Marc Van Montagu
Marc, Baron Van Montagu is a Belgian molecular biologist. He was full professor and director of the Laboratory of Genetics at the faculty of Sciences at Ghent University and scientific director of the Genetics Department of the Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology. Together with Jozef Schell he founded the biotech company Plant Genetic Systems Inc. in 1982, of which he was Scientific Director and member of the board of Directors. Van Montagu was involved in founding the biotech company CropDesign, of which he was a Board member from 1998 to 2004, he is president of the Public Regulation Initiative. Van Montagu and his colleagues were credited with the discovery of the Ti plasmid, they described the gene transfer mechanism between Agrobacterium and plants, which resulted in the development of methods to alter Agrobacterium into an efficient delivery system for gene engineering and to create transgenic plants. They developed plant molecular genetics, in particular molecular mechanisms for cell proliferation and differentiation and response to abiotic stresses and constructed transgenic crops resistant to insect pest and tolerant to novel herbicides.
His work with poplar trees resulted in engineering of trees with improved pulping qualities. After his retirement as director of the Laboratory of Genetics at Ghent University, Marc Van Montagu created IPBO - International Plant Biotechnology Outreach, VIB-Ghent University, with the mission to foster biotechnological solutions to global agriculture. In 2015 IPBO launched the “Marc and Nora Van Montagu Fund” with focus on sustainable agriculture and agro-industry to the African continent. Van Montagu has been a foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences since 1986, the agricultural Academy of Russia and France, the Academy of Engineering of Sweden, the Italian Academy of Sciences dei X, the Brazilian Academy of Science, the Third World Academy of Sciences, he holds eight Doctor Honoris Causa Degrees. In 1990 he was granted the title of Baron by Baudouin of Belgium, his awards include 1987: Rank Prize for Nutrition 1988: IBM Europe Science and Technology Prize 1990: Grand Prix Charles-Leopold Mayer from the French Academy of Sciences 1990: Dr. A. de Leeuw-Damry-Bourlart Prize 1998: Japan Prize for Biotechnology in Agriculture Sciences 1999: Theodor Bücher Medal 2009: Genome Valley Excellence Award 2009 2013: World Food Prize laureate.
2015: Iran Agriculture Golden Medal Walter Fiers Mary-Dell Chilton Van Larebeke, N.. "Acquisition of tumour-inducing ability by non-oncogenic agrobacteria as a result of plasmid transfer". Nature. 255: 742–3. Bibcode:1975Natur.255..742V. Doi:10.1038/255742a0. PMID 1134573. Vaeck, Mark. "Transgenic plants protected from insect attack". Nature. 328: 33–7. Bibcode:1987Natur.328...33V. Doi:10.1038/328033a0. Van Den Broeck, Guido. "Targeting of a foreign protein to chloroplasts by fusion to the transit peptide from the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase". Nature. 313: 358–63. Bibcode:1985Natur.313..358V. Doi:10.1038/313358a0. PMID 3969146. De Block, Marc. "Expression of foreign genes in regenerated plants and in their progeny". The EMBO Journal. 3: 1681–9. PMC 557582. PMID 16453538. Herrera-Estrella, Luis. "Expression of chimaeric genes transferred into plant cells using a Ti-plasmid-derived vector". Nature. 303: 209–13. Bibcode:1983Natur.303..209H. Doi:10.1038/303209a0. Marc Van Montagu International Plant Biotechnology Outreach
InBev-Baillet Latour Fund
The Artois-Baillet Latour Foundation is a Belgian non-profit organization, founded on 1 March 1974. The foundation was born by the initiative of Count Alfred de Baillet Latour, the Director of the Artois Breweries in Leuven, Belgium, he was the last male heir of the old House of Baillet, was by motherside related to the House of Spoelberch, who own the Artois Company. In 1995 the name was changed in Interbrew-Baillet Latour Foundation and in 2005, the name was changed to InBev-Baillet Latour Fund; the Foundation wants to encourage and reward achievements of outstanding human value in the Arts and Sciences. It can do this by any other means that the Foundation might deem appropriate; the Artois-Baillet Latour Health Prize was established in 1977 to be awarded periodically to recognize the merits of a person whose work has contributed prominently to the improvement of human health in the fields of metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, neurological diseases and cardiovascular disease. Since 2000 the prize has been awarded annually.
Worth 250,000 euros, it is Belgium's major scientific prize. Since 2005, it has been known as the InBev-Baillet Latour Health Prize. Source: Fund for Scientific Research-FNRS 2018 Professor Laurence Zitvogel, University of Paris-Sud and Professor Guido Kroemer, Paris Descartes University 2017 Professor Adriano Aguzzi, Zürich University 2016 Professor Charles M. Rice, Rockefeller University 2015 Professor Bruce M. Spiegelman, Harvard Medical School 2014 Professor Harry C. Dietz, Johns Hopkins University 2013 Professor Carlo M. Croce, Ohio State University 2012 Professor Gero Miesenböck, University of Oxford 2011 Professor Jean-Laurent Casanova, Rockefeller University 2010 Professor Stephen O'Rahilly, University of Cambridge 2009 Professor Kari Alitalo, University of Helsinki and Professor Seppo Ylä-Herituala, University of Kuopio 2008 Professor Robert A. Weinberg, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts, United States of America 2007 Professor Peter H. Seeburg, Max-Planck-Institute for Medical Research, Germany 2006 Professor Hidde Ploegh, Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States of America 2005 Professors Désiré Collen and Peter Carmeliet, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the VIB, Belgium 2004 Professor Elio Lugaresi, Italy 2003 Professor Nancy C.
Andreasen, Iowa City, United States of America 2002 Professor Robert M. Krug, United States of America 2001 Dr Jan Van Embden, Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, the Netherlands 2000 Professors Jacques Van Snick and Jean-Christophe Renauld, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium 1999 Professor Julien Mendlewicz of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium 1997 Professor Michael Sela, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. 1995 Professor Roger Tsien, University of California, San Diego, United States of America 1993 Professor Jean-François Borel, University of Bern, Switzerland 1991 Professor Thomas Waldmann, National Cancer Institute, United States of America 1989 Professor Walter Fiers, University of Ghent, Belgium 1987 Professors Viktor Mutt and Tomas Hökfelt 1985 Professor Johannes J. van Rood, the Netherlands 1983 Professor Jean Bernard, France 1981 Sir Cyril A. Clarke, Great Britain 1979 Sir James W. Black, Great Britain National Fund for Scientific Research Francqui Prize House of Baillet InBev-Baillet Latour
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions. Writing in Nature in 1961, William Astbury described molecular biology as:...not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned with the forms of biological molecules and is predominantly three-dimensional and structural – which does not mean, that it is a refinement of morphology, it must at the same time inquire into function. Researchers in molecular biology use specific techniques native to molecular biology but combine these with techniques and ideas from genetics and biochemistry. There is not a defined line between these disciplines.
This is shown in the following schematic that depicts one possible view of the relationships between the fields: Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in live organisms. Biochemists focus on the role and structure of biomolecules; the study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry. Genetics is the study of the effect of genetic differences in organisms; this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component. The study of "mutants" – organisms which lack one or more functional components with respect to the so-called "wild type" or normal phenotype. Genetic interactions can confound simple interpretations of such "knockout" studies. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the processes of replication, transcription and cell function; the central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and translated into protein, despite being oversimplified, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field.
The picture has been revised in light of emerging novel roles for RNA. Much of molecular biology is quantitative, much work has been done at its interface with computer science in bioinformatics and computational biology. In the early 2000s, the study of gene structure and function, molecular genetics, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology. Many other areas of biology focus on molecules, either directly studying interactions in their own right such as in cell biology and developmental biology, or indirectly, where molecular techniques are used to infer historical attributes of populations or species, as in fields in evolutionary biology such as population genetics and phylogenetics. There is a long tradition of studying biomolecules "from the ground up" in biophysics. One of the most basic techniques of molecular biology to study protein function is molecular cloning. In this technique, DNA coding for a protein of interest is cloned using polymerase chain reaction, and/or restriction enzymes into a plasmid.
A vector has 3 distinctive features: an origin of replication, a multiple cloning site, a selective marker antibiotic resistance. Located upstream of the multiple cloning site are the promoter regions and the transcription start site which regulate the expression of cloned gene; this plasmid can be inserted into either bacterial or animal cells. Introducing DNA into bacterial cells can be done by transformation via uptake of naked DNA, conjugation via cell-cell contact or by transduction via viral vector. Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, by physical or chemical means is called transfection. Several different transfection techniques are available, such as calcium phosphate transfection, electroporation and liposome transfection; the plasmid may be integrated into the genome, resulting in a stable transfection, or may remain independent of the genome, called transient transfection. DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, the protein can now be expressed.
A variety of systems, such as inducible promoters and specific cell-signaling factors, are available to help express the protein of interest at high levels. Large quantities of a protein can be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell; the protein can be tested for enzymatic activity under a variety of situations, the protein may be crystallized so its tertiary structure can be studied, or, in the pharmaceutical industry, the activity of new drugs against the protein can be studied. Polymerase chain reaction is an versatile technique for copying DNA. In brief, PCR allows a specific DNA sequence to be modified in predetermined ways; the reaction is powerful and under perfect conditions could amplify one DNA molecule to become 1.07 billion molecules in less than two hours. The PCR technique can be used to introduce restriction enzyme sites to ends of DNA molecules, or to mutate particular bases of DNA, the latter is a method referred to as site-directed mutagenesis. PCR can be used to determine whether a particular DNA fragment is found in a cDNA library.
PCR has many variations, like reverse transcription PCR for amplification of RNA, more quantitative PCR which allow for quantitative measurement of DNA or RNA molecules. Gel electrophoresis is one of the principal tools of molecular biology; the basic principle is that DNA, RNA, proteins can all be separated by means of an electric field and size. In agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA and RNA can be separated on th
Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology
The Carlos J. Finlay Prize is a biennial scientific prize sponsored by the Government of Cuba and awarded since 1980 by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization to people or organizations for their outstanding contributions to microbiology and its applications. Winners receive a grant of $5,000 USD donated by the Government of Cuba and an Albert Einstein Silver Medal from UNESCO; the Prize is awarded in odd years and is named after Carlos Juan Finlay, a Cuban physician and microbiologist known for his pioneering discoveries in the field of yellow fever. 1980 - Roger Y. Stanier 1983 - César Milstein, FRS 1985 - Victor Nussenzweig and Ruth Nussenzweig 1987 - Hélio Gelli Pereira and Peter Reichard 1989 - Georges Cohen and Walter Fiers 1991 - Margarita Salas and Eladio Viñuela and Jean-Marie Ghuysen 1993 - International Society of Soil Science, James Michael Lynch, James Tiedje, Johannes Antonie Van Veen 1995 - Jan Balzarini and Pascale Cossart 1996 - Etienne Pays and Sheikh Riazzudin 1999 - Ádám Kondorosi 2001 - Susana López Charreton and Carlos Arias Ortiz 2003 - Antonio Peña Díaz 2005 - Khatijah Binti Mohamad Yusoff 2015 - Yoshihiro Kawaoka 2017 - Samir Saha and Shahida Hasnain
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
M2 proton channel
The Matrix-2 protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the viral envelope of the influenza A virus. The channel itself is a homotetramer, where the units are helices stabilized by two disulfide bonds, is activated by low pH; the M2 protein is encoded on the seventh RNA segment together with the M1 protein. Proton conductance by the M2 protein in influenza A is essential for viral replication. In influenza A virus, M2 protein unit consists of three protein segments comprising 97 amino acid residues: an extracellular N-terminal domain; the TMS forms the pore of the ion channel. The important residues are the imidazole of His37 and the indole of Trp41; this domain is the target of the anti influenza drugs and its ethyl derivative rimantadine, also the methyl derivative of rimantadine, adapromine. The first 17 residues of the M2 cytoplasmic tail form a conserved amphipathic helix; the amphipathic helix residues within the cytoplasmic tail play role in assembly. The influenza virus utilizes these amphipathic helices in M2 to alter membrane curvature at the budding neck of the virus in a cholesterol dependent manner.
The residues 70–77 of cytoplasmic tail are important for binding to M1 and for the efficient production of infectious virus particles. This region contains a caveolin binding domain; the C-terminal end of the channel extends into a loop that connects the trans membrane domain to the C-terminal amphipathic helix.. Two different high-resolution structures of truncated forms of M2 have been reported: the crystal structure of a mutated form of the M2 transmembrane region, as well as a longer version of the protein containing the transmembrane region and a segment of the C-terminal domain as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance; the two structures suggest different binding sites for the adamantane class of anti-influenza drugs. According to the low pH crystal structure a single molecule of amantadine binds in the middle of the pore, surrounded by residues Val27, Ala30, Ser31 and Gly34. In contrast, the NMR structure showed four rimantadine molecules bind to the lipid facing outer surface of the pore, interacting with residues Asp44 and Arg45.
However, a recent solid state NMR spectroscopy structure shows that the M2 channel has two binding sites for amantadine, one high affinity site is in the N terminal lumen, a second low affinity site on the C terminal protein surface. The M2 protein of influenza B is 109 residue long, homo tetramer and is a functional homolog of influenza A protein. There is no sequence homology between influenza AM2 and BM2 except for the HXXXW sequence motif in the TMS, essential for channel function, its proton conductance pH profile is similar to that of AM2. However, the BM2 channel activity is higher than that of AM2, the BM2 activity is insensitive to amantadine and rimantadine; the M2 ion channel of both influenza A and B are selective for protons. The channel has a low conductance. Histidine residues at position 37 are responsible for this proton pH modulation; when His37 is replaced with glycine, glutamic acid, serine or threonine, the proton selective activity is lost and the mutant can transport Na+ and K+ ions also.
When imidazole buffer is added to cells expressing mutant proteins, the ion selectivity is rescued. Acharya et al. suggested that the conduction mechanism involves the exchange of protons between the His37 imidazole moieties of M2 and waters confined to the M2 bundle interior. Water molecules within the pore form hydrogen-bonded networks or'water wires' from the channel entrance to His37. Pore-lining carbonyl groups are well situated to stabilize hydronium ions via second-shell interactions involving bridging water molecules. A collective switch of hydrogen bond orientations may contribute to the directionality of proton flux as His37 is dynamically protonated and deprotonated in the conduction cycle; the His37 residues form a box-like structure, bounded on either side by water clusters with well-ordered oxygen atoms near by. The conformation of the protein, intermediate between structures solved at higher and lower pH, suggests a mechanism by which conformational changes might facilitate asymmetric diffusion through the channel in the presence of a proton gradient.
Moreover, protons diffusing through the channel need not be localized to a single His37 imidazole, but instead may be delocalized over the entire His-box and associated water clusters. The M2 channel protein is an essential component of the viral envelope because of its ability to form a selective, pH-regulated, proton-conducting channel; the M2 proton channel maintains pH across the viral envelope during cell entry and across the trans-Golgi membrane of infected cells during viral maturation. As virus enters the host cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis, endosomal acidification occurs; this low pH activates the M2 channel. Acidification of virus interior leads to weakening of electrostatic interaction and leads to dissociation between M1 and viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. Subsequent membrane fusion releases the uncoated RNPs into the cytoplasm, imported to the nucleus to start viral replication. After its synthesis within the infected host cell, M2 is inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the cell surface via trans-Golgi network.
Within the acidic TGN, M2 transports H+ ions out of the lumen, maint