Vikings were Norse seafarers speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, explored westwards to Iceland and Vinland. The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age; this period of Nordic military and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Kievan Rus' and Sicily. Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East. Following extended phases of exploration and settlement, Viking communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions. Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century. Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy; these representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.
One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, small bay". Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word described persons from this area, it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir,'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine and ignore the feminine, a serious problem because the masculine is derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa; the form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking because of his activities as a viking; the Gårdstånga Stone uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu", referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings.
The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, killed when "i viking". In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad; the Bro Stone was risen in memory of Assur, said to have protected the land from vikings. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age. Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.'sea mile', originally'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan,'to recede'. This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan,'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages. Linguistically, this theory is better attested, the term most predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before.
In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking may have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which dates from the 9th century. In Old English, in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term referred to Scandi
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the convention was opened for signature in 1973 and CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process; as of 2018, Secretary-General of the CITES Secretariat is Ivonne Higuero. CITES is one of sustainable use agreements in existence. Participation is voluntary, countries that have agreed to be bound by the Convention are known as Parties. Although CITES is binding on the Parties, it does not take the place of national laws.
Rather it provides a framework respected by each Party, which must adopt their own domestic legislation to implement CITES at the national level. Domestic legislation is either non-existent, or with penalties with the gravity of the crime and insufficient deterrents to wildlife traders; as of 2002, 50% of Parties lacked one or more of the four major requirements for a Party: designation of Management and Scientific Authorities. Funding for the activities of the Secretariat and Conference of the Parties meetings comes from a Trust Fund derived from Party contributions. Trust Fund money is not available to Parties to improve compliance; these activities, all those outside Secretariat activities must find external funding from donor countries and regional organizations such as the European Union. Although the Convention itself does not provide for arbitration or dispute in the case of noncompliance, 36 years of CITES in practice has resulted in several strategies to deal with infractions by Parties.
The Secretariat, when informed of an infraction by a Party, will notify all other parties. The Secretariat will give the Party time to respond to the allegations and may provide technical assistance to prevent further infractions. Other actions the Convention itself does not provide for but that derive from subsequent COP resolutions may be taken against the offending Party; these include: Mandatory confirmation of all permits by the Secretariat Suspension of cooperation from the Secretariat A formal warning A visit by the Secretariat to verify capacity Recommendations to all Parties to suspend CITES related trade with the offending party Dictation of corrective measures to be taken by the offending Party before the Secretariat will resume cooperation or recommend resumption of tradeBilateral sanctions have been imposed on the basis of national legislation. Infractions may include negligence with respect to permit issuing, excessive trade, lax enforcement, failing to produce annual reports.
CITES addressed depletion resulting from demand for luxury goods such as furs in Western countries, but with the rising wealth of Asia in China, the focus changed to products demanded there those used for luxury goods such as ivory or shark fins or for superstitious purposes such as rhinoceros horn. As of 2013 the demand was massive and had expanded to include thousands of species considered unremarkable and in no danger of extinction such as manta rays or pangolins; the text of the Convention was finalized at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D. C. United States, on 3 March 1973, it was open for signature until 31 December 1974. It entered into force after the 10th ratification by a signatory country, on 1 July 1975. Countries that signed the Convention become Parties by accepting or approving it. By the end of 2003, all signatory countries had become Parties. States that were not signatories may become Parties by acceding to the Convention; as of October 2016, the Convention has 183 parties, including the European Union.
The CITES Convention includes rules for trade with non-Parties. All member states of the United Nations are party to the treaty, with the exception of Andorra, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, South Sudan, East Timor, Tonga and Tuvalu. UN observer the Holy See is not a member; the Faroe Islands, an autonomous country in the Kingdom of Denmark, is treated as a non-Party to CITES. An amendment to the text of the Convention, known as the Gaborone Amendment allows regional economic integration organizations, such as the European Union, to have the status of a member state and to be a Party to the Convention; the REIO can vote at CITES meetings with the number of votes representing the number of members in the REIO, but it does not have an additional vote. In accordance with Article XVII, paragraph 3, of the CITES Convention, the Gaborone Amendment entered into force on 29 November 2013, 60 days after 54 (tw
Magadan is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region. Population: 95,982 . Magadan was founded in 1930 near the settlement of Nagayevo. During the Stalin era, Magadan was a major transit center for prisoners sent to labor camps. From 1932 to 1953, it was the administrative center of the Dalstroy organization—a vast and brutal forced-labor gold-mining operation and forced-labor camp system; the town served as a port for exporting gold and other metals mined in the Kolyma region. Its size and population grew as facilities were developed for the expanding mining activities in the area. Town status was granted to it on July 14, 1939. Magadan was visited by U. S. Vice-President Henry Wallace in May 1944, he took an instant liking to his secret policeman host, admired handiwork done by prisoners, glowingly called the town a combination of Tennessee Valley Authority and Hudson's Bay Company. Wallace's collaborative stance towards the Soviet Union discouraged the Democratic Party of the United States from renominating him as vice president in the summer of 1944, helping lead to the selection of Harry Truman in his place.
Magadan is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the urban-type settlements of Sokol and Uptar, incorporated as the town of oblast significance of Magadan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Magadan is incorporated as Magadan Urban Okrug. Shipbuilding and fishing are the major industries; the town has a small international airport, the Sokol Airport. There is a small domestic airport nearby, Magadan 13; the unpaved Kolyma Highway leads from Magadan to the rich gold-mining region of the upper Kolyma River and on to Yakutsk. Magadan is isolated; the nearest major city accessible by road is Yakutsk, 2,000 kilometers away via an unpaved road, best used in the winter since there is no bridge over the Lena River at Yakutsk.. The principal sources of income for the local economy are gold mining and fisheries. Gold production has declined.
Fishing production, although improving from year to year, is still well below the allocated quotas as a result of an aging fleet. Other local industries include pasta and sausage plants, a distillery. Although farming is difficult owing to the harsh climate, there are many public and private farming enterprises; the town has a number of cultural institutions including the Regional Museum of Anthropology, a geological museum, a regional library and a university. The town has the new Orthodox Cathedral Church of the Trinity, a completed Roman Catholic Church of the Nativity and the Mask of Sorrow memorial, a large sculpture in memory of Stalin's victims, designed by Ernst Neizvestny; the Church of the Nativity is a part of the diocese of Anchorage and ministers to the survivors of the labor camps. It is staffed by several nuns; the town figures prominently in the labour camp literature of Varlam Shalamov and in the eponymous song by Mikhail Krug, was a focal point of the Long Way Round motorcycle journey made by Ewan McGregor, Charley Boorman and their team in 2004.
The climate of Magadan is subarctic. Winters are prolonged and cold, with up to six months of sub-zero high temperatures, so that the soil remains permanently frozen. Permafrost and tundra cover most of the region; the growing season is only one hundred days long. Average temperatures on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk range from −22 °C in January to +12 °C in July. Average temperatures in the interior range from −38 °C in January to +16 °C in July. North-Eastern State University Nikolai Getman, artist Vadim Kozin, tenor Nina Lugovskaya, artist Yelena Välbe, Olympic cross-country skier Pavel Vinogradov, cosmonaut Dimitry Ipatov, ski jumper Sasha Luss, fashion model Viktor Rybakov, former European amateur boxing champion Anya Garnis, professional dancer, raised in Magadan, but not born there. Inna Korobkina, actress Magadan is twinned with: Anchorage, United States Tonghua, China Jelgava, Latvia Zlatitsa, Bulgaria Shuangyashan, China Магаданская городская Дума. Решение №96-Д от 26 августа 2005 г.
«Устав муниципального образования "Город Магадан"», в ред. Решения №61-Д от 15 сентября 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Магадан"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г.. Опубликован: "Вечерний Магадан", №3, 19 января 2006 г.. Магаданская городская Дума. Решение №49-Д от 1 июля 1999 г. «О установлении общегородского праздника "День города Магадана"». (Magadan Town Duma. Decision #49-D of July 1, 1999 On Establishing Town Holiday "Day of the Town o
The polar bear is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is a large bear the same size as the omnivorous Kodiak bear. A boar weighs around 350 -- 700 kg. Although it is the sister species of the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrower ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold temperatures, for moving across snow and open water, for hunting seals, which make up most of its diet. Although most polar bears are born on land, they spend most of their time on the sea ice, their scientific name derives from this fact. Polar bears hunt their preferred food of seals from the edge of sea ice living off fat reserves when no sea ice is present; because of their dependence on the sea ice, polar bears are classified as marine mammals. Because of expected habitat loss caused by climate change, the polar bear is classified as a vulnerable species. For decades, large-scale hunting raised international concern for the future of the species, but populations rebounded after controls and quotas began to take effect.
For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key figure in the material and cultural life of circumpolar peoples, polar bears remain important in their cultures. The polar bear has been known as the white bear. Constantine John Phipps was the first to describe the polar bear as a distinct species in 1774, he chose the scientific name Ursus maritimus, the Latin for'maritime bear', due to the animal's native habitat. The Inuit refer to the animal as nanook; the Yupik refer to the bear as nanuuk in Siberian Yupik. The bear is umka in the Chukchi language. In Russian, it is called бе́лый медве́дь, though an older word still in use is ошку́й. In Quebec, the polar bear is referred to as ours polaire. In the Norwegian-administered Svalbard archipelago, the polar bear is referred to as Isbjørn; the polar bear was considered to be in its own genus, Thalarctos. However, evidence of hybrids between polar bears and brown bears, of the recent evolutionary divergence of the two species, does not support the establishment of this separate genus, the accepted scientific name is now therefore Ursus maritimus, as Phipps proposed.
The bear family, Ursidae, is thought to have split from other carnivorans about 38 million years ago. The subfamily Ursinae originated 4.2 million years ago. The oldest known polar bear fossil is a 130,000 to 110,000-year-old jaw bone, found on Prince Charles Foreland in 2004. Fossils show that between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, the polar bear's molar teeth changed from those of the brown bear. Polar bears are thought to have diverged from a population of brown bears that became isolated during a period of glaciation in the Pleistocene from the eastern part of Siberia; the evidence from DNA analysis is more complex. The mitochondrial DNA of the polar bear diverged from the brown bear, Ursus arctos 150,000 years ago. Further, some clades of brown bear, as assessed by their mtDNA, are more related to polar bears than to other brown bears, meaning that the polar bear might not be considered a species under some species concepts; the mtDNA of extinct Irish brown bears is close to polar bears. A comparison of the nuclear genome of polar bears with that of brown bears revealed a different pattern, the two forming genetically distinct clades that diverged 603,000 years ago, although the latest research is based on analysis of the complete genomes of polar and brown bears, establishes the divergence of polar and brown bears at 400,000 years ago.
However, the two species have mated intermittently for all that time, most coming into contact with each other during warming periods, when polar bears were driven onto land and brown bears migrated northward. Most brown bears have about 2 percent genetic material from polar bears, but one population, the ABC Islands bears has between 5 percent and 10 percent polar bear genes, indicating more frequent and recent mating. Polar bears can breed with brown bears to produce fertile grizzly–polar bear hybrids. However, because neither species can survive long in the other's ecological niche, because they have different morphology, metabolism and feeding behaviours, other phenotypic characteristics, the two bears are classified as separate species; when the polar bear was documented, two subspecies were identified: the American polar bear by Constantine J. Phipps in 1774, the Siberian polar bear by Peter Simon Pallas in 1776; this distinction has since been invalidated. One alleged fossil subspecies has been identified: Ursus maritimus tyrannus, which became extinct during the Pleistocene.
U.m. tyrannus was larger than the living subspecies. However, recent reanalysis of the fossil suggests that it was a brown bear; the polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and adjacent land masses as far south as Newfoundland. Due to the absence of human development in i
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, parts of Alaska, Greenland, Northern Canada, Norway and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places; the Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, land animals and human societies. Arctic land is bordered by the subarctic; the word Arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός, "near the Bear, northern" and that from the word ἄρκτος, meaning bear. The name refers either to the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern portion of the celestial sphere, or to the constellation Ursa Minor, the "Little Bear", which contains Polaris, the Pole star known as the North Star.
There are a number of definitions of. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle, the approximate southern limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Another definition of the Arctic is the region where the average temperature for the warmest month is below 10 °C; the Arctic's climate is characterized by cool summers. Its precipitation comes in the form of snow and is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm. High winds stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can go as low as −40 °C, the coldest recorded temperature is −68 °C. Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas; the Arctic is affected by current global warming, leading to Arctic sea ice shrinkage, diminished ice in the Greenland ice sheet, Arctic methane release as the permafrost thaws. Due to the poleward migration of the planet's isotherms, the Arctic region is shrinking.
The most alarming result of this is Arctic sea ice shrinkage. There is a large variance in predictions of Arctic sea ice loss, with models showing near-complete to complete loss in September from 2040 to some time well beyond 2100. About half of the analyzed models show near-complete to complete sea ice loss in September by the year 2100. Arctic life is characterized by adaptation to short growing seasons with long periods of sunlight, to cold, snow-covered winter conditions. Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, herbs and mosses, which all grow close to the ground, forming tundra. An example of a dwarf shrub is the Bearberry; as one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their metabolic limits, small differences in the total amount of summer warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for maintenance and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance and variety of plants to decrease.
Trees cannot grow in the Arctic, but in its warmest parts, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m in height. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare. Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming and caribou, they are preyed on by the snowy owl, Arctic fox, Grizzly bear, Arctic wolf. The polar bear is a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Other terrestrial animals include wolverines, Dall sheep and Arctic ground squirrels. Marine mammals include seals and several species of cetacean—baleen whales and narwhals, killer whales, belugas. An excellent and famous example of a ring species exists and has been described around the Arctic Circle in the form of the Larus gulls; the Arctic includes sizable natural resources to which modern technology and the economic opening up of Russia have given significant new opportunities. The interest of the tourism industry is on the increase.
The Arctic contains some of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable. The increasing presence of humans fragments vital habitats; the Arctic is susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare breeding grounds of the animals that are characteristic to the region. The Arctic holds 1/5 of the Earth's water supply. During the Cretaceous time period, the Arctic still had seasonal snows, though only a light dusting and not enough to permanently hinder plant growth. Animals such as the Chasmosaurus, Hypacrosaurus and Edmontosaurus may have all migrated north to take advantage of the summer growing season, migrated south to warmer climes when the winter ca
Anglo-Saxon reliquary cross
The Reliquary Cross is a late 10th century Anglo Saxon ivory figure of Christ, set on an Ottonian cross to make a reliquary in the form of a crucifix. It is now in the Albert Museum in London; the cross is covered with plates of gold filigree work. The "corpus" or figure of Christ, was made in Winchester, is in walrus ivory; the body of the reliquary, because of a technical "trick" in the gold filigree, is thought to be German, around the same date from the area of Aachen and Essen. The V&A says "the cross is one of the rare surviving pieces which give substance to descriptions in contemporary documentary sources of the sumptuous church furnishings of pre-Conquest England; the enamels are unique in Anglo-Saxon art and may have been made by an English goldsmith familiar with German work. The wood core of the cross was regarded as a relic of the True Cross, it is most unlikely because of its size and weight, that it was made to be worn as a pectoral cross and more probable that the suspension loop allowed it to hang above an altar or shrine."
The body of the cross is of cedar wood, covered with sheets of gold, the back with repousse decoration now badly crumpled and flattened, the front decorated with filigree work, enamels and an ivory corpus of the figure of Christ. This is carved in walrus ivory. Haloed and crowned, the bearded Christ wears an elaborately pleated loin-cloth, knotted through the folded girdle; the head leans towards the right shoulder and the long hair falls in several plaits onto the shoulders. The figure is held in place by golden nails through the palms; the titulus above Christ and four medallions with emblems of the Evangelists are of cloisonné enamel. The back of the cross shows the Holy Lamb and the emblems of the Evangelists in repoussé or beaten work; the height of the cross is the width 13.7 cm, the depth 2.6 cm, the weight 0.22 kg. The height of the figure is the width 10.9 cm. In 1926, during cleaning work, a human finger female, was found in a cavity underneath the corpus. A fragmentary and not legible inscription around the edge of the cross seems to list the relics of saints once contained in the cavity beneath the ivory figure of Christ.'IHS NAZARENUS' RE....
VLQ DE... O ET CAMIN.... AMD NIS//RV.... EDA.... DI.... DI SIMEONIS ET MARDespite Papal disapproval of the dismemberment of saints, a finger relic was by no means unusual in Anglo-Saxon England: King Athelstan bestowed one third of his extensive collection of relics to the monastery of St. Mary and St. Peter at Exeter in AD 932; the gift included a finger. David Wilson points to the close similarity between the figure on the cross and that in a tinted drawing in the Ramsey Psalter, dated 980-1000. V&A page, with more photos, bibliography Otto der Grosse: Magdeburg und Europa, herausgegeben von Matthias Puhle pp 434–436 Cat no. VI. 27 Williamson, The Medieval Treasury, London: V&A Publications, 1998, p. 96 Mitchell, H. P, English or German? - A Pre-Conquest Gold Cross, Burlington Magazine XLVII 1925, p 324 Williamson, Paul. Medieval Ivory Carvings. Early Christian to Romanesque. London, V&A Publishing, 2010, pp. 238–241, cat.no. 60 Wilson, David M..