New England Patriots
The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston area. The Patriots compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at Gillette Stadium in the town of Foxborough, located 21 miles southwest of downtown Boston, Massachusetts and 20 miles northeast of downtown Providence, Rhode Island. The Patriots are headquartered at Gillette Stadium. An original member of the American Football League, the Patriots joined the NFL in the 1970 merger of the two leagues; the team changed its name from the original Boston Patriots after relocating to Foxborough in 1971. The Patriots played their home games at Foxboro Stadium from 1971 to 2001 moved to Gillette Stadium at the start of the 2002 season; the Patriots' rivalry with the New York Jets is considered one of the most bitter rivalries in the NFL. Since the arrival of head coach Bill Belichick and quarterback Tom Brady in 2000, the Patriots have since become one of the most successful teams in NFL history, winning 16 AFC East titles in 18 seasons since 2001, without a losing season in that period.
The franchise has since set numerous notable records, including most wins in a ten-year period, an undefeated 16-game regular season in 2007, the longest winning streak consisting of regular season and playoff games in NFL history, the most consecutive division titles won by a team in NFL history. The team owns the record for most Super Bowls reached and won by a head coach–quarterback tandem, most Super Bowl appearances overall, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers for the most Super Bowl wins, tied with the Denver Broncos for the most Super Bowl losses. On November 16, 1959, Boston business executive Billy Sullivan was awarded the eighth and final franchise of the developing American Football League; the following winter, locals were allowed to submit ideas for the Boston football team's official name. The most popular choice – and the one that Sullivan selected – was the "Boston Patriots," with "Patriots" referring to those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation.
Thereafter, artist Phil Bissell of The Boston Globe developed the "Pat Patriot" logo. The Patriots struggled for most of their years in the AFL, they never had a regular home stadium. Nickerson Field, Harvard Stadium, Fenway Park, Alumni Stadium all served as home fields during their time in the American Football League, they played in only one AFL championship game, following the 1963 season, in which they lost to the San Diego Chargers 51–10. They did not appear again in an NFL post-season game for another 13 years; when the NFL and AFL merged in 1970, the Patriots were placed in the American Football Conference East division, where they still play today. The following year, the Patriots moved to a new stadium in Foxborough, which would serve as their home for the next 30 years; as a result of the move, they announced they would change their name from the Boston Patriots to the Bay State Patriots. The name was rejected by the NFL and on March 22, 1971, the team announced they would change its geographic name to New England.
During the 1970s, the Patriots had some success, earning a berth to the playoffs in 1976—as a wild card team—and in 1978—as AFC East champions. They lost in the first round both times. In 1985, they returned to the playoffs, made it all the way to Super Bowl XX, which they lost to the Chicago Bears 46–10. Following their Super Bowl loss, they lost in the first round; the team would not make the playoffs again for eight more years. During the 1990 season, the Patriots went 1–15, they changed ownership three times in the ensuing 14 years, being purchased from the Sullivan family first by Victor Kiam in 1988, who sold the team to James Orthwein in 1992. Though Orthwein's period as owner was short and controversial, he did oversee major changes to the team, first with the hiring of former New York Giants coach Bill Parcells in 1993. Orthwein and his marketing team commissioned the NFL to develop a new visual identity and logo, changed their primary colors from the traditional red and blue to blue and silver for the team uniforms.
Orthwein intended to move the team to his native St. Louis, but instead sold the team in 1994 for $175 million to its current owner, Robert Kraft. Since the Patriots have sold out every home game in both Foxboro Stadium and Gillette Stadium. By 2009, the value of the franchise had increased by over $1 billion, to a Forbes magazine estimated value of $1.361 billion, third highest in the NFL only behind the Dallas Cowboys and Washington Redskins. As of July 2018, the Patriots are the sixth most valuable sports franchise in the world according to Forbes magazine with a value of $3.7 billion. Continuing on as head coach under Kraft's ownership, Parcells would bring the Patriots to two playoff appearances, including Super Bowl XXXI, which they lost to the Green Bay Packers by a score of 35–21. Pete Carroll, Parcells's successor, would take the team to the playoffs twice in 1997 and 1998 before being dismissed as head coach after the 1999 season; the Patriots hired current head coach Bill Belichick, who had served as defensive coordinator under Parcells including during Super Bowl XXXI, in 2000.
Their new home field, Gillette Stadium, opened in 2002 to
Official (American football)
In American football, an official is a person who has responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game. During professional and most college football games, seven officials operate on the field. Beginning in 2015, Division I college football conferences are using eight game officials, the Alliance of American Football began using eight game officials in 2019. College games outside the Division I level use seven officials. Arena football, high school football, other levels of football have other officiating systems. High school football played under the National Federation of State High School Associations rules use five officials for varsity and 3, 4, or 5 for non-varsity games. Football officials are but incorrectly, referred to as referees, but each position has specific duties and a specific name: referee, head linesman, line judge, back judge, side judge, center judge and field judge; because the referee is responsible for the general supervision of the game, the position is sometimes referred to as head referee or crew chief.
American football officials use the following equipment: Whistle Used to signal a reminder to players that the ball is dead. Penalty marker or flag A bright-yellow-colored flag, thrown on the field toward or at the spot of a foul. For fouls where the spot is unimportant, such as fouls which occur at the snap or during a dead ball, the flag is thrown vertically; the flag is wrapped around a weight, such as sand or beans, so that it can be thrown with some distance and accuracy and to ensure it remains in place and not moved by wind. Officials carry a second flag in case there are multiple fouls on a play. Officials who run out of flags when they see multiple fouls on a play may drop their hat or a bean bag instead. Bean bag Used to mark various spots that are not fouls but which may be possible spots of penalty enforcement or illegal touching of a scrimmage kick. For example, a bean bag is used to mark the spot of a fumble or the spot where a player caught a punt, it is colored white, black, or orange, depending on the official's league, college conference, level of play, or weather conditions.
Unlike penalty flags, bean bags may be tossed to a spot parallel to the nearest yard line, not to the actual spot. Down indicator A specially designed wristband, used to remind officials of the current down, it has an elastic loop attached to it, wrapped around the fingers. Officials put the loop around their index finger when it is first down, the middle finger when it is second down, so on. Instead of the custom-designed indicator, some officials use two thick rubber bands tied together as a down indicator: one rubber band is used as the wristband and the other is looped over the fingers; some officials umpires, may use a second indicator to keep track of where the ball was placed between the hash marks before the play. This is important when the ball is re-spotted after a foul. Game data card and pencil Officials write down important administrative information, such as the winner of the pregame coin toss, team timeouts, fouls called. Game data cards can be reusable plastic. A pencil with a special bullet-shaped cap is carried.
The cap prevents the official from being stabbed by the pencil. Stopwatch Officials will carry a stopwatch when necessary for timing duties, including keeping game time, keeping the play clock, timing timeouts and the interval between quarters. For ease of recognition, officials are clad in a black-and-white vertically striped shirt and black trousers with a thin white stripe down the side. Officials wear a black belt, black shoes, a peaked cap. A letter indicating the role of each official appears on the back of the shirt at some levels, while NFL officials have numbers with a small letter or letters above. Shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks, an American flag was added to the shirts of NFL officials; the stripes were first introduced in the 1920s. Prior to this, plain white shirts were worn. College football referee Lloyd Olds is credited with the idea after a quarterback mistakenly handed the ball to him; the officials are colloquially called "zebras" due to their black-and-white striped shirts.
During the 1940s the NFL officials wore color-striped shirts. During most of the American Football League's existence, officials wore red-orange striped jerseys; the referees wore the others white, each with the AFL logo. The red and orange look was recreated in 2009 during AFL Legacy Weekends to mark the 50th anniversary of the AFL's founding; the United States Football League, which played from February to July in its three-season existence from 1983 to 1985, allowed officials to wear black shorts. The United Football League, which launched play in October 2009, featured officials wearing solid red polo shirts without stripes with black numbers and black pants; as no teams in the league wore red or orange, there was no prospect of a clash of colors. From 2010, the UFL
2019 Pro Bowl
The 2019 Pro Bowl was the National Football League's all-star game for the 2018 NFL season, played on January 27, 2019, at Camping World Stadium in Orlando, Florida. It was televised nationally by its sister networks; the 2019 game featured the same format as the previous five editions. For the sixth straight year, the Pro Bowl differed from standard NFL game rules and format in that there were no kickoffs and every quarter had a two-minute warning; the play clock was only 35 seconds, the game clock ran after pass incompletions, except with less than two minutes left in either half. As with the previous Pro Bowl, a modified limited-contact form was used, play was called dead as soon as a player was surrounded and to be tackled. Source: The following players were selected to represent the AFC: Notes: Players must have accepted their invitations as alternates to be listed. Bold player who participated in game signifies the player has been selected as a captain a Replacement player selection due to injury or vacancy b Injured/suspended player.
Bold player who participated in game signifies the player has been selected as a captain a Replacement Player selection due to injury or vacancy b Injured/suspended player. The game was televised nationally by ESPN, simulcasted by ABC and Disney XD, broadcast via radio by Westwood One; the game was carried in Spanish by ESPN Deportes. In contrast to the network's "megacast" approach to other multi-network games, all three English-language TV channels carried the same feed. Official website Box score at ESPN
NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision
The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision known as Division I-A, is the top level of college football in the United States. The FBS is the most competitive subdivision of NCAA Division I, which itself consists of the largest and most competitive schools in the National Collegiate Athletic Association; as of 2018, there are 10 conferences and 130 schools in FBS. College football is popular throughout much of the United States, the top schools generate tens of millions of dollars in yearly revenue. Top FBS teams draw tens of thousands of fans to games, the ten largest American stadiums by capacity all host FBS teams or games. College athletes are not paid, but colleges are allowed to provide players with non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books. Unlike other NCAA divisions and subdivisions, the NCAA does not award an FBS football national championship, nor does it sanction a playoff tournament to determine such a champion on the field. Instead, organizations such as the Associated Press and AFCA have sought to rank the teams and crown a national champion, by taking a vote of sports writers and coaches, respectively.
In place of such a playoff, various cities across the United States hold their own post-season contests, called bowl games, in which they traditionally invite teams to participate in them. These bowl games were considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating teams. However, in the modern era they are considered the de facto post-season. There have been agreements in recent decades by the premier FBS conferences and bowl games to organize matchups so that the FBS national championship is decided on the field; the FBS is the highest level of college football in the United States, FBS players make up the vast majority of the players picked in the NFL Draft. For every sport but football, the NCAA divides schools into three major divisions: NCAA Division I, NCAA Division II, NCAA Division III. However, in football, Division I is further divided into two sub-divisions: the Bowl Subdivision, abbreviated as the FBS, the Championship Subdivision, abbreviated as the FCS. Divisions are themselves further divided up into conferences, which are groupings of schools that play each other in contention for a conference championship.
The FBS has ten conferences, which are divided into the "Power Five conferences" and the less prominent "Group of Five". Although FCS programs can draw thousands of fans per game, many FCS schools attempt to join the FBS in hopes of increased revenue, corporate sponsorship, alumni donations and national exposure. However, FBS programs face increased expenses in regards to staff salaries, facility improvements, scholarships; the athletic departments of many FBS schools lose money every year, these athletic departments must rely on subsidies from the rest of the university. The 2014 decision by UAB to discontinue the football program generated national headlines, other FBS programs have considered discontinuing their football program. In many states, the highest-paid public employee is the head coach of an FBS team. FBS schools are limited to a total of 85 football players receiving financial assistance. Nearly all FBS schools that are not on NCAA probation give 85 full scholarships. In order to retain FBS membership, schools must meet several requirements.
FBS schools must have an average home attendance of at least 15,000. An FBS school must sponsor a minimum of 16 varsity intercollegiate teams, with at least six men's or coeducational teams and at least eight all-female teams. Across all sports, each FBS school must offer at least 200 athletic scholarships per year, FBS football teams must provide at least 90% of the maximum number of football scholarships; the FBS season begins in late August or early September and ends in January with the College Football Playoff National Championship game. Most FBS teams play 12 regular season games per year, with eight or nine of those games coming against conference opponents; as of the 2018 season, all conferences will hold a conference championship game. Between conference games, non-conference games, a conference championship game, one bowl game, a top FBS team could play 14 games in a season. A team that plays in the national championship game could play up to 15 games, as any team playing in the national championship must first win a playoff semifinal bowl game.
The Hawaii Rainbow Warriors and teams that play at Hawaii get a special exemption and are allowed to play a thirteenth regular season game in order to defray travel costs, so an FBS team that plays 13 regular season games, a conference championship game, a semifinal bowl game, in the national championship game could theoretically play 16 games in a season. For non-conference regular season games, FBS teams are free to schedule match-ups against any other FBS team, regardless of conference. A small number of FBS teams are independent, have total control over their own schedule. Non-conference games are scheduled by mutual agreement and involve "home and homes" and long-established rivalries. A 2014 study found that teams from the stronger conferences play non-conference games against teams from the weaker conferences or, occas
Arkansas Activities Association
The Arkansas Activities Association is the primary sanctioning body for high school sports in state of Arkansas. AAA is a member association of the National Federation of State High School Associations; every public secondary school in Arkansas is a de jure member of the AAA, most private schools, save for a few schools in the delta that belong to the Mississippi Private Schools Association, are included in membership. The Arkansas Activities Association, or "AAA," was founded in 1904 by seven high schools and colleges and was called the "Arkansas State Athletic Association." In 1912, the high schools separated from the colleges and became the "Arkansas Athletics Association." Membership increased and the name of the organization was changed to the "Arkansas Activities Association". The following member organizations exist within AAA: Athletic Directors: - Arkansas High School Athletic Administrators Association Coaches: - Arkansas High School Coaches Association Officials: - Arkansas Officials Association Prior to integration of public schools, the AAA only governed the activities of white schools.
Until 1961, the association required special permission before an integrated school could compete with an all-white school in band. The first AAA-sanctioned meeting between a predominantly white school and a black school occurred October 28, 1966 between Little Rock Central High School and Little Horace Mann; some integrated schools were admitted to the AAA by 1966, all of the African-American schools were admitted to the AAA in 1967, but maintained separate districts. This resulted in a situation in which all-black Stuttgart Holman was to play integrated Pine Bluff Southeast, admjitted to the AAA in 1966, for the African-American championship; the AAA refused to allow the title game to take place, on the grounds that Holman was not a member of the association. In 1968 the districts were realigned to include white schools in the same districts; the AAA governs a total of 12 sports: Although the word "activities" is used in the name, the AAA is directly responsible only for interscholastic athletics.
Other activities, including music and spirit groups, are governed by their own associations affiliated with yet not part of the AAA, only responsible for sanctioning the events. These associations adopt the AAA's means of determining eligibility as well as its size classifications seen below, but regional classifications and means of organizing events are left only to their respective associations; the AAA maintains affiliations with several non-sporting activities associations. These associations use AAA guidelines regarding a student's eligibility to participate. Arkansas Communication and Theatre Arts Association — a professional non-profit organization that serves the students and teachers of Oral Communication, Forensic Activities and Dance in Arkansas. ACTAA is affiliated with the Arkansas District of the National Forensics League. Arkansas Association of Student Councils — an organization that support student government and Student Council activities. Arkansas Junior Science & Humanities Symposium — annual event, designed to challenge and engage students in science, engineering or mathematics.
Individual students compete for scholarships and recognition by presenting the results of their original research efforts before a panel of judges and an audience of their peers. Arkansas School Band and Orchestra Association — supports students and educators with competitions in a variety of marching band, jazz band, orchestra. Arkansas Scholastic Press Association & Arkansas Journalism Advisors Association — provides students and educators with resources and programs focused on yearbook, newspaper and digital media. Arkansas FFA — chartered in 1928 and serves as state organization within the National FFA Organization; the AAA organizes its member schools by 3-year average daily membership in grades 10-12 every two years. Each classification is organized by rank, as opposed to a minimum threshold, to maintain consistent numbers for each class. Since 2006, the schools have been organized. Class 7A Class 6A Class 5A Class 4A Class 3A Class 2A Class 1A The means of placing private schools within these classifications have become a key issue in Arkansas.
Prior to 2002, only single-gender schools would have its enrollment altered, in this case by doubling the reported enrollment. In 2002, the enrollments reported by private schools was multiplied by 1.35. In 2006, that multiplier was increased to 1.75. Starting in 2008, the multiplier wil be dropped altogether, each private school will be placed one classification above where the enrollment would otherwise place the school. In 2012, enrollment for private schools that were segregated were combined. Within each classification, the schools are further grouped into conferences, each with 6-8 schools apiece. In Classes 7A-5A, the conferences are named according to directional region. In the smaller classes, the conferences are named according to the activity district number which the conference is centrally located (a class 4A conference in western Arkansas w