George Robert Crosby was an American jazz singer and bandleader, best known for his group the Bob-Cats, which formed around 1935. The Bob-Cats was a New Orleans Dixieland-style jazz octet, he was the younger brother of actor Bing Crosby. Bob Crosby was a regular on The Jack Benny Program, he hosted his own afternoon variety show, The Bob Crosby Show, which aired from 1953 to 1957. Crosby received two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 8, 1960, for television and radio. Crosby was born in Spokane, Washington, to English-American bookkeeper Harry Lowe Crosby and Irish-American Catherine Harrigan, the daughter of a builder from County Mayo in Ireland; the couple had seven children: Larry, Ted, Catherine, Mary Rose, George Robert, popularly known as Bob. Crosby attended Gonzaga College. During World War II, he served in the U. S. Marines, leading a band for much of his time in service. Crosby began singing in the early 1930s with the Rhythm Boys, which included vocalist Ray Hendricks and guitarist Bill Pollard, with Anson Weeks and the Dorsey Brothers.
He led his first band in 1935 when the former members of Ben Pollack's band elected him their titular leader. In 1935 he recorded with the Clark Randall Orchestra led by Gil Rodin and featuring singer Frank Tennille, father of Toni of Captain and Tennille. Glenn Miller was a member of that orchestra, which recorded the Glenn Miller novelty composition "When Icky Morgan Plays the Organ" in 1935. Crosby's "band-within-the-band," the Bob-Cats, was a dixieland octet with soloists from the larger orchestra, many from New Orleans; the band included at various times Ray Bauduc, Yank Lawson, Billy Butterfield, Charlie Spivak, Muggsy Spanier, Irving Fazola, Nappy Lamare, Jack Sperling, Joe Sullivan,Jess Stacy, Bob Haggart, Walt Yoder, Bob Zurke. In the spring of 1940, during a performance in Chicago, teenager Doris Day was hired as the band's vocalist. For its theme song the band chose George Gershwin's song "Summertime"; the band's hits included "South Rampart Street Parade", "March of the Bob Cats", "In a Little Gypsy Tea Room", "Whispers in the Dark", "Day In, Day Out", "Down Argentine Way", "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby", "Dolores", "New San Antonio Rose".
A bass-and-drums duet between Haggart and Bauduc, "Big Noise from Winnetka", became a hit in 1938–39. There were reunions in the 1960s. Bob Haggart and Yank Lawson organized a band that combined dixieland and swing to try to carry on the legacy of Bob Crosby. From the late 1960s until the mid 1970s, the band was known as the World's Greatest Jazz Band, but when both became dissatisfied with the name they changed it to the Lawson-Haggart Jazz Band. During World War II, Bob Crosby spent 18 months in the Marines touring with bands in the Pacific, his radio variety series, The Bob Crosby Show, aired on NBC and CBS in different runs from July 18, 1943, to July 16, 1950. This was followed by Club Fifteen on CBS from 1947 through 1953 minus a brief interlude when he was replaced as host by singer Dick Haymes during parts of 1949 and 1950. During his stint on Club Fifteen, he was teamed with the ever-popular Andrews Sisters three nights per week, singing with them and engaging in comedy skits, he first met the trio in 1938 when his orchestra backed their Decca recording of "Begin the Beguine", their popular vocalization of Artie Shaw's big band hit.
One can't help when hearing these old Club Fifteen broadcasts how eerily similar Bob and the Andrews Sisters sound to the trio's frequent and hugely successful pairings with brother Bing Crosby on the Decca label. Bob and Patty scored a hit duet on Decca Records with their duet recording of the novelty "The Pussy Cat Song", which peaked at No. 12 on Billboard. A half-hour CBS daytime series, The Bob Crosby Show, followed from 1953 to 1957. Bob introduced the Canadian singer Gisele MacKenzie to American audiences and subsequently guest-starred in 1957 on her NBC television series, The Gisele MacKenzie Show. On September 14, 1952, Bob replaced Phil Harris as the bandleader on The Jack Benny Program, remaining until Benny retired the radio show in 1955 after 23 years. In joining the show, he became the leader of the same group of musicians who had played under Harris. According to Benny writer Milt Josefsberg, the issue was budget; because radio had strong competition from TV, the program budget had to be reduced, so Bob replaced Phil.
Prior to joining Benny on the radio, based on the east coast, would play with Benny during Benny's live New York appearances, he was seen throughout the 1950s on Benny's television series. As a performer, Crosby had tremendous wit combined with a laid-back persona, he was able to swap jokes competently with Benny, including humorous references to his brother Bing's wealth and his string of losing racehorses. An exchange during one of the popular Christmas programs ran thus: Crosby muses to Jack that he's bought gifts for everyone but band member Frank Remley; when Jack suggests "a cordial, like a bottle of Drambuie", Crosby counters that Drambuie is an after-dinner drink and adds, alluding to Remley's penchant for alcohol, that "Remley never quite makes it to after dinner". Bob Crosby guest-starred in the television series The Gisele MacKenzie Show, he starred in his own afternoon variety show, The Bob Crosby show, that aired from 1953 to 1957. He fronted a TV prog
Woodrow Charles Herman was an American jazz clarinetist, saxophonist and big band leader. Leading various groups called "The Herd", Herman came to prominence in the late 1930s and was active until his death in 1987, his bands played music, cutting edge and experimental for its time. Herman was born Woodrow Charles Thomas Herman in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on May 16, 1913, his parents were Myrtle Herman. His mother was Polish, his father had a deep love for show business and this influenced Woody Herman at an early age. As a child he worked as a singer and tap-dancer in Vaudeville started to play the clarinet and saxophone by age 12. In 1931, he met an aspiring actress. Woody Herman joined the Tom Gerun band and his first recorded vocals were "Lonesome Me" and "My Heart's at Ease". Herman performed with the Harry Sosnick orchestra, Gus Arnheim and Isham Jones. Isham Jones wrote many popular songs, including "It Had to Be You" and at some point was tiring of the demands of leading a band. Jones wanted to live off the residuals of his songs.
Woody Herman's first band became known for its orchestrations of the blues, was sometimes billed as "The Band That Plays The Blues". This band recorded for the Decca label, at first serving as a cover band, doing songs by other Decca artists; the first song recorded was "Wintertime Dreams" on November 6, 1936. In January 1937 George T. Simon closed a review of the band with the words: "This Herman outfit bears watching. After two and a half years on the label, the band had its first hit, "Woodchopper's Ball" recorded in 1939. Woody Herman remembered that "Woodchopper's Ball" started out at first. "t was a sleeper. But Decca kept re-releasing it, over a period of three or four years it became a hit, it sold more than five million copies—the biggest hit I had." In January 1942, Herman would have his highest rated single, singing Harold Arlen's "Blues in the Night" backed by his orchestra. Other hits for the band include "Blue Flame" and "Do Nothin' Till You Hear from Me". Musicians and arrangers that stood out included Cappy Lewis on trumpet and saxophonist/arranger Deane Kincaide.
"The Golden Wedding", arranged by James "Jiggs" Noble, was notable for its extended drum solo by Frankie Carlson. In jazz, swing was being replaced by bebop. Dizzy Gillespie, a trumpeter and one of the originators of bop, wrote three arrangements for Woody Herman, "Woody'n You", "Swing Shift" and "Down Under"; these were arranged in 1942. "Woody'n You" was not used at the time. "Down Under" was recorded July 24, 1942. The fact that Herman commissioned Gillespie to write arrangements for the band and that Herman hired Ralph Burns as a staff arranger, heralded a change in the style of music the band was playing. In February 1945, the band started a contract with Columbia Records. Herman liked what drew many artists to Columbia, Liederkranz Hall, at the time the best recording venue in New York City; the first side Herman recorded was "Laura", the theme song of the 1944 movie of the same name. Herman's version was so successful that it made Columbia hold from release the arrangement that Harry James had recorded days earlier.
The Columbia contract coincided with a change in the band's repertoire. The 1944 group, which he called the First Herd, was famous for its progressive jazz; the First Herd's music was influenced by Duke Ellington and Count Basie. Its lively, swinging arrangements, combining bop themes with swing rhythm parts, were admired; as of February 1945 the personnel included Bill Harris, Sonny Berman, Pete Candoli, Billy Bauer, Ralph Burns, Davey Tough and Flip Phillips. On February 26, 1945 in New York City, the Woody Herman band recorded "Caldonia". Neal Hefti and Ralph Burns collaborated on the arrangement of "Caldonia". "Ralph caught Louis Jordan in an act and wrote the opening twelve bars and the eight bar tag." "But the most amazing thing on the record was a soaring eight bar passage by trumpets near the end." These eight measures have wrongly been attributed to a Gillespie solo, but were in fact written by Neal Hefti. George T. Simon compares Hefti with Gillespie in a 1944 review for Metronome magazine saying, "Like Dizzy, Hefti has an abundance of good ideas, with which he has aided Ralph Burns immensely".
In 1946 the band won Down Beat, Metronome and Esquire polls for best band, nominated by their peers in the big band business. Along with the high acclaim for their jazz and blues performances, classical composer Igor Stravinsky wrote the Ebony Concerto, one in a series of compositions commissioned by Herman with solo clarinet, for this band. Herman recorded this work in the Belock Recording Studio in Bayside New York. Throughout the history of jazz, there have always been musicians who sought to combine it with classical music. Ebony Concerto is one in a long line of music from the twenties to the present day that seeks to do this. Herman said about the Concerto: " delicate and a sad piece." Stravinsky felt. Saxophonist Flip Philips said, "During the rehearsal there was a passage I had to play there and I was playing it soft, Stravinsky said'Play it, here I am!' and I
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Ernest Loring "Red" Nichols was an American jazz cornettist and jazz bandleader. Over his long career, Nichols recorded in a wide variety of musical styles, critic Steve Leggett describes him as "an expert cornet player, a solid improviser, a workaholic, since he is rumored to have appeared on over 4,000 recordings during the 1920s alone." Nichols was born on May 8, 1905 in Ogden, United States. His father was a college music professor, Nichols was a child prodigy, because by twelve he was playing difficult set pieces for his father's brass band. Young Nichols heard the early recordings of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, those of Bix Beiderbecke, these had a strong influence on the young cornet player, his style became polished and incisive. In the early 1920s, Nichols joined a band called The Syncopating Seven; when that band broke up he joined the Johnny Johnson Orchestra and went with it to New York City in 1923. New York would remain his base for years thereafter. In New York he met and teamed up with trombonist Miff Mole, the two of them were inseparable for the next decade.
Prior to signing with Brunswick and Mole recorded a series of records for Pathé-Perfect under the name The Red Heads. Nichols had good technique, could read music, gained session and studio work. In 1926 he and Miff Mole began a prodigious stint of recording with a variety of bands, most of them known as "Red Nichols and His Five Pennies". Few of these groups were quintets. "That was only a number we tied in with my name", Nichols once explained. "We'd have eight or nine, depending on, around for the session and what I was trying to do." Nichols recorded over 100 sides for the Brunswick label under that band name. He recorded under a number of other names, among them, The Arkansas Travelers, The California Red Heads, The Louisiana Rhythm Kings, The Charleston Chasers and Miff's Stompers, Miff Mole and His Little Molers. During some weeks in this period and his bands were recording 10 to 12 records, his recordings of the late 1920s are regarded as the most progressive jazz of the period in both concept and execution, with wide-ranging harmonies and a balanced ensemble.
However, they were small-band Dixieland groups, playing. They were different from Louis Armstrong's Hot Fives of that period. Nichols' band started out with Mole on Jimmy Dorsey on alto sax and clarinet. Other musicians who played for a time in his bands in the following decade were Benny Goodman, Glenn Miller, Jack Teagarden, Pee Wee Russell, Joe Venuti, Eddie Lang, Gene Krupa; the Five Pennies' version of "Ida, Sweet as Apple Cider" was a surprise hit record. It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. Other labels Nichols recorded for included Edison 1926, Victor 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931, Bluebird 1934, 1939, back to Brunswick for a session in 1934, Variety 1937, OKeh in 1940. In the next decade, swing eclipsed, he tried to follow the changes, formed a swing band of his own, but his recording career seemed to stall in 1932. Michael Brooks writes: What went wrong? Part of it was too soon. Much of his vast recorded output was released in Europe, where he was regarded by early jazz critics as the equal, if not the superior, of Louis Armstrong and Bix Beiderbecke.
People who make fools of themselves find a scapegoat, when the critics were exposed to the music of Duke Ellington, Benny Carter, Coleman Hawkins and others they turned on Nichols and savaged him, trashing him as unfairly as they had revered him. Nichols' chief fault was an overly stiff, academic approach to jazz trumpet, but he did recognize merit as far as other jazz musicians were concerned and made some wonderful small group recordings. Nichols kept himself alive during the first years of the Great Depression by playing in show bands and pit orchestras, he led Bob Hope's orchestra for a while. Nichols had married Willa Stutsman, a "stunning" George White's Scandals dancer, they had a daughter, their daughter came down with polio in 1942, Nichols quit a gig playing with Glen Gray and the Casa Loma Orchestra, leaving the music business to work in the wartime shipyards. On May 2, 1942, Nichols left his band to take an army commission, following completion of an engagement at Lantz's Merry-Go-Round, Ohio.
Unable to stay away from music, Nichols formed a new Five Pennies band and began playing small clubs in the Los Angeles area soon after the war ended. Before long the word was out and musicians began showing up, turning his gigs into jam sessions. Soon the little club dates were turning into more prestigious bookings at the chic Zebra Room, the Tudor Room of San Francisco's Palace Hotel, Pasadena's posh Sheraton, he toured Europe as a goodwill ambassador for the State Department. Nichols and his band performed billed as themselves, in the 1950 film Quicksand, starring Mickey Rooney. In 1956 he was the subject of one of Ralph Edwards' This Is Your Life television shows, which featured his old buddies Miff Mole, Phil Harris, Jimmy Dorsey, who praised Nichols as a bandleader who made sure everybody got paid. In 1965 Nichols took his Five Pennies band to Las Vegas, he was only a few days into the date when, on June 28, 1965, he
Isham Edgar Jones was an American bandleader, saxophonist and songwriter. Jones was born in Coalton, United States, to a musical and mining family, grew up in Saginaw, where he started his first band. In 1911 one of Jones's earliest compositions "On the Alamo" was published by Tell Taylor Inc. In 1915 Jones moved to Illinois, he performed at the Green Mill Gardens began playing at Fred Mann's Rainbo Gardens. Chicago remained his home until 1932, he toured England with his orchestra in 1925. In 1917, he composed the tune "We're In The Army Now" when the United States entered World War I; the same tune has been popular well again during World War II and it is played by the US Army Band. The Isham Jones band made a series of popular gramophone records for Brunswick throughout the 1920s, his first 26 sides, made at Rainbo Gardens, were credited to "Isham Jones' Rainbo Orchestra". By the end of 1920, the name was "Isham Jones' Orchestra", he led one of the most popular dance bands in the 1930s. His first successful recording, "Wabash Blues" written by Dave Ringle and Fred Meinken, was recorded in 1921 by "Isham Jones and his Orchestra".
This million-seller stayed for twelve weeks in the U. S. charts, six at No. 1. It was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. Noted musicians who played in Jones's band included Louis Panico, Benny Goodman, Woody Herman, Walt Yoder, Roy Bargy. Reed virtuoso Al Gallodoro appeared with Jones in 1933, taking part in a record date October 3. From the start, his Brunswick records were popular. There was a gap from October 1927 to June 1929 where Jones did not record due to disbanding and reorganization. From 1929 to 1932, his Brunswick recordings became more sophisticated with offbeat arrangements by Gordon Jenkins and others. During this period, Jones started featuring violinist Eddie Stone as one of his regular vocalists. Stone had an unusual humorous tone to his voice, his other vocalists included Frank Sylvano, Billy Scott, Arthur Jarrett. In 1932, he added another of the band's violinists, as a frequent vocalist. In April that year, young Bing Crosby recorded two sessions with Jones's group which included "Sweet Georgia Brown".
Crosby at this point in his career was still singing in a jazz idiom, transitioning to his better known "crooner" style. In August 1932, Jones signed with Victor, these records are considered among the best arranged and performed commercial dance band records of the Depression era. Victor's recording technique was suited to Jones' band. In October 1932, he teamed up with the Three X Sisters in New York who had just departed from CBS radio, they recorded "experimental" songs for RCA Victor in which Jones began to fuse jazz and early swing music. They recorded "Where?" and "What Would Happen to Me If Something Happened to You." His Victor releases had an symphonic sound with a strong use of tuba. During his Victor period, he recorded two long playing "Program Transcription" records as part of Victor's unsuccessful 33 1/3 RPM series, he stayed with Victor until July 1934. Jones's recordings during this period rivaled Paul Whiteman, Waring's Pennsylvanians, Leo Reisman and other dance orchestras as examples of the most popular dance music of the era.
Jones' Decca recordings are unfavorably compared to his Victor recordings, due to Decca's recording techniques, Decca's insisting that Jones re-record many of his Victor recordings, the apparent smaller size of his orchestra. After he left Decca in 1936, he again retired and his orchestra was taken over by band member Woody Herman. Jones started a new band in 1937–38 and recorded a handful of sessions under the ARC labels: Melotone and Banner. In the 1940s, Jones resided on his poultry farm in Colorado, which he left for short tours with pickup bands, he resided in Los Angeles. He moved to Hollywood, Florida in 1955, died there of cancer in 1956, his great-nephew is the now-deceased jazz drummer Rusty Jones. Isham Jones' compositions: "We're In The Army Now" 1917 - Lyrics by Tell Taylor & Ole Olsen "You Gave Me Your Heart" Brunswick 2350-A "The Sneak!" Brunswick 2350-B "Dog on the Piano" Brunswick 2646-A "Mahsi" Brunswick 2646-B "Meet Me in Bubble Land" 1919 "On the Alamo" recorded 1922 "Swingin' Down the Lane" 1923 "I'll See You in My Dreams" 1924 "The One I Love" 1924 "It Had to Be You" 1924 "Spain" 1924 "Song of the Blues" "Not a Cloud in the Sky" 1929 "What's the Use?"
1930 "Feeling That Way" 1930 "You're Just a Dream Come True" 1931 "I Wouldn't Change You For The World" 1931 "Let That Be a Lesson to You" 1932 "I Can't Believe It's True" 1932 "One Little Word Led to Another" 1932 "The Wooden Soldier and the China Doll" 1932 "I'll Never Have to Dream Again" 1932 "Pretending You Care" 1932 "There's Nothing Left to Do But Say Goodbye" 1932 "Why Can't This Night Go On Forever?" 1932 "You've Got Me Crying Again" 1933 "Honestly" 1933 "Old Lace" 1933 "Something Seems to Tell Me" 1933 "You're We
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were