St John's College, Oxford
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford. Founded as a men's college in 1555, it has been coeducational since 1979, its founder, Sir Thomas White, intended to provide a source of educated Roman Catholic clerics to support the Counter-Reformation under Queen Mary. St John's is the wealthiest college in Oxford, with a financial endowment of £632 million as of 2018 due to nineteenth century suburban development of land in the city of Oxford of which it is the ground landlord; the college occupies a central location on St Giles' and has a student body of 390 undergraduates and 250 postgraduates. As well as over 100 academic staff, the college is supported by a similar number of other staff, it is amongst the most academic of all Oxford colleges, in 2018 St John's topped the Norrington Table, the annual ranking of Oxford colleges' final results. On 1 May 1555, Sir Thomas White Lord Mayor of London, obtained a Royal Patent of Foundation to create a charitable institution for the education of students within the University of Oxford.
White, a Roman Catholic intended St John's to provide a source of educated Roman Catholic clerics to support the Counter-Reformation under Queen Mary, indeed Edmund Campion, the Roman Catholic martyr, studied here. White acquired buildings on the east side of St Giles', north of Balliol and Trinity Colleges, which had belonged to the former College of St Bernard, a monastery and house of study of the Cistercian order, founded in 1437 and closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries; the new St John's College was rather small and not well endowed financially. During the reign of Elizabeth I the fellows lectured in rhetoric and dialectic, but not directly in theology. However, St John's had a strong focus on the creation of a proficient and educated priesthood. White was Master of the Merchant Taylors' Company, established a number of educational foundations, including the Merchant Taylors' School. Although the College was linked to such institutions for many centuries, it became a more open society in the 19th century.
Female students were first admitted in 1979, after over four centuries of the college as an institution for men only. Elizabeth Fallaize was appointed as the first female fellow in 1990. Although a producer of Anglican clergymen in the earlier periods of its history, St John's gained a reputation for degrees in law, medicine and PPE; the endowments which St John's was given at its foundation, during the twenty or so years afterward, served it well and in the second half of the nineteenth century it benefited, as ground landlord, from the suburban development of the city of Oxford and was unusual among Colleges for the size and extent of its property within the city. The patronage of the parish of St Giles was included in the endowment of the college by Thomas White. Vicars of St Giles were either Fellows of the College, or ex-Fellows who were granted the living on marriage; the College retains the right to present candidates for the benefice to the bishop. Today St John's maintains the largest endowment of the Oxford colleges, for example owning the Oxford Playhouse building and the Millwall F.
C. training ground. The college is situated on a single 5.5 hectares site. Most of the college buildings are organised around seven quadrangles; the Front Quadrangle consists of buildings built for the Cistercian St Bernard's College. Construction started in 1437, though when the site passed to the crown in 1540, due to the Dissolution of the Monasteries, much of the exterior was as it is now, but the Eastern range was incomplete. Christ Church took control of the site in 1546 and Thomas White acquired it in 1554; the college founder made major alterations to create the current college hall, designated the Northern part of the Eastern range to be the lodging of the President, for which it is still used today. Front Quad was gravelled until the college's 400th anniversary when the current circular lawn and paving were laid out; the turret clock, made by John Knibb, dates from 1690.. The main tower above the Porters' Lodge features a statue of St. John the Baptist by Eric Gill; the chapel was built and dedicated to St Bernard of Clairvaux in 1530.
The chapel was re-dedicated to St John the Baptist in 1557. The Baylie chapel in the north-east corner was added 1662–1669 and refitted in 1949. In 1840 the chapel's interior underwent major changes which created the gothic revival pews, wall arcading and west screen. Thomas White, William Laud and William Juxon are buried beneath the chapel. All three were presidents of the college, with the latter two holding the role of Archbishop of Canterbury. To the south of the chancel is a hidden pew directly accessible from the President's Lodgings, which allowed the only woman in college, the president's wife, to worship without distracting college members. Choral services have been sung in the chapel since 1618. Orlando Gibbons's famous anthem "This Is the Record of John" was written at the College's request, received its first performance here; the college in 1620 commissioned the anthem. The college choir today sings evensong services on Sundays and Wednesdays during term time, as well as singing the grace at Sunday formal hall.
Since 1923 the choir has been directed by
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
Walther von der Vogelweide
Walther von der Vogelweide was a Minnesänger, who composed and performed love-songs and political songs in Middle High German. Walther has been described as greatest German lyrical poet before Goethe, he is the first political poet writing in German, with a considerable body of encomium, satire and moralising. Little is known about his life, but he was a travelling singer who performed for patrons at various princely courts in Germany, he is associated with the Babenberg court in Vienna. In life he was given a small fief by the future Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, his work was celebrated in his time and in succeeding generations — for the Meistersingers he was a songwriter to emulate — and this is reflected in the exceptional preservation of his work in 32 manuscripts from all parts of the High German area. The largest single collection is found in the Codex Manesse, which includes around 90% of his known songs. However, most Minnesang manuscripts preserve only the texts, only a handful of Walther's melodies survive.
Notable songs include the love-song "Under der linden", his contemplative "Elegy", the religious Palästinalied, for which the melody has survived. For all his fame, Walther's name is not found in contemporary records, with the exception of a solitary mention in the travelling accounts of Bishop Wolfger of Erla of the Passau diocese: "Walthero cantori de Vogelweide pro pellicio v solidos longos"--"To Walther the singer of the Vogelweide five shillings for a fur coat." The main sources of information about him are his own poems and occasional references by contemporary Minnesingers. He was a knight, but not a wealthy or landed one, his surname, von der Vogelweide, suggests that he had no grant of land, since die Vogelweide seems to refer to a general geographic feature, not a specific place. He was knighted for military bravery and was a retainer in a wealthy, noble household before beginning his travels. Walther's birthplace remains unknown, given the lack of documentary evidence, it will never be known exactly.
There is little chance of deriving it from his name. For this reason, it must be assumed that the singer did not obtain his name for superregional communication, because it could not be used for an unambiguous assignment. Other persons of the high nobility and poets who traveled with their masters used the unambiguous name of their ownership or their place of origin. Pen-names were usual for poets of the 12th and 13th century, whereas Minnesingers in principle were known by their noble family name, used to sign documents. In 1974, Helmut Hörner identified a farmhouse mentioned in 1556 as “Vogelweidhof” in the urbarium of the domain Rappottenstein. At this time it belonged to the Amt Traunstein, now within the municipality Schönbach in the Lower Austrian Waldviertel, its existence had been mentioned without comment in 1911 by Alois Plesser, who did not know its precise location. Hörner proved that the still-existing farmhouse Weid is indeed the mentioned Vogelweidhof and collected arguments for Walther being born in the Waldviertel.
He published this in his 1974 book 800 Jahre Traunstein, pointing out that Walther says “Ze ôsterriche lernt ich singen unde sagen”. A tradition says that Walther, one of the ten Old Masters, was a Landherr from Bohemia, which does not contradict his possible origin in the Waldviertel, because in mediaeval times the Waldviertel was from time to time denoted as versus Boemiam. Powerful support for this theory was given in 1977 and 1981 by Bernd Thum, which makes an origin in the Waldviertel plausible. Thum began with an analysis of the content of Walther's work of his crusade appeal known as “old age elegy”, concluded that Walther's birthplace was far away from all travelling routes of this time and within a region where land was still cleared; this is because the singer pours out his sorrows “Bereitet ist daz velt, verhouwen ist der walt” and suggests he no longer knows his people and land, applicable to the Waldviertel. Additionally in 1987, Walter Klomfar and the librarian Charlotte Ziegler came to the conclusion that Walther might have been born in the Waldviertel.
The starting point for their study is the above-mentioned words of Walther. These were placed into doubt by research, but speaking do not mention his birthplace. Klomfar points to a historical map, drawn by monks of the Zwettl monastery in the 17th century, on the occasion of a legal dispute; this map shows a village Walthers and a field marked “Vogelwaidt” and a related house belonging to the village. The village became deserted, but a well marked on the map could be excavated and reconstructed to prove the accuracy of the map. Klomfar was able to reconstruct land ownership in this region and prove the existence of the Christian name Walther. Contrary to this theory, Franz Pfeiffer assumed that the singer was born in the Wipptal in South Tyrol, not far from the small town of Sterzing on the Eisack, a wood — called the Vorder- and Hintervogelweide — exists. This
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Michaelmas is a Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September. In some denominations a reference to a fourth angel Uriel, is added. Michaelmas has been one of the four quarter days of the financial year; the Serbian Orthodox Church observes the feast. The Greek and Romanian Orthodox honour the archangels on 8 November instead, honouring the Cherubim and Seraphim also. In Christian angelology, the Archangel Michael is the greatest of all the Archangels and is honored for defeating Satan in the war in heaven, he is one of the principal angelic warriors, seen as a protector against the dark of night, the administrator of cosmic intelligence. Michaelmas has delineated time and seasons for secular purposes as well in Britain and Ireland as one of the quarter days. In the fifth century a basilica near Rome was dedicated in honour of Michael on 30 September, beginning with celebrations on the eve of that day, 29 September is now kept in honour of Michael and all Angels throughout some western churches.
The name Michaelmas comes from a shortening of "Michael's Mass," in the same style as Christmas and Candlemas. During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. In medieval England, Michaelmas marked the ending and beginning of the husbandman's year, George C. Homans observes: "at that time harvest was over, the bailiff or reeve of the manor would be making out the accounts for the year."Because it falls near the equinox, it is associated in the northern hemisphere with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days. It was one of the English and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day. Michaelmas hiring fairs were held at beginning of October. On the Isle of Skye, Scotland, a procession was held. Many of the activities, done at Lughnasadh – sports and horse races – migrated to this day. One of the few flowers left around at this time of year is the Michaelmas daisy. Hence the rhyme: "The Michaelmas daisies, among dead weeds, Bloom for St Michael's valorous deeds..."
A traditional meal for the day includes goose. The custom of baking a special bread or cake, called Sruthan Mhìcheil, St Michael's bannock, or Michaelmas Bannock on the eve of the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel originated in the Hebrides; the bread was made from equal parts of barley and rye without using any metal implements. In remembrance of absent friends or those who had died, special Struans, blessed at an early morning Mass, were given to the poor in their names. Nuts were traditionally cracked on Michaelmas Eve. Folklore in the British Isles suggests that Michaelmas day is the last day that blackberries can be picked, it is said that when St Michael expelled Lucifer, the devil, from heaven, he fell from the skies and landed in a prickly blackberry bush. Satan cursed the fruit, scorched them with his fiery breath, stamped and urinated on them, so that they would be unfit for eating; as it is considered ill-advised to eat them after 29 September, a Michaelmas pie is made from the last of the season.
In Anglican and Episcopal tradition, there are three or four archangels in its calendar for 29 September feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Michael and Raphael, Uriel. For the Roman Catholic 29 September is referred only to the three Archangels mentioned in the Bible: Saint Michael, Saint Gabriel, Saint Raphael, their feast were unified in one common day during the second half of the 20th century. In the time before their feasts were: 29 September, 24 March for St Gabriel, lastly, 24 October for St Raphael, it is used in the extended sense of autumn, as the name of the first term of the academic year, which begins at this time, at various educational institutions in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. These are older institutions, including the universities of Cambridge, Lancaster, the London School of Economics, Oxford and Dublin; the Inns of Court of the English Bar and the Honorable Society of King's Inns in Ireland have a Michaelmas term as one of their dining terms. It ends towards the end of December.
The term is the name of the first of four terms into which the legal year is divided by the courts of Ireland and England and Wales. In the United Kingdom, the United States and Ireland, a Red Mass is traditionally convened on the Sunday closest to Michaelmas, in honor of and to bless lawyers and judges; because Saint Michael is the patron of some North American police officers, Michaelmas may be a Blue Mass. However, the same can be said for members of the United States military and several of St. Michael's other patronages. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day, still sung in Lutheran churches: "Lord God, We All to Thee Give Praise". Michaelmas is still celebrated in the Waldorf schools, which celebrate it as the "festival of strong will" during the autumnal equinox. Rudolf Steiner considered it the second most important festival after Easter, Easter being about Christ ("He is laid in the grave and H