1998 FIFA World Cup
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998; the country was chosen as the host nation by FIFA for the second time in the history of the tournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process. It was the second time that France staged the competition and the ninth time that it was held in Europe. Qualification for the finals began in March 1996 and concluded in November 1997. For the first time in the competition, the group stage was expanded from 24 teams to 32, with eight groups of four. 64 matches were played in 10 stadiums in 10 host cities, with the opening match and final staged at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis. The tournament was won by host country France. France won their first title, becoming the seventh nation to win a World Cup, the sixth to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa made their first appearances in the finals. France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992 by the executive committee of FIFA during a general meeting in Zürich, Switzerland.
They defeated Morocco by 12 votes to 7. Switzerland withdrew; this made France the third country to host two World Cups, after Mexico and Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938. England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and won it, were among the original applicants, but withdrew their application in favour of an successful bid to host UEFA Euro 1996. On 4 June 2015, while co-operating with the FBI and the Swiss authorities, Chuck Blazer confirmed that he and other members of FIFA's executive committee were bribed during the 1998 and 2010 World Cups host selection process. Blazer stated that "we facilitated bribes in conjunction with the selection of the host nation for the 1998 World Cup". Since France won the selection process it was thought the bribery came from its bid committee, it transpired that the bribe payment was from the failed Moroccan bid. The qualification draw for the 1998 World Cup finals took place in the Musée du Louvre, Paris on 12 December 1995.
As tournament hosts, France was exempt from the draw. 174 teams from six confederations participated, 24 more than in the previous round. Fourteen countries qualified from the European zone. Ten were determined after group play - the best second-placed team. CONMEBOL and CAF were each given five spots in the final tournament, while three spots were contested between 30 CONCACAF members in the North and Central America and the Caribbean zone; the winner of the Oceanian zone advanced to an intercontinental play-off against the runner-up of the Asian play-off, determined by the two best second placed teams. Four nations qualified for the first time: Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa; the last team to qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in a two-legged tie on 29 November 1997. This was Team Melli's first appearance in the finals since 1978, the last time Tunisia qualified for the tournament. Chile qualified for the first time since 1982, after serving a ban that saw them miss out on the two previous tournaments.
Paraguay and Denmark returned for the first time since 1986. Austria, England and Yugoslavia returned after missing out on the 1994 tournament, with the Balkan team now appearing under the name of FR Yugoslavia. Among the teams who failed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay; as of 2018, this is the most recent time Austria, Norway, Bulgaria and Jamaica have qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Portugal missed out. The highest ranked team not to qualify was Czech Republic, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was Nigeria; the following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournament. France's bid to host the World Cup centered on a national stadium with 80,000 seats and nine other stadiums located across the country; when the finals were awarded in July 1992, none of the regional club grounds were of a capacity meeting FIFA's requirements – namely being able to safely seat 40,000. The proposed national stadium, colloquially referred to as the'Grand stade' met with controversy at every stage of planning.
As Mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac negotiated a deal with Prime Minister Édouard Balladur to bring the Stade de France – as it was named now, to the commune of Saint-Denis just north of the capital city. Construction on the stadium started in December 1995 and was completed after 26 months of work in November 1997 at a cost of ₣2.67 billion. The choice of stadium locations was drafted from an original list of 14 cities. FIFA and CFO monitored the progress and quality of preparations, culminating in the former providing final checks of the grounds weeks before the tournament commenced. Montpellier was the surprise inclusion from the final list of cities because of its low urban hierarchy in comparison to Strasbourg, who boasted a better hierarchy an
Swansea City A.F.C.
Swansea City Association Football Club is a Welsh professional football club based in Swansea, that plays in the Championship, the second tier of English football. The club was founded in 1912 as Swansea Town and joined the Football League in 1921; the club changed their name in 1969, when they adopted the name Swansea City to reflect Swansea's new status as a city. Swansea have played their home matches at the Liberty Stadium since 2005, having played at the Vetch Field since the club was founded. In 1981, the club was promoted to the original Football League First Division, it was during the following season they came close to winning the league title, but a decline set in near the season's end, before they finished sixth, still a club record. It was from here the club suffered a relegation the season after, returning to the Football League Fourth Division a few seasons and narrowly avoided relegation to the Football Conference in 2003; the Swansea City Supporters Society Ltd owns 20% of the club, with their involvement hailed by Supporters Direct as "the most high profile example of the involvement of a supporters' trust in the direct running of a club".
The club's subsequent climb from the fourth division of English football to the top division is chronicled in the 2014 film, Jack to a King – The Swansea Story. In 2011, Swansea were promoted to the Premier League. On 24 February 2013, Swansea beat Bradford City 5–0 to win the 2012–13 Football League Cup, winning the first major trophy in the club's history and qualifying for the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League, where they reached the Last 32 stage but lost over two legs to Napoli. Swansea were relegated from the Premier League at the end of the 2017–18 season; the area around Swansea traditionally had been a rugby area, despite previous attempts by a football club named Swansea Villa, there were no notable football clubs until the establishment of'Swansea Town AFC' in the summer of 1912. Following the lead of many other South Wales sides, the club joined the Second Division of the Southern League for the following season. J. W. Thorpe was the club's first chairman. A site owned by Swansea Gaslight Co. called Vetch Field due to the vegetables that grew there, was rented to be the club's ground.
The club's first professional match was a 1–1 draw at the Vetch Field against Cardiff City on 7 September 1912. During that first season the Welsh Cup was won for the first time; the Swans beat reigning English champions Blackburn Rovers 1–0 in the first round of the 1914–15 FA Cup, Swansea's goal coming from Ben Beynon. Following the First World War the Southern League dropped its Second Division, with many clubs dropping out due to financial difficulties, the Swans were placed in the First Division. After four seasons in the Southern League, Swansea Town became founder members of the new Third Division of The Football League in 1920 and Division Three the following season. After five seasons in Division Three and a few failed bids for promotion, the Swans reached the Second Division for the first time in 1925, beating Exeter City 2–1 at home on the final day of the season to win the division; the side had remained unbeaten at home in the league all season – something the next promotion team would emulate over twenty years later.
The following season the Swans reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup for the first time, beating Exeter City, Blackpool, Stoke City and Arsenal, before losing 3–0 to eventual cup winners Bolton Wanderers at White Hart Lane. Swans record their highest average attendance during the season of 16,118 for pre-war league games. During the 1926–27 season they beat Real Madrid 3–0 on tour. During the 1931–32 season they finished 1st in the league and won the Welsh Cup after beating Wrexham 2–0 away after a replay. After just one season back from wartime football, the Swans finished 21st in the Second Division, thus returned to Division Three for the first time since 1925; the following season was one of consolidation, however in 1948–1949 the Swans stormed their way to winning the division for the second time. Only one point was dropped at home all season as the feat of the 1925 promotion side was emulated, with the side finishing a whole seven points ahead of second placed Reading. Billy McCandless was the manager who led the side to promotion, in doing so he completed a rare hat-trick of winning the Third Division title with all three South Wales clubs – and without losing a home game with Swansea or Cardiff.
Following promotion, the Swans had another 15 years of Second Division football to look forward to, however despite what successive managers and chairmen were to say, Swansea Town only once during that time looked like they could genuinely challenge for promotion. That came in the 1955–56 season, when a side containing the likes of Ivor Allchurch, Terry Medwin, Harry Griffiths and Tom Kiley led the table early in the season, before an injury to Kiley, referred to as the linchpin of the side, in mid-November led to a decline in form, he was never adequately replaced, but despite this and the sale of some of the club's best players, the side remained in contention for promotion until the beginning of April. Following a 6–1 win over second placed Leicester City at the Vetch Field at the end of March the side was just two points behind second placed Liverpool with a game in hand – however subsequent results were not as encouraging, they slipped away to finish tenth. In 1964, the Swans reached a second FA Cup semi-final, beating Barrow, Sheffield United and Stoke City en route to a famous sixth round victory at Anfield.
Few gave the Swans, struggling for their lives at the bottom of Division Two, any chance
Captain (association football)
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is one of the older/or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can influence a game or have good leadership qualities. The team captain is identified by the wearing of an armband; the only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the coin toss prior to kick-off and prior to a penalty shootout. Contrary to what is sometimes said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the side's general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, the captain leads the team up to collect their medals. Any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will be the first one to hoist it; the captain generally leads the teams out of the dressing room at the start of the match.
A captain is tasked with running the dressing room. The captain provides a rallying point for the team: if morale is low, it is the captain who will be looked upon to boost their team's spirits. Captains may join the manager in deciding the starting eleven for a certain game. In youth or recreational football, the captain takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A club captain is appointed for a season. If he is unavailable or not selected for a particular game, or must leave the pitch the club vice-captain will assume similar duties; the match captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one if he was not the club captain. A good example of this was in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when match captain Peter Schmeichel lifted the trophy for Manchester United as club captain Roy Keane was suspended. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, match captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry.
A club may appoint two distinct roles: a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, correspondent on the pitch. Manchester United has had both of these types of captains. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain. São Paulo's Rogério Ceni is the player. A vice-captain is a player, expected to captain the side when the club's captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game, the captain is substituted or sent off. Examples include Thomas Müller at Bayern Munich, Marcelo at Real Madrid, César Azpilicueta at Chelsea, Sergio Busquets at Barcelona, Harry Kane at Tottenham Hotspur, James Milner at Liverpool and Ashley Young at Manchester United; some clubs name a 3rd captain or a 4th captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable. In the 1986 FIFA World Cup, when Bryan Robson was injured and vice-captain Ray Wilkins received a two-game suspension for a red card, Peter Shilton became England's captain for the rest of the tournament.
During the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Germany had three captains. Michael Ballack had captained the national team since 2004, including the successful qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup, but he did not play in the latter tournament due to a last minute injury. Philipp Lahm was appointed captain in South Africa, but due to an illness that ruled him out of Germany's final fixture, Bastian Schweinsteiger captained the team for that game, the third-place match. Lahm stated in an interview that he would not relinquish the captaincy when Ballack returned, causing some controversy, so team manager Oliver Bierhoff clarified the situation saying "Philipp Lahm is the World Cup captain and Michael Ballack is still the captain". Lahm ended up becoming the permanent captain of Germany until his retirement, as Ballack was never called up to the national team again. Captain
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
1991 CONCACAF Gold Cup
The 1991 CONCACAF Gold Cup was the first edition of the Gold Cup, the football championship of North America, Central America and the Caribbean, the eleventh overall CONCACAF tournament. The last time the CONCACAF Championship was held was 1971, from that point on the first-place finishers of World Cup qualifying were considered continental champions; the tournament was held in California cities Los Angeles and Pasadena. The eight teams were broken up into two groups of four; the Gold Cup was won by the United States, who eliminated Mexico in the semi-finals match, went on to beat Honduras on penalties after tying them in the final 0–0. 4 goals Benjamín Galindo3 goals 2 goals 1 goal 1 own goal Héctor Marchena Lineups/Squads
Ian De Souza Goodison is a retired Jamaican footballer who played as a defender most notably at Tranmere Rovers. Born in Montego Bay, Saint James, Goodison began his career in minor Jamaican football leagues and was discovered in 1996 by René Simões who introduced him straight into the national squad, he joined Olympic Gardens in 1997, sharing his playing time at the club with a Cayman Islands-based team before making his first foray into English football via Third Division side Hull City, when he was signed along with fellow countryman and good friend Theo Whitmore by Brian Little. The Jamaican impressed during his time at Hull, epitomised by the fact that he was their Player of the Season for the 2000–01 season, he scored his first and only goal for the club in a 2–1 win over Carlisle United. Despite his impressive start Little's departure as manager was followed by that of Goodison who returned to Jamaica to play for Seba United. Goodison played in the heart of the defence; the former Jamaican international played more than 350 times for the club, was named supporters' Player of the Season three times, the North West League One Footballer of the Year award three times.
He played in the Tranmere team which reached the quarter final of the FA Cup in his first season, whilst with his second season at the club Tranmere finished third in League One and entered the end of season play-offs. At the end of the 2011–12 season he signed a one-year contract extension which kept him at the club beyond his 40th birthday, he was the first player to play for Tranmere while in his forties. In May 2013, Goodison signed another year extension to his contract, keeping him at the club until the summer of 2014; the deal included an option for a testimonial at Prenton Park. On 27 August 2013 he played 120 minutes against Bolton Wanderers in the League Cup. On 13 October 2013 Goodison made his 400th appearance for Tranmere and captained them to a 1–0 win against Bradford City. On 9 December 2013 it was reported that he had been arrested as part of a police investigation into match fixing, however the charges were dropped. In May 2015, a testimonial for Goodison was held at Prenton Park.
A team of ex-Tranmere teammates, including Enoch Showunmi, Eugene Dadi, Owain Fon Williams, Ryan Lowe, faced an International XI, composed of ex-Jamaica teammates such as Ricardo Fuller, Darren Byfield, Ricardo Gardner and other notable international players, such as ex-Tranmere teammate John Achterberg and Fabrice Muamba, who has not played professionally since suffering a cardiac arrest whilst playing for Bolton. Brian Little and Ronnie Moore managed the two sides, with Mike Dean acting as referee, he made his debut for the Jamaica national team in a March 1996 friendly match against Guatemala and scored his first international goal. Goodison was included in the 23-man squad named by Jamaica manager Theo Whitmore for the 2011 Gold Cup in the United States, though he was dropped after failing to report for pre-tournament training in Brazil; as of May 2009 he scored 10 goals. 45 of those games were in the 1998 tournament. As of match played 3 May 2014. Jamaica score listed first, score column indicates score after each Goodison goal.
Player profile – ReggaeBoyz Player profile – ReggaeBoyz Supporters Club Ian Goodison at Soccerbase
1993 CONCACAF Gold Cup
The 1993 CONCACAF Gold Cup was the second edition of the Gold Cup, the football championship of North America, Central America and the Caribbean. The format of the tournament stayed the same as in 1991: eight teams were broken up into two groups of four, with the top two in each group advancing to the semifinals, it was the first Gold Cup to be co-hosted. The tournament was won by Mexico. Costa Rica and Jamaica shared the third place. 11 goals Zague5 goals Luis Miguel Salvador4 goals Eduardo Bennett3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goals Lineups/Squads