Winfield Bertrum "Bert" Kinner was an American aircraft engine designer and constructor. Kinner founded Kinner Airplane & Motor Corporation in Glendale, California which produced radial engines and aircraft. Bert Kinner was born on December 1882 in Iowa, his father was from New York. His mother was born in England and her maiden name was Lee. Kinner married Cora M. and they had two children named Winfield Bertrum Kinner II and Donald W. Kinner, his wife Cora, both of his children, were born in Minnesota. On May 25, 1915, pioneer pilot and aviation designer, Otto Timm crashed in a field in Magnolia, Minnesota owned by Kinner, his aircraft engine was repaired by Kinner, fascinated by the aircraft. In 1920, Kinner was working as an aircraft engineer in Los Angeles, but had an aspiration to design and build aircraft, he was the manager of Kinner Field, the first municipally owned airport in Los Angeles, located on the west side of Long Beach Boulevard and Tweedy Road, in what is now South Gate, California.
His airfield included a small hangar, 1,200 ft, roughed out runway and one employee, Anita "Neta" Snook, who had arrived from Iowa after a season of barnstorming with her Curtiss JN-4 Canuck in tow. "Snooky" turned out to be a good hire as she not only chatted up customers, ran the air operation, but served as a mechanic. Kinner hired Snook to test fly his aircraft and to provide flight instruction for a prospective training school. At the "Kinner Airplane & Motor Corporation," he began to design his first small, light aircraft called the Kinner Airster; the tiny biplane was powered by a three-cylinder Lawrence L2 engine. In December 1920, Kinner Field's most famous student, Amelia Earhart, arrived. After taking her first flying lesson with Neta, Earhart bought the prototype Kinner Airster for $2,000 to continue her training; the bright yellow biplane, that she christened "The Canary", was underpowered but provided Earhart with valuable flight time. When she wasn't able to raise more than the deposit, Kinner made a deal with her so that the Airster could be on hand as a demonstration aircraft in exchange for upkeep and hangar fees.
Earhart soloed in the Airster, after Neta left Kinner field to get married, Earhart stayed on, continued flying. In October 1922, the Kinner Airster was used to set a world high altitude record of 14,000 ft for women pilots, the first of the many records set by Earhart. Due to a change in the family fortunes, Earhart was forced to sell "The Canary", but put together enough money to purchase a second Airster. Kinner continued to build a limited series of light aircraft; the earliest Kinner engines had three cylinders, were modeled after the French Anzani engines. Kinner developed a range of five cylinder engines; the airplane business ended in the mid-1930s, but the engines were produced through World War II. Kinner became the West Coast's largest producer of aircraft engines in 1941; the last series of Kinner engines powered PT-22 trainers. In the 1930s, Kinner was the owner of Security National Aircraft Corporation at Downey Field, now Downey Studios. Kinner died on July 4, 1957 in California, the Washington Post noted, "Winfield Bertrum Kinner, 74, pioneer aircraft manufacturer and designer, died late Thursday in a Long Beach hospital... ".
He was buried in the Portal of Folded Wings Shrine to Aviation with other aviation pioneers in Valhalla Memorial Park Cemetery. Kinner in the 1920 US Census Early Aviators: Kinner Kinner Engine Bert Kinner at Find a Grave
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Wright Model R
The Wright Model R was a single-seat biplane built by the Wright Company in Dayton, Ohio, in 1910. Known as the Roadster or the Baby Wright, it was designed for speed and altitude competitions; the Wright Model R was derived from the Wright Model B, was a two-bay biplane with rear-mounted twin rudders mounted in front of a single elevator and carried on wire-braced wood booms behind the wing and was powered by a 30 hp Wright four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine driving a pair of pusher propellers via chains. Two examples were flown at the International Aviation Tournament at Belmont Park in November 1910, one being a standard model flown by Alec Ogilvie and the other being a special competition model known as the Baby Grand, which had a 60 hp V-8 engine and a reduced wingspan of 21 ft 5 in. Orville Wright succeeded in flying the Baby Grand at a speed of nearly 70 mph. Both aircraft were entered for the second Gordon Bennett Trophy competition, held at the meeting, but the Baby Grand, flown by Walter Brookins, suffered an engine failure during a trial flight on the race day and crashed heavily.
Ogilvie's aircraft had engine problems, having to make a stop of nearly an hour to make repairs, but was placed third. Ogilvie flew his aircraft in the 1912 Gordon Bennet competition, re-engined with a 50 hp N. E. C. Engine. Data from "1910 Wright Model R". Retrieved 20 May 2012. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 27 ft Wingspan: 26 ft 6 in Wing area: 185 sq ft Powerplant: 1 × Wright Vertical 4 water-cooled piston engine, 30 hp Propellers: 2-bladed x2 chain driven pusher, 8 ft 6 in diameterPerformance Notes BibliographyMcFarland, The Papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright vol. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1953, p. 1199. Munson, Pioneer Aircraft 1903-1914. London: Blandford, 1969. "Mr Ogilvie's Wright Biplane" Flight 28 January 1911
James Floyd Smith
James Floyd Smith was a test pilot and instructor for Glenn Martin, was a manufacturer of parachutes. He built and flew his own plane in 1912, invented the manually operated parachute for the Army in 1918, he was awarded the Aero Club of America Medal of Merit. He was born in Illinois on October 17, 1884 his family moved to Union, Oregon. In 1907 he married Hilder Florentina Youngber of Galesburg, Illinois, their first son, Sylvester Smith, was killed at age 11 by a car in 1919, in Chicago. They had a second son, Prevost Vedrines Smith aka Prevost Floyd Smith. In 1930, the family was living in Morrisville, Bucks County and Floyd was working as an engineer. Prevost and Floyd started the Smith Parachute Company at Gillespie Field in San Diego County, California which became the Prevost Smith Parachute Company. Floyd died on April 18, 1956 in San Diego, California of cancer, he was buried in the Portal of Folded Wings Shrine to Aviation. A patent was filed on July 27, 1918 and issued May 18, 1920 for his parachute.
The assignee was the Floyd Smith Aerial Equipment Company of San Diego, California. Floyd with Leslie Leroy Irvin, developed a 28-foot backpack parachute. On April 28, 1919, Irvin jumped from a de Havilland biplane traveling at 100 miles per hour at an altitude of 1,500 feet. After Irvin bailed out of the airplane and falling free, he manually reached the ripcord handle and pulled it, the parachute deployed at 1,000 feet. Irvin became the first American to jump from an airplane and manually open a parachute in midair. Floyd's original 1919 ripcord parachute is on display at the Air Force Museum at Dayton, Ohio. U. S. Patent 1,340,423 James Floyd Smith at Find a Grave
A. Roy Knabenshue
Augustus Roy Knabenshue was an American aeronautical engineer and aviator. He was born on July 15, 1875, in Lancaster, the son of Salome Matlack and Samuel S. Knabenshue. Samuel Knabenshue, an educator and political writer for the Toledo Blade for many years, served as U. S. consul in Belfast, from 1905 to 1909 and as consul general in Tianjin, from 1909 to 1914. In 1904, at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Roy Knabenshue piloted Thomas Scott Baldwin's California Arrow dirigible to a height of 2,000 feet and was able to return to the takeoff point, he was the first to make a dirigible flight over New York City in 1905. He worked as the general manager of the Wright Exhibition Team. From 1933 to 1944 he worked for the National Park Service and worked for a Los Angeles, firm reconditioning used aircraft. In 1958 he had a stroke, he had a second stroke at his home at a trailer park in Arcadia, California, on February 21, 1960. He died on March 6, 1960, at the Evergreen Sanitarium in California. Interment and services were held March 9, 1960, at the Portal of the Folded Wings in Valhalla Memorial Park Cemetery in North Hollywood, California.
One of the first in America to pilot a steerable balloon In 1904 he piloted the first successful dirigible in America at the St. Louis World’s Fair The Wright Company hired him in 1910 to manage the 1910-1911 Wright Exhibition Team In 1913 he built the first passenger dirigible in America: White City Knabenshue World War I draft registration Knabenshue bibliography Early Aviators NAHF: Knabenshue NASM: Knabenshue Centennial of Flight: Knabenshue