Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Royal Scottish Academy
For Scotland's national academy, see Royal Society of Edinburgh. The Royal Scottish Academy is the country’s national academy of art, it promotes contemporary Scottish art. Founded in 1819 as the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland, in 1826 it was named the Scottish Academy, it became the Royal Scottish Academy on being granted a royal charter in 1838; the RSA maintains a unique position in the country as an independently funded institution led by eminent artists and architects to promote and support the creation and enjoyment of visual arts through exhibitions and related educational events. In addition to a continuous programme of exhibitions, the RSA administers scholarships and residencies for artists who live and work in Scotland; the RSA's historic collection of important artworks and an extensive archive of related material chronicling art and architecture in Scotland over the last 180 years are housed in the National Museums Collection Centre at Granton, are available to researchers by appointment.
Displays of the historic collections are mounted. Its home since 1911 has been the Royal Scottish Academy Building on The Mound, Princes Street, adjacent to the National Gallery of Scotland; the building is managed by the National Galleries of Scotland but the 1910 Order grants the RSA permanent administration offices in the building. Exhibition space is shared throughout the year with other organisations; the building designed by William Henry Playfair, was refurbished as part of the Playfair Project, is used by the National Galleries of Scotland. The RSA is led by a body of eminent artist and architect members who encompass a broad cross-section of contemporary Scottish art. Members are known as Academicians, are entitled to use the post-nominal letters RSA; the president uses the postnominal letters PRSA while in office, PPRSA thereafter. Academicians are elected to the Academy by their peers. There are Honorary Academicians, including the RSA's patron, the Duke of Edinburgh. After amendments to the Supplementary Charter in 2005, once Associates have submitted a Diploma work into the Permanent Collection of the RSA, they are entitled to full membership of the Academy.
The membership includes 104 Academicians. From 2010–12, the RSA President was Professor Bill Scott, Secretary Arthur Watson and Treasurer Professor Ian Howard. Royal West of England Academy Esme Gordon The Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture & Architecture 1826-1976. Edinburgh; the Royal Scottish Academy
India ink is a simple black or colored ink once used for writing and printing and now more used for drawing and outlining when inking comic books and comic strips. India ink is used in medical applications. Basic India ink is composed of a variety of fine soot, known as lampblack, combined with water to form a liquid. No binder material is necessary: the carbon molecules are in colloidal suspension and form a waterproof layer after drying. A binding agent such as gelatin or, more shellac may be added to make the ink more durable once dried. India ink is sold in bottled form, as well as a solid form as an inkstick, which must be ground and mixed with water before use. If a binder is used, India ink may be non-waterproof. Woods and Woods state that the process of making India ink was known in China as early as the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, in Neolithic China, whereas Needham states that inkmaking commenced as early as three millennia ago in China. India ink was first invented in China, but the English term India ink was coined due to their trade with India.
A considerable number of oracle bones of the late Shang dynasty contain incised characters with black pigment from a carbonaceous material identified as ink. Numerous documents written in ink on precious stones as well as bamboo or wooden tablets dating to the Spring and Autumn, Warring States, Qin period have been uncovered. A cylindrical artifact made from black ink has been found in Qin tombs, dating back to the 3rd century BC during the Warring States or dynastic period, from Yunmeng, Hubei. India ink has been in use in India since at least the 4th century BC, where it was called masi, an admixture of several substances. Indian documents written in Kharosthi with this ink have been unearthed in as far as Xinjiang, China; the practice of writing with ink and a sharp-pointed needle in Tamil and other Dravidian languages was common practice from antiquity in South India, so several ancient Buddhist and Jain scripts in India were compiled in ink. In India, the carbon black from which India ink is formulated was obtained indigenously by burning bones, tar and other substances.
The traditional Chinese method of making ink was to grind a mixture of hide glue, carbon black and bone black pigment with a mortar and pestle pouring it into a ceramic dish where it could dry. To use the dry mixture, a wet brush would be applied until it rehydrated, or more in East Asian calligraphy, a dry solid ink stick was rubbed against an inkstone with water. Like Chinese black inks, the black inks of the Greeks and Romans were stored in solid form before being ground and mixed with water for usage. In contrast to Chinese inks that were permanent, these inks could be washed away with water. Pine soot was traditionally favored in Chinese inkmaking. Several studies observed that 14th-century Chinese inks are made from small and uniform pine soot, insofar that the inks are superior in these aspects to modern soot inks; the author Song Yingxing of the Ming dynasty has described the inkmaking process from pine soot in his work Tiangong Kaiwu. From the Song dynasty onwards, lampblack became a favored pigment for the manufacturing of black inks.
It was made by combustion in lamps with wicks, using animal and mineral oils. In the Chinese record Tiangong Kaiwu, ink of the period was said to be made from lampblack of which a tenth was made from burning tung oil, vegetable oils, or lard, nine-tenths was made from burning pine wood. For the first process, more than one ounce lampblack of fine quality could be produced from a catty of oil; the lampwick used in the making of lampblack was first soaked in the juice of Lithospermum officinale before burning. A skillful artisan could tend to 200 lamps at once. For the second process, the ink was derived from pine wood; the pine wood was burnt in a rounded chamber made from bamboo with the chamber surfaces and joints pasted with paper and matting in which there are holes for smoke emission. The ground was made from bricks and mud with channels for smoke to built in. After a burn of several days, the resulting pine soot was scraped from the chamber after cooling; the last one or two sections delivered soot of the purest quality for the best inks, the middle section delivered mixed-quality soot for ordinary ink, the last one or two sections delivered low-grade soot.
The low-grade soot is further pounded and ground for printing, while the coarser grade is used for black paint. The pine soot is soaked in water to divide the fine particles that float and the coarser particles that sink; the sized lampblack is mixed with glue after which the final product will be hammered. Precious components such as gold dust or musk essence may be added to either types of inks. In 1738, Jean-Baptiste Du Halde described the Chinese manufacturing process for lampblack from oil as: "They put five or six lighted wicks into a vessel full of oil, lay upon this vessel and iron cover, made in the shape of a funnel, which must be set at a certain distance so as to receive all the smoke; when it has received enough, they take it off, with a goose feather brush the bottom, letting the soot fall upon a dry sheet of strong paper. It is this that makes shining ink; the best oil gives a lustre to the black, by consequence makes the ink more esteemed and dearer. The lampblack, not fetched off with the feather, which sticks fast to the cover, is coarser, they use it to make an ordinary sort of ink, after they have scraped it off into a dish."The Chinese had used India ink derived from pine soot prior to
Greyfriars Kirkyard is the graveyard surrounding Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located at the southern edge of the Old Town, adjacent to George Heriot's School. Burials have been taking place since the late 16th century, a number of notable Edinburgh residents are interred at Greyfriars; the Kirkyard is operated by City of Edinburgh Council in liaison with a charitable trust, linked to but separate from the church. The Kirkyard and its monuments are protected as a category A listed building. Greyfriars takes its name from the Franciscan friary on the site, dissolved in 1559; the churchyard was founded in 1561 to replace the churchyard at St Giles. The Kirkyard was involved in the history of the Covenanters; the Covenanting movement began with signing of the National Covenant in Greyfriars Kirk on 28 February 1638. Following the defeat of the militant Covenanters at Bothwell Brig in 1679, some 1200 Covenanters were imprisoned in a field to the south of the churchyard. When, in the 18th century, part of this field was amalgamated into the churchyard as vaulted tombs the area became known as the "Covenanters' Prison".
During the early days of photography in the 1840s the kirkyard was used by David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson as a setting for several portraits and tableaux such as The Artist and The Gravedigger. The graveyard is associated with the loyal dog who guarded his master's grave. Bobby's headstone at the entrance to the Kirkyard, erected by the Dog Aid Society in 1981, marks his actual burial place in an unconsecrated patch of the Kirkyard - a peculiarity which has led to many misunderstandings and fictions about his burial; the dog's statue is opposite the graveyard's gate, at the junction of George IV Bridge and Candlemaker Row. The grave of Edinburgh police officer John Gray, where the dog famously slept for 13 years, lies on the eastern path, some 30m north of the entrance; the stone is modern, the grave being unmarked. Enclosed vaults are found on the south edge of the graveyard and in the "Covenanters' Prison"; these either have solid stone walls or iron railings and were created as a deterrent to grave robbing, which had become a problem in the eighteenth century.
Greyfriars has two low ironwork cages, called mortsafes. These were leased, protected bodies for long enough to deter the attentions of the early nineteenth-century resurrection men who supplied Edinburgh Medical College with corpses for dissection; the kirkyard displays some of Scotland's finest mural monuments from the early 17th century, rich in symbolism of both mortality and immortality such as the Death Head, Angel of the Resurrection and the King of Terrors. These are found along the east and west walls of the old burial yard to the north of the kirkyard. Notable monuments include the Martyr's Monument; the Italianate monument to Sir George Mackenzie was designed by the architect James Smith, modelled on the Tempietto di San Pietro, designed by Donato Bramante. Duncan Ban MacIntyre's memorial was renovated in 2005, at a cost of about £3,000, raised by a fundraising campaign of over a year; the monument of John Byres of Coates, 1629, was one of the last works of the royal master mason William Wallace.
William Adam, with his son John Adam William Adam of Blair Adam, judge Alexander Adie FRSE optical instrument maker David Aikinhead, twice Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 1620–22 and 1625–30 William Annand and Dean of St Giles Cathedral John Bayne of Pitcairlie, Writer to the Signet Leslie Balfour-Melville golfer John Beugo, engraver Joseph Black, physician Rev Hugh Blair Sir James Hunter Blair, 1st Baronet Robert Blair, Lord Avontoun judge Very Rev Andrew Brown minister and historian of Nova Scotia George Buchanan and reformer James Buchanan of Drumpellier twice Lord Provost of Glasgow after whom Buchanan Street is named James Burnett, Lord Monboddo judge Sir John Byres of Coates Robert Cadell, publisher Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, nobleman General Duncan Campbell of Lochnell Sir Hugh Campbell of Cesnock, convenanter and MP for Ayrshire Aglionby Ross Carson FRSE, rector of the High School 1820-1845, author William Carstares and statesman Colonel Francis Charteris, notorious rake and member of the "Hell-fire" club Robert Chieslie Lord Provost who lost a fortune in the Darien scheme and died in Darien House - buried in MacKenzie's mausoleum alongside his murderer brother John Chiesley.
Prof Alexander Christison FRSE William Coulter, Lord Provost of Edinburgh Bishop William Cowper James Craig and designer of Edinburgh's New Town William Creech and Lord Provost of Edinburgh Andrew Crosbie and founding Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Sir Hugh Cunningham of Bonnington, Lord Provost of Edinburgh 1702-4 Prof Andrew Dalzell, FRSE Professor of Greek at Edinburgh University Charles Kemp Davidson, Lord Davidson Senator of the College of Justice Forrest Dewar surgeon, President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 1786/88 Alexander Donaldson and publisher. Admiral Sir Charles Douglas, 1st Baronet James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, Regent
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012