Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce and transport chemicals and energy. A chemical engineer designs large-scale processes that convert chemicals, raw materials, living cells and energy into useful forms and products. Chemical engineers are involved in many aspects of plant design and operation, including safety and hazard assessments, process design and analysis, control engineering, chemical reaction engineering, biological engineering, construction specification, operating instructions. Chemical engineering degree is directly linked with all the majors of various engineering disciplines. A 1996 British Journal for the History of Science article cites James F. Donnelly for mentioning an 1839 reference to chemical engineering in relation to the production of sulfuric acid. In the same paper however, George E. Davis, an English consultant, was credited for having coined the term. Davis tried to found a Society of Chemical Engineering, but instead it was named the Society of Chemical Industry, with Davis as its first Secretary.
The History of Science in United States: An Encyclopedia puts the use of the term around 1890. "Chemical engineering", describing the use of mechanical equipment in the chemical industry, became common vocabulary in England after 1850. By 1910, the profession, "chemical engineer," was in common use in Britain and the United States. Chemical engineering emerged upon the development of unit operations, a fundamental concept of the discipline of chemical engineering. Most authors agree that Davis invented the concept of unit operations if not developed it, he gave a series of lectures on unit operations at the Manchester Technical School in 1887, considered to be one of the earliest such about chemical engineering. Three years before Davis' lectures, Henry Edward Armstrong taught a degree course in chemical engineering at the City and Guilds of London Institute. Armstrong's course failed because its graduates were not attractive to employers. Employers of the time would have rather hired mechanical engineers.
Courses in chemical engineering offered by Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States, Owens College in Manchester and University College London suffered under similar circumstances. Starting from 1888, Lewis M. Norton taught at MIT the first chemical engineering course in the United States. Norton's course was contemporaneous and similar to Armstrong's course. Both courses, however merged chemistry and engineering subjects along with product design. "Its practitioners had difficulty convincing engineers that they were engineers and chemists that they were not chemists." Unit operations was introduced into the course by William Hultz Walker in 1905. By the early 1920s, unit operations became an important aspect of chemical engineering at MIT and other US universities, as well as at Imperial College London; the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, established in 1908, played a key role in making chemical engineering considered an independent science, unit operations central to chemical engineering.
For instance, it defined chemical engineering to be a "science of itself, the basis of which is... unit operations" in a 1922 report. Meanwhile, promoting chemical engineering as a distinct science in Britain led to the establishment of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in 1922. IChemE helped make unit operations considered essential to the discipline. In 1940s, it became clear that unit operations alone were insufficient in developing chemical reactors. While the predominance of unit operations in chemical engineering courses in Britain and the United States continued until the 1960s, transport phenomena started to experience greater focus. Along with other novel concepts, such as process systems engineering, a "second paradigm" was defined. Transport phenomena gave an analytical approach to chemical engineering while PSE focused on its synthetic elements, such as control system and process design. Developments in chemical engineering before and after World War II were incited by the petrochemical industry, advances in other fields were made as well.
Advancements in biochemical engineering in the 1940s, for example, found application in the pharmaceutical industry, allowed for the mass production of various antibiotics, including penicillin and streptomycin. Meanwhile, progress in polymer science in the 1950s paved way for the "age of plastics". Concerns regarding the safety and environmental impact of large-scale chemical manufacturing facilities were raised during this period. Silent Spring, published in 1962, alerted its readers to the harmful effects of DDT, a potent insecticide; the 1974 Flixborough disaster in the United Kingdom resulted in 28 deaths, as well as damage to a chemical plant and three nearby villages. The 1984 Bhopal disaster in India resulted in 4,000 deaths; these incidents, along with other incidents, affected the reputation of the trade as industrial safety and environmental protection were given more focus. In response, the IChemE required safety to be part of every degree course that it accredited after 1982. By the 1970s, legislation and monitoring agencies were instituted in various countries, such as France and the United States.
Advancements in computer science found applications designing and managing plants, simplifying calculations and drawings that had to be done manually. The c
Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach
Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach referred to as Alfried Krupp, was an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, prominent in German industry since the early 19th century. He was convicted after World War II of crimes against humanity for the way he operated his factories; the family company, known formally as Friedrich Krupp AG Hoesch-Krupp, was a key supplier of weapons and materiel to the Nazi regime and the Wehrmacht during World War II. In 1943, Krupp became sole proprietor of the company, following the Lex Krupp decreed by Adolf Hitler. Krupp's wartime employment of slave labor resulted in the "Krupp Trial" of 1947–1948, following which he served three years in prison. At Krupp's behest, after his death in 1967, control of the Krupp company passed to the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, a philanthropic organisation. Krupp's mother, Bertha Krupp, inherited the company in 1902 at the age of 16 when her father, Friedrich Krupp committed suicide after being exposed in the newspapers as a homosexual.
In October 1906, Bertha married Alfried's father, Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach, a German diplomat and member of the nobility in a Lutheran ceremony, who subsequently added the Krupp name to his own by permission of Emperor Wilhelm II. Alfried was born a year later. Alfried Krupp attended grammar school, after which he trained at the Krupp company workshops and studied metallurgy at technical universities in Munich and Aachen; the company profited from the German re-armament of the 1920s and 1930s. Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, in spite of his initial opposition to the Nazi Party, made significant personal donations to it before the 1933 election, because he saw advantages for the company in the Nazis' militarism and their opposition to independent trade unions. From 1931, Alfried was a supporting member of the SS, he was a member of the National Socialist Flyers Corps, where he reached the rank of Standartenfuhrer and from 1938 he was a member of the Nazi Party. In 1937, Krupp – like his father – was appointed military economic leader.
He was a deputy of his father in his capacity as Chairman of the Board of the Adolf Hitler Fund of German Trade and Industry. Krupp received a Diplomingenieur from the Aachener Technische Hochschule in 1934, with the acceptance of a thesis on melting steel in vacuums. During the Berlin Olympics of 1936, Krupp participated in 8 Meter Class sailing and won a bronze medal. In the same year, after undergoing financial training at the Dresdner Bank, Krupp joined the family company. In the following year he married née Bahr, his family disapproved and their pressure may have influenced the divorce that followed soon afterwards. During World War II, the company's profits increased and it gained control of factories in German-occupied Europe. Alfried became more active in controlling the company, he became de facto head of the firm in 1941. Under Alfried, the company used slave labor supplied by the Nazi regime and thereby became involved in the Holocaust, assigning Jewish prisoners from concentration camps to work in many of its factories.
When the military suggested that security reasons dictated that work should be performed by free German workers, Alfried insisted on using slaves. He replaced his father as head of the family firm under the Lex Krupp, proclaimed by Adolf Hitler on 12 November 1943, which set aside the usual laws of inheritance and preserved the Krupp firm as a family business. Under this law, Alfried formally added the Krupp name to his own, he was appointed Reichsminister für Rüstung und Kriegsproduktion. The transfer of ownership was a gesture of gratitude by Hitler and was to be one of only a few major Nazi laws that survived the fall of the regime. During the war, Alfried Krupp was responsible for the transfer of factories in the occupied territories to the German Reich, he was awarded the War Merit Cross and First Class. Krupp worked with the SS, which controlled the concentration camps from which slave labor was obtained. In a letter dated 7 September 1943, he wrote: "As regards the cooperation of our technical office in Breslau, I can only say that between that office and Auschwitz the closest understanding exists and is guaranteed for the future."
According to one of his own employees when it was clear that the war was lost: "Krupp considered it a duty to make 520 Jewish girls, some of them little more than children, work under the most brutal conditions in the heart of the concern, in Essen." After the war, the Allied Military Government investigated Krupp's employment of slave laborers. He was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 12 years imprisonment and the forfeiture of all property. However, after three years, John J. McCloy, the American High Commissioner for Germany arranged for Krupp to be pardoned and the forfeiture of his property was reversed. Krupp's second marriage on 19 May 1952 to Vera Hossenfeld, just after his release from Landsberg Prison, ended in a scandal and an expensive settlement in 1957. Prior to Krupp's death from lung cancer, his assistant, Berthold Beitz, worked to transfer control of the company to a Stiftung, called the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, to be monitored by three members of a supervisory board, including Hermann Josef Abs, of the former Deutsch-Asi
The Krupp family, a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, is famous for their production of steel, artillery and other armaments. The family business, known as Friedrich Krupp AG, was the largest company in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, was important to weapons development and production in both world wars. One of the most powerful dynasties in European history, Krupp flourished for 400 years as the premier weapons manufacturer of Germany. From the Thirty Years' War until the end of the Second World War, it produced battleships, U-boats, howitzers, guns and hundreds of other commodities; the dynasty began in 1587 when a trader named Arndt Krupp moved to Essen and joined the merchants' guild. He began buying vacated real estate from families who fled the city due to the Black Death, became one of the city's richest men, his descendants produced small guns during the Thirty Years' War, acquired fulling mills, coal mines, an iron forge. During the Napoleonic Wars, Friedrich Krupp founded the Gusstahlfabrik and produced smelted steel in 1816, turning the company into a major industrial power.
This laid the foundations for the steel empire that would come to dominate the world for nearly a century under his son Alfred. Krupp became the arms manufacturer for the Kingdom of Prussia in 1859, the German Empire. Krupp was a pioneering company for workers's rights. Alfred Krupp initiated a system of unprecedented benefits and social programs for workers who pledged loyalty to the company, including on-site technical and manual training. Widows and orphans were guaranteed an income; the company produced steel used to build railroads in the United States, capped the Chrysler Building in 1929, was the first to travel to the bottom of the Mariana Trench. During the Third Reich, Krupp supported the use of forced labour. After the war, Krupp was rebuilt from scratch and again became one of the wealthiest companies in Europe. However, a recession in 1967 caused the company severe profit loss. In 1999 it merged with Thyssen AG to form the industrial conglomerate ThyssenKrupp AG; the Krupp company has been controversial because of its association with wars in Europe.
As a major weapons supplier to multiple sides in various conflicts, the Krupps were sometimes blamed for the wars themselves or the degree of carnage that ensued. Friedrich Krupp launched the family's metal-based activities, building a pioneering steel foundry in Essen in 1810, his son Alfred, known as "the Cannon King" or as "Alfred the Great", invested in new technology to become a significant manufacturer of steel rollers and railway tyres. He invested in fluidized hotbed technologies and acquired many mines in Germany and France. Unusual for the era, he provided social services for his workers, including subsidized housing and health and retirement benefits; the company began to make steel cannons in the 1840s—especially for the Russian and Prussian armies. Low non-military demand and government subsidies meant that the company specialized more and more in weapons: by the late 1880s the manufacture of armaments represented around 50% of Krupp's total output; when Alfred started with the firm, it had five employees.
At his death twenty thousand people worked for Krupp—making it the world's largest industrial company and the largest private company in the German empire. Krupp's had a Great Krupp Building with an exhibition of guns at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. In the 20th century the company was headed by Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, who assumed the surname of Krupp when he married the Krupp heiress, Bertha Krupp. After Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, the Krupp works became the center for German rearmament. In 1943, by a special order from Hitler, the company reverted to a sole-proprietorship, with Gustav and Bertha's eldest son Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach as proprietor. After Germany's defeat, Gustav was senile and incapable of standing trial, the Nuremberg Military Tribunal convicted Alfried as a war criminal in the Krupp Trial for "plunder" and for his company's use of slave labor, it ordered him to sell 75 % of his holdings. In 1951, as the Cold War developed and no buyer came forward, the U.
S. occupation authorities released him, in 1953 he resumed control of the firm. In 1968, the company became a corporation. In 1999, the Krupp Group merged with its largest competitor, Thyssen AG; the Krupp family first appeared in the historical record in 1587, when Arndt Krupp joined the merchants' guild in Essen. Arndt, a trader, arrived in town just before an epidemic of the Black Death plague and became one of the city's wealthiest men by purchasing the property of families who fled the epidemic. After he died in 1624, his son Anton took over the family business. For the next century the Krupps continued to acquire property and became involved in municipal politics in Essen. By the mid-18th-century, Friedrich Jodocus Krupp, Arndt's great-great-grandson, headed the Krupp family. In 1751, he married Helene Amalie Ascherfeld.
Golders Green Crematorium
Golders Green Crematorium and Mausoleum was the first crematorium to be opened in London, one of the oldest crematoria in Britain. The land for the crematorium was purchased in 1900, costing £6,000, the crematorium was opened in 1902 by Sir Henry Thompson. Golders Green Crematorium, as it is called, is in Hoop Lane, off Finchley Road, Golders Green, London NW11, ten minutes' walk from Golders Green Underground station, it is directly opposite the Golders Green Jewish Cemetery. The crematorium is secular, accepts all faiths and non-believers; the crematorium gardens are listed at Grade I in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Cremation was not legal in Great Britain until 1885; the first crematorium was built in Woking and it was successful. At that time cremation was championed by the Cremation Society of Great Britain; this society was governed at that time led by Sir Henry Thompson. There is a bust to his memory in the West Chapel of Golders Green Crematorium. Out of this Society was formed the London Cremation Company, who desired to build a crematorium within easy reach of London.
The crematorium in Golders Green was designed by the architect Sir Ernest George and his partner Alfred Yeates. The gardens were laid out by William Robinson; the crematorium is a red brick building in Lombardic style and was built in stages, as money became available. The crematorium opened in 1902 and was finished around 1939, although since some buildings have been added. Since November 1902 more than 323,500 cremations have taken place at Golders Green Crematorium, far more than any other British crematorium, it is estimated. The funerals of many prominent people have taken place there over the last century; the ashes of the first person cremated at Woking, Mrs Jeanette Pickersgill, widow of artist Henry William Pickersgill, were removed from Woking to the East Columbarium at Golders Green, according to Woking's cremation records. The chimney of the crematorium is located within the tower and the building is in an Italianate style; the 12 acres of gardens are extensively planted, produce a beautiful and tranquil environment for visitors.
There are several large tombs, two ponds and bridge, a large crocus lawn. Another notable feature is a special children's section. There is a'communist corner' with memorials to notables of the Communist Party of Great Britain. There are a chapel of remembrance. There are three columbaria containing the ashes of thousands of Londoners and residents of neighbouring counties. There have been 14 holders of the Victoria Cross cremated here, there are locations and memorials for many other military personnel of all ranks, from many countries. Largest among them is the Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorial, commemorating 496 British and Commonwealth military casualties of both World Wars who were cremated here. Designed by Sir Edward Maufe, it was unveiled in 1952. Built in Portland Stone with names listed on three bronze panels, it stands at head of an ornamental pond at the western end of the memorial cloister. At Christmas, a Christmas tree is erected in the field in front of the main buildings.
Although the crematorium is secular, a nativity scene is placed near the chapel of remembrance. The crematorium gardens are listed at Grade I in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the Philipson Family mausoleum, designed by Edwin Lutyens, is a Grade II* listed building on the National Heritage List for England and the crematorium building, the wall, along with memorials and gates, the Martin Smith Mausoleum and Into The Silent Land, a sculpture by Henry Alfred Pegram are all Grade II listed buildings. A map of the Gardens of Remembrance and some information on persons cremated here is available from the office. Staff are available to help in finding a specific location; the columbaria are now locked. There is a tea room. Among those whose ashes are retained or were scattered here, are: Among those cremated here, but whose ashes are elsewhere, are: Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Golders Green Crematorium Golders Green Crematorium at Hampstead Garden Suburb Trust Crematoria in Europe
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Pontypool is a town, home to 36,000 people in the county borough of Torfaen, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire in South Wales. It is situated on the Afon Lwyd river in the county borough of Torfaen. Situated on the eastern edge of the South Wales coalfields, Pontypool grew around industries including iron and steel production, coal mining and the growth of the railways. A rather artistic manufacturing industry which flourished here alongside heavy industry was Japanning, a type of lacquer ware. Pontypool itself consists of several smaller districts, these include Abersychan, Pontnewynydd, Penygarn, Tranch, Pontymoile, Cwmynyscoy, New Inn and Sebastopol. Pontypool has a notable history as one of the earliest industrial towns in Wales; the town and its immediate surroundings were home to significant industrial and technological innovations, with links to the iron industry dating back to the early fifteenth century when a bloomery furnace was established at Pontymoile. During the sixteenth century due to the influence of the Hanbury family, the area developed its association with the iron industry and continued to consolidate its position in the seventeenth century, when the development of the town began in earnest.
Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the metallurgical and extractive industries of the area, along with the development of the canals and railways, provided the impetus to the expansion of Pontypool and its surrounding villages and communities. The Afon Lwyd valley, in which Pontypool is situated, provided an abundance of resources for the manufacturing of iron, including coal, iron ore and waterpower; the wider technological developments of the Tudor period, such as the utilisation of blast furnaces to produce iron, allowed for the greater exploitation of the mineral resources of south Wales. A blast furnace was in use at Monkswood, near Pontypool, from as early as 1536 and was followed by the erection of other blast furnaces in the area surrounding Pontypool. An ironworks was established in what became Pontypool Park in c. 1575. Forges, where cast iron could be converted into wrought iron, were developed and included Town Forge within Pontypool, in operation during the last quarter of the sixteenth century, the Osborne Forge, near Pontnewynydd, which produced the renowned Osmond iron.
Richard Hanbury of Worcestershire, a notable entrepreneur, developed interests within the Pontypool area during the 1570s, acquiring and developing forges and furnaces in Monkswood, Trosnant and Abercarn. Hanbury acquired leases and rights to utilise the raw materials of the wider area, including a large expanse of woodland to produce charcoal and some 800 acres of land to extract coal and iron-ore at Panteg and Mynyddislwyn. Furthermore, he secured the rights to extract coal and iron-ore on Lord Abergavenny’s Hills in and around Blaenavon; the Hanburys were active at Cwmlickey, Lower Race and Blaendare during the seventeenth century as the demand for coal was met. Major John Hanbury acquired a reputation as an industrial pioneer and through the endeavours of Hanbury and his leading agents, Thomas Cooke, William Payne and Thomas Allgood, significant developments within the British tinplate industry were made in Pontypool, including the introduction of the world’s first rolling for the production of iron sheets and blackplate at the Pontypool Park works in 1697.
Tinplate was being produced at Pontypool from c. 1706, with an important tin mill in operation at Pontymoile during the early eighteenth century. During the 1660s, Thomas Allgood of Northamptonshire, was appointed manager of the Pontypool Ironworks. Allgood developed the Pontypool ‘japanning’ process, whereby metal plate could be treated in a way that generated a lacquered and decorative finish. Thomas Allgood died in 1716, having been unable to commence production of his Pontypool Japanware but the increased creation of tinplate at Pontypool from the early eighteenth century allowed for japanning to enter wide scale manufacture. There was a growing demand for these artistic, luxury products and Allgood’s sons and Thomas, established a japanworks in Pontypool, producing large quantities of Japanware by 1732; the brothers produced a range of products, including decorative bread baskets, tea trays and other items, were renowned for their high quality work. Following the death of Edward Allgood in 1761 there was a family quarrel between his two sons and a rival japanning factory was established in Usk.
Both the Pontypool and Usk concerns had ceased production by the early 1820s. From the mid to late eighteenth century, as the industrial revolution took hold, there was a massive expansion in the economic development of south Wales. Iron-making flourished in emerging towns and settlements, notably at Merthyr Tydfil and Blaenavon. By the early nineteenth century, south Wales was the most important centre of iron production in the world. Whilst Pontypool was not as competitive as some of the larger ironworks towns, it retained a niche in the metallurgical market, producing specialist tinplate; the japanning industry of Pontypool continued to decline and had ceased by the mid-nineteenth century, by which time the economy of the Pontypool area relied on the iron and coal industries, the tinplate industry and the production of iron rails. The twentieth century witnessed a decline in the heavy industries of south Wales and this had a direct impact on the economy of Pontypool and its district; the growth of Pontypool accompanied the development of industry.
A dispersed, rural settlement, the first centres of growth took place in the hamlets of Tros