early 1400s, under the supervision of the tlahtoani of the altepetl Texcoco, Nezahualcoyotl.
Its function was to separate the brackish waters of Lake Texcoco from the fresh potable water supplied to the settlements. However, after the Europeans destroyed Tenochtitlan, the levee was destroyed and flooding became a major problem, which resulted in the majority of The Lake to be drained in the 17th Century. Levees are built by piling earth on a cleared, level surface. Broad at the base, they taper to a level top, where temporary sandbags can be placed; because flood discharge intensity increases in levees on both river banks, because silt deposits raise the level of riverbeds and auxiliary measures are vital. Sections are set back from the river to form a wider channel, flood valley basins are divided by multiple levees to prevent a single breach from flooding a large area. A levee made from stones laid in horizontal rows with a bed of thin turf between each of them is known as a spetchel. Artificial levees require substantial engineering, their surface must be protected from erosion, so they are planted
A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial and recreational fishing. According to the FAO, there are four million commercial fishing vessels. About 1.3 million of these are decked vessels with enclosed areas. Nearly all of these decked vessels are mechanised, 40,000 of them are over 100 tons. At the other extreme, two-thirds of the undecked boats are traditional craft of various types, powered only by sail and oars; these boats are used by artisan fishers. It is difficult to estimate the number of recreational fishing boats, they range in size from small dinghies to large charter cruisers, unlike commercial fishing vessels, are not dedicated just to fishing. Prior to the 1950s there was little standardisation of fishing boats. Designs could vary between boatyards. Traditionally boats were built of wood, but wood is not used now because it has higher maintenance costs and lower durability. Fibreglass is used in smaller fishing vessels up to 25 metres, while steel is used on vessels above 25 metres.
Early fishing vessels included rafts, dugout canoes, boats constructed from a frame covered with hide or tree bark, along the lines of a coracle. The oldest boats found by archaeological excavation are dugout canoes dating back to the Neolithic Period around 7,000-9,000 years ago; these canoes were cut from coniferous tree logs, using simple stone tools. A 7000-year-old seagoing boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait; these early vessels had limited capability. They were used for fishing and hunting; the development of fishing boats took place in parallel with the development of boats built for trade and war. Early navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics for sails. Affixed to a pole set upright in the boat, these sails gave early boats more range, allowing voyages of exploration. Around 4000 B. C. Egyptians were building long narrow boats powered by many oarsmen. Over the next 1,000 years, they made a series of remarkable advances in boat design, they developed cotton-made sails to help their boats go faster with less work.
They built boats large enough to cross the oceans. These boats had sails and oarsmen, were used for travel and trade. By 3000 BC, the Egyptians knew, they used woven straps to lash planks together, reeds or grass stuffed between the planks to seal the seams. An example of their skill is the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2,500 BC and found intact in 1954. At about the same time, the Scandinavians were building innovative boats. People living near Kongens Lyngby in Denmark, came up with the idea of segregated hull compartments, which allowed the size of boats to be increased. A crew of some two dozen paddled the wooden Hjortspring boat across the Baltic Sea long before the rise of the Roman Empire. Scandinavians continued to develop better ships, incorporating iron and other metal into the design and developing oars for propulsion. By 1000 A. D. the Norsemen were pre-eminent on the oceans. They were skilled seamen and boat builders, with clinker-built boat designs that varied according to the type of boat.
Trading boats, such as the knarrs, were wide to allow large cargo storage. Raiding boats, such as the longship, were long and narrow and fast; the vessels they used for fishing were scaled down versions of their cargo boats. The Scandinavian innovations influenced fishing boat design long after the Viking period came to an end. For example, yoles from the Orkney island of Stroma were built in the same way as the Norse boats. In the 15th century, the Dutch developed a type of seagoing herring drifter that became a blueprint for European fishing boats; this was the Herring Buss, used by Dutch herring fishermen until the early 19th centuries. The ship type buss has a long history, it was known around 1000 AD in Scandinavia as a robust variant of the Viking longship. The first herring buss was built in Hoorn around 1415; the ship was about 20 metres long and displaced between 100 tons. It was a massive round-bilged keel ship with a bluff bow and stern, the latter high, with a gallery; the busses used long drifting gill nets to catch the herring.
The nets would be retrieved at night and the crews of eighteen to thirty men would set to gibbing and barrelling the catch on the broad deck. During the 17th century, the British developed the dogger, an early type of sailing trawler or longliner, which operated in the North Sea. Doggers were slow but sturdy. Like the herring buss, they were wide-beamed and bluff-bowed, but smaller, about 15 metres long, a maximum beam of 4.5 metres, a draught of 1.5 metres, displacing about 13 tonnes. They could carry a tonne of bait, three tonnes of salt, half a tonne each of food and firewood for the crew, return with six tonnes of fish. Decked areas forward and aft provided accommodation, storage and a cooking area. An anchor would have allowed extended periods fishing in the same spot, in waters up to 18 metres deep; the dogger would have carried a small open boat for maintaining lines and rowing ashore. A precursor to the dory type was the early French bateau type, a flat bottom boat with straight sides used as early as 1671 on the Saint Lawrence River.
The common coastal boat of the time was the wherry and the merging of the wherry design with the simplified flat bottom of the bateau resulte
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the Duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France. Beginning with Robert II of France, the title was held by the French royal family, it was granted to Robert's younger son, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct, it was inherited by John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy as an appanage for Philip the Bold; the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became dangerous rivals to the senior line of the House of Valois. When the male line of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became extinct, the title was confiscated by Louis XI of France. Today, the title is used by the House of Bourbon as a revived courtesy title; the first margrave duke, of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes, whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.
His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century by the French crown, their suzerain. Richard the Justiciar Rudolph King of France Hugh the Black Gilbert Otto Eudes Henry the Great Otto William In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule, his descendants formed another House of Ivrea. Robert Henry Robert, son of Robert II of France, received the Duchy as a peace settlement, having disputed the succession to the throne of France with his brother Henry. John II of France, the second Valois king claimed the Duchy after the death of Philip, the last Capet duke. John passed the duchy to his youngest son Philip as an apanage. In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance. Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire.
They used the term Burgundy to refer to it, until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to French Republic. The Habsburgs continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois. Maximilian I Philip IV the Handsome, titular Duke of Burgundy as Philip IV Charles II 1506–1555Philip V 1556–1598 Philip VI 1598–1621 Philip VII 1621–1665 Charles III 1665–1700 Louis, Duke of Burgundy Philip VIII 1700–1713 Charles IV 1713–1740 Maria Theresa 1740–1780 Francis I Joseph 1780–1790 Leopold 1790–1792 Francis II 1792–1795/1835 Ferdinand Franz Joseph Charles V King Juan Carlos I of Spain King Felipe VI of Spain – the title is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown Prince Louis of Bourbon – the title is used by eldest son of the legitimist claimant to the French throne Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. Duchess of Burgundy Kingdom of Burgundy King of Burgundy Duchy of Burgundy County of Burgundy Count of Burgundy Dukes of Burgundy family tree Arelat Calmette, Joseph.
Doreen Weightman, trans. The Golden Age of Burgundy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1962. Chaumé, Maurice. Les Origines du Duché de Bourgogne. 2v. in 4 parts. Dijon: Jobard, 1925. Michael, Nicholas. Armies of Medieval Burgundy 1364–1477. London: Osprey, 1983. ISBN 0-85045-518-9. Vaughan, Richard. Valois Burgundy. London: Allen Lane, 1975. ISBN 0-7139-0924-2