Industrial engineering is an inter-disciplinary profession, concerned with the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations by developing and implementing integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment and materials. Industrial engineers use specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify and evaluate the results obtained from systems and processes. From these results, they are able to create new systems, processes or situations for the useful coordination of man and machines and improve the quality and productivity of systems, physical or social. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, management science, management engineering, financial engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.
Though its underlying concepts overlap with certain business-oriented disciplines, such as operations management, industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions. There is a general consensus among historians that the roots of the industrial engineering profession date back to the Industrial Revolution; the technologies that helped mechanize traditional manual operations in the textile industry including the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, most the steam engine generated economies of scale that made Mass production in centralized locations attractive for the first time. The concept of the production system had its genesis in the factories created by these innovations. Adam Smith's concepts of Division of Labour and the "Invisible Hand" of capitalism introduced in his treatise "The Wealth of Nations" motivated many of the technological innovators of the Industrial revolution to establish and implement factory systems.
The efforts of James Watt and Matthew Boulton led to the first integrated machine manufacturing facility in the world, including the implementation of concepts such as cost control systems to reduce waste and increase productivity and the institution of skills training for craftsmen. Charles Babbage became associated with Industrial engineering because of the concepts he introduced in his book "On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers" which he wrote as a result of his visits to factories in England and the United States in the early 1800s; the book includes subjects such as the time required to perform a specific task, the effects of subdividing tasks into smaller and less detailed elements, the advantages to be gained from repetitive tasks. Eli Whitney and Simeon North proved the feasibility of the notion of Interchangeable parts in the manufacture of muskets and pistols for the US Government. Under this system, individual parts were mass-produced to tolerances to enable their use in any finished product.
The result was a significant reduction in the need for skill from specialized workers, which led to the industrial environment to be studied later. Frederick Taylor is credited as being the father of the Industrial Engineering discipline, he earned a degree in mechanical engineering from Steven's University and earned several patents from his inventions. His books, Shop Management and The Principles of Scientific Management which were published in the early 1900s, were the beginning of Industrial Engineering. Improvements in work efficiency under his methods was based on improving work methods, developing of work standards, reduction in time required to carry out the work. With an abiding faith in the scientific method, Taylor's contribution to "Time Study" sought a high level of precision and predictability for manual tasks; the husband-and-wife team of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth was the other cornerstone of the Industrial Engineering movement whose work is housed at Purdue University School of Industrial Engineering.
They categorized the elements of human motion into 18 basic elements called therbligs. This development permitted analysts to design jobs without knowledge of the time required to do a job; these developments were the beginning of a much broader field known as human ergonomics. In 1908, the first course on Industrial Engineering was offered as an elective at Pennsylvania State University, which became a separate program in 1909 through the efforts of Hugo Diemer; the first doctoral degree in industrial engineering was awarded in 1933 by Cornell University. In 1912 Henry Laurence Gantt developed the Gantt chart which outlines actions the organization along with their relationships; this chart opens form familiar to us today by Wallace Clark. With the development of assembly lines, the factory of Henry Ford accounted for a significant leap forward in the field. Ford reduced the assembly time of a car more than 700 hours to 1.5 hours. In addition, he was a pioneer of the economy of the capitalist welfare and the flag of providing financial incentives for employees to increase productivity.
Comprehensive quality management system developed in the forties was gaining momentum after World War II and was part of the recovery of Japan after the war. The American Institute of Industrial Engineering was formed in 1948; the early work by F. W. Taylor and the Gilbreths was documented in papers presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers as interest grew from improving machine performance to the per
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller, or less in pump-jets, an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys, some equipped with sail played an important early role; the first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine, introduced in the early 19th century. During the 20th century it was replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, gas turbine engines on faster ships. Marine nuclear reactors, which appeared in the 1950s, produce steam to propel warships and icebreakers. Electric motors using electric battery storage have been used for propulsion on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion.
Development in liquefied natural gas fueled engines are gaining recognition for their low emissions and cost advantages. Stirling engines, which are more efficient, smoother running producing less harmful emissions than diesel engines, propel a number of small submarines, its design has yet to be upscaled for larger surface ships. Until the application of the coal-fired steam engine to ships in the early 19th century, oars or the wind were the principal means of watercraft propulsion. Merchant ships predominantly used sail, but during periods when naval warfare depended on ships closing to ram or to fight hand-to-hand, galley were preferred for their manoeuvrability and speed; the Greek navies that fought in the Peloponnesian War used triremes, as did the Romans at the Battle of Actium. The development of naval gunnery from the 16th century onward vaulted broadside weight ahead of manoeuvrability. In modern times, human propulsion is found on small boats or as auxiliary propulsion on sailboats.
Human propulsion includes the push pole and pedals. Propulsion by sail consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays, controlled by lines made of rope. Sails were the dominant form of commercial propulsion until the late nineteenth century, continued to be used well into the twentieth century on routes where wind was assured and coal was not available, such as in the South American nitrate trade. Sails are now used for recreation and racing, although innovative applications of kites/royals, rotorsails, wingsails and SkySails's own kite buoy-system have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings; the development of piston-engined steamships was a complex process. Early steamships were fueled by wood ones by coal or fuel oil. Early ships used stern or side paddle wheels; the first commercial success accrued to Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat in US in 1807, followed in Europe by the 45-foot Comet of 1812. Steam propulsion progressed over the rest of the 19th century.
Notable developments include the steam surface condenser, which eliminated the use of sea water in the ship's boilers. This, along with improvements in boiler technology, permitted higher steam pressures, thus the use of higher efficiency multiple expansion engines; as the means of transmitting the engine's power, paddle wheels gave way to more efficient screw propellers. Multiple expansion steam engines became widespread in the late 19th century; these engines exhausted steam from a high pressure cylinder to a lower pressure cylinder, giving a large increase in efficiency. Steam turbines were fueled by coal or fuel oil or nuclear power; the marine steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Algernon Parsons raised the power-to-weight ratio. He achieved publicity by demonstrating it unofficially in the 100-foot Turbinia at the Spithead Naval Review in 1897; this facilitated a generation of high-speed liners in the first half of the 20th century, rendered the reciprocating steam engine obsolete. In the early 20th century, heavy fuel oil came into more general use and began to replace coal as the fuel of choice in steamships.
Its great advantages were convenience, reduced manpower by removal of the need for trimmers and stokers, reduced space needed for fuel bunkers. In the second half of the 20th century, rising fuel costs led to the demise of the steam turbine. Most new ships since around 1960 have been built with diesel engines; the last major passenger ship built with steam turbines was Fairsky, launched in 1984. Many steam ships were re-engined to improve fuel efficiency. One high-profile example was the 1968 built Queen Elizabeth 2 which had her steam turbines replaced with a diesel-electric propulsion plant in 1986. Most new-build ships with steam turbines are specialist vessels such as nuclear-powered vessels, certain merchant vessels where the cargo can be used as bunker fuel. New LNG carriers continue to be built with steam turbines; the natural gas is stored in a liquid state in cryogenic vessels aboard these ships, a small amount of'boil off' gas is needed to maintain the pressure and temperature inside the vessels within operating limits.
The'boil off' gas provides the fuel for the ship's boilers, which provide steam for the tu
Lehigh University is a private research university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. It was established in 1865 by businessman Asa Packer, its undergraduate programs have been coeducational since the 1971–72 academic year. As of 2019, the university had 1,942 graduate students. Lehigh has four colleges: the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Education; the College of Arts and Sciences is the largest, which consists of 35% of the university's students. The university offers a variety of degrees, including Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, Master of Engineering, Master of Education, Doctor of Philosophy. Lehigh has produced Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Fellows, members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences, National Medal of Science winners. On April 5, 1986, a 19-year-old Lehigh freshman was murdered in her dorm room.
The backlash against unreported crimes on numerous campuses across the country led to the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. The Clery Act requires that colleges reveal information regarding crime on their campuses.20 years after the federal Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act took effect, thought leaders on campus safety came to Lehigh to discuss critical safety issues for colleges and universities. The event, "Proceeding in Partnership: The Future of Campus Safety," was held on the Lehigh campus in September 2011, was co-sponsored by Security on Campus, founded by Connie and Howard Clery following the death of their daughter, Jeanne Clery; the conference represented the first cooperative effort between Lehigh and the organization since Jeanne Clery's death. Located in the Lehigh Valley, the university is a 70-mile drive from Philadelphia, an 85-mile drive from New York City. Lehigh encompasses 2,350 acres, including 180 acres of recreational and playing fields and 150 buildings comprising four million square feet of floor space.
It is organized into three contiguous campuses on and around South Mountain, including: the Asa Packer Campus, built into the northern slope of the mountain, is Lehigh's original and predominant campus. In May 2012, Lehigh became the recipient of a gift of 755 acres of property in nearby Upper Saucon Township from the Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation; the gift from the estate of the long-time benefactor allowed the university to expand its footprint to now comprise 2,350 acres across all its campuses, to consider its long-term potential uses. U. S. News & World Report ranked Lehigh tied for 53rd among national universities in its 2019 edition of "Best Colleges"; the Economist ranked Lehigh 7th among national universities in its 2015 ranking of non-vocational U. S. colleges ranked by alumni earnings above expectation. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012; the Wall Street Journal in June 2010 ranked Lehigh as number 12 in the nation for return on investment when comparing the average career earnings of a graduate to the cost of an education.
Lehigh has appeared in several international university rankings. The university ranked 301–350 overall in the 2013–2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 401–500 overall in the 2012 edition of the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 551-600 overall in the 2013 QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report classifies Lehigh's selectivity as "Most Selective." For the Class of 2022, Lehigh received 15,623 applications and accepted 3,418. Per Lehigh's school newspaper, 2022 marked the most selective year with a 19% acceptance rate for regular decision applicants. Lehigh's average class size is 27 students; the undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 10:1. Lehigh University offers undergraduate enrollment in all colleges but the College of Education: the P. C. Rossin School of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Arts and Sciences. Students are able to take courses or major/minor in a subject outside of their respective college.
The university operates on a semester system. Graduates of Lehigh's engineering programs invented the escalator and founded Packard Motor Car Company and the companies that built the locks and lockgates of the Panama Canal. Other notable alumni include Lee Iacocca. Tau Beta Pi, the renowned engineering honor society, was founded at Lehigh. In 2012, BusinessWeek ranked Lehigh's College of Business and Economics 31st in the nation among undergraduate business programs. Lehigh's finance program is strong, ranked as 7th overall undergraduate finance program in the nation by BusinessWeek; the accounting program is strong, ranked as the 21st best undergraduate program in the nation by BusinessWeek. Additionally, US News & World Report ranked Lehigh's part-time MBA 20th in the nation in 2018 rankings. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012. Based in Maginnes Hall, Lehigh offers a variety of visual arts programs. In particular, it has many music programs, including a marching ba
Gibbs & Cox
Gibbs & Cox is a U. S. naval architecture firm that specializes in designing surface warships. Founded in 1922 in New York City, Gibbs & Cox is now headquartered in Virginia; the firm has offices in New York City. C.. In 2003, more than 150 warships built to the firm's designs, including 60 percent of the U. S. Navy's surface combatant fleet, were on active duty in nearly 20 navies; the firm was founded as "Gibbs Brothers" by self-taught naval architect William Francis Gibbs and his brother Frederic H. Gibbs; the name was changed when architect Daniel H. Cox of Cox & Stevens joined the firm in 1929. In 1931, Gibbs & Cox designed a large luxury yacht. According to company officials, more than 70 percent of U. S. tonnage launched during World War II was built to Cox designs. Ship types included destroyers, LST landing craft, tankers, Liberty Ships, a variety of conversions. In 1950, Gibbs & Cox designed the SS United States, the largest liner built in the United States and the fastest liner built anywhere.
Among the ship classes designed by Gibbs & Cox are: Arleigh Burke-class destroyer Captain-class frigate EC2-S-C1-class transport Freedom-class Littoral Combat Ship Gleaves-class destroyer Mahan-class destroyer Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate Tacoma-class frigate Wind-class icebreakerAmong the individual ships designed by Gibbs & Cox are: SS America SS Malolo SS Santa Paula SS Santa Rosa SS United States From 1939 until 1962, the firm operated a model shop that produced high-quality ship models that are considered among "the finest examples of the steel ship modeler's art to be seen." Of these, the most expensive and elaborate was a 1/24-scale cutaway model of the USS Agerholm. This model, over 16 feet long, shows the complete inner structure on the starboard, the exterior on the port. Another notable model is the USS Missouri as she appeared on September 2, 1945, at 9:02 in the morning, the time of the Japanese surrender; this 1/48-scale ship required 77,000 man-hours to construct, is as of September 2012 on display at the Navy Museum, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC.
CG: "Awarded a Naval Sea Systems Command multi-year contract for program management support, technical management support, ship design support and engineering" in partnership with Alion Science and Technology Freedom class Littoral Combat Ship: design and support of USS Freedom and subsequent ships. Gibbs & Cox Official site