Mentioned in dispatches
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described. In some countries, a service member's name must be mentioned in dispatches as a condition for receiving certain decorations. Service men and women of the British Empire or the Commonwealth who are mentioned in despatches are not awarded a medal for their action, but receive a certificate and wear an oak leaf device on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal. A smaller version of the oak leaf device is attached to the ribbon. Prior to 2014 only one device could be worn on a ribbon, irrespective of the number of times the recipient was mentioned in despatches. Where no campaign medal is awarded, the oak leaf is worn directly on the coat after any medal ribbons. In the British Armed Forces, the despatch is published in the London Gazette. Before 1914 nothing was worn in uniform to signify a mention in despatches, although sometimes a gallantry medal was awarded.
For 1914–1918 and up to 10 August 1920, the device consisted of a spray of oak leaves in bronze worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Those who did not receive the Victory Medal wore the device on the British War Medal. Established in 1919, it was retrospective to August 1914, it was not a common honour with, for example, only twenty-five members of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment in the First World War mentioned in despatches. In all, 141,082 mentions were recorded in the London Gazette between 1914 and 1920. From 1920 to 1993, the device consisted of a single bronze oak leaf, worn on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal, including the War Medal for a mention during the Second World War; the Canadian Armed Forces still use the bronze oak leaf device. Since 1993 a number of changes have been made in respect of United Kingdom armed forces: For awards made from September 1993, the oak leaf has been in silver; the criteria were made more specific, it now being defined as an operational gallantry award for acts of bravery during active operations.
From 2003, in addition to British campaign medals, the MiD device can be worn on United Nations, NATO and EU medals. In a change introduced in 2014, up to three MiD devices may be worn on a single campaign medal and ribbon bar for those with multiple mentions, backdated to 1962. Prior to this change if the serviceman was mentioned in despatches more than once, only a single such device was worn. Prior to 1979, a mention in despatches was one of three awards that could be made posthumously, the others being the Victoria Cross and George Cross; the 1979 reform allowed. Soldiers can be mentioned multiple times; the British First World War Victoria Cross recipient John Vereker Field Marshal Viscount Gort, was mentioned in despatches nine times, as was the Canadian general Sir Arthur Currie. The Australian general Gordon Bennett was mentioned in despatches a total of eight times during the First World War, as was Field Marshal Sir John Dill. Below are illustrations of the MiD device being worn on a variety of campaign medal ribbons: Australian service personnel are no longer eligible to be mentioned in dispatches.
Since 15 January 1991, when the Australian Honours System was established, the MiD has been replaced by the Australian decorations: the Commendation for Gallantry and the Commendation for Distinguished Service. The equivalents of the MiD for acts of bravery by civilians and by soldiers not engaged with the enemy have been reformed; the reformed and comprehensive system is now as follows: The Commendation for Gallantry is now the fourth level decoration for gallantry. The Commendation for Brave Conduct recognises acts of bravery carried by soldiers not directly fighting the enemy and by civilians in war or peace; the Commendation for Distinguished Service, a third level distinguished service decoration, recognises distinguished general service, for exemplary performance in fields such as training and administration. A mention in dispatches – in French, Citation à l'ordre du jour – gives recognition from a senior commander for acts of brave or meritorious service in the field; the Mention in dispatches is among the list of awards presented by the Governor General of Canada.
Mention in dispatches has been used since 1947, in order to recognize distinguished and meritorious service in operational areas and acts of gallantry which are not of a sufficiently high order to warrant the grant of gallantry awards. Eligible personnel include all Army and Air Force personnel including personnel of the Reserve Forces, Territorial Army and other lawfully constituted armed forces, members of the Nursing Service and civilians working under or with the armed forces. Personnel can be mentioned in dispatches posthumously and multiple awards are possible. A recipient of a mention in a dispatch is entitled to wear an emblem, in the form of a lotus leaf on the ribbon of the relevant campaign medal, they are issued with an official certificate from the Ministry of Defence. Under the current Pakistani military honours system, the Imtiazi Sanad is conferred upon any member of the Pakistani Armed Forces, mentioned in dispatches for an act of gallantry that does not qualify for a formal gallantry award.
In 1920 the Minister of Defence of the Union of South Africa was empowered to award a multiple-leaved bronze oak leaf emblem to all servicemen and servicewomen mentioned in dispatches during the First World War for valuable services in action. The emblem, regarded as a decoration, was worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Only one emblem was
Armstrong Siddeley was a British engineering group that operated during the first half of the 20th century. It is best known for the production of luxury vehicles and aircraft engines; the company was created following the purchase by Armstrong Whitworth of Siddeley-Deasy, a manufacturer of fine motor cars, that were marketed to the top echelon of society. After the merge of companies this focus on quality continued throughout in the production of cars, aircraft engines, gearboxes for tanks and buses and torpedo motors, the development of railcars. Company mergers and takeovers with Hawker Aviation and Bristol Aero Engines saw the continuation of the car production but the production of cars ceased in August 1960; the company was absorbed into the Rolls-Royce conglomerate who were interested in the aircraft and aircraft engine business. The remaining spares and all motor car interests were sold to the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd, who now own the patents, designs and trademarks, including the name Armstrong Siddeley.
The Siddeley Autocar Company, of Coventry, was founded by John Davenport Siddeley in 1902. Its products were based on Peugeots, using many of their parts but fitted with English-built bodies; this company made stately Wolseley-Siddeley motorcars. They were used by Queen Alexandra and the Duke of York King George V. In 1909 J. D. Siddeley resigned from Wolseley and took over the Deasy Motor Company, the company became known as Siddeley-Deasy. In 1912, the cars used the slogan "As silent as the Sphinx" and started to sport a Sphinx as a bonnet ornament, a symbol that became synonymous with descendent companies. During the Second World War the company produced trucks and staff cars. In 1915 airframes and aero-engines started to be produced as well. In April 1919 Siddeley-Deasy was bought out by Armstrong Whitworth Development Company of Newcastle upon Tyne and in May 1919 became Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd, a subsidiary with J. D. Siddeley as managing director. In 1927, Armstrong Whitworth merged its heavy engineering interests with Vickers to form Vickers-Armstrongs.
At this point, J. D. Siddeley brought Armstrong Siddeley and Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft into his control. In 1928, Armstrong Siddeley Holdings bought Avro from Crossley Motors; that year Siddeley partnered with Walter Gordon Wilson, inventor of the pre-selector gearbox, to create Improved Gears Ltd, which became Self-Changing Gears – the gearbox that should be credited with enabling the marketing tagline "Cars for the daughters of gentlemen". Armstrong Siddeley manufactured luxury cars, aircraft engines, aircraft. In 1935, J. D. Siddeley's interests were purchased for £2 million by aviation pioneer Tommy Sopwith, owner of Hawker Aircraft, to form – along with the Gloster Aircraft Company and Air Training Services – Hawker Siddeley, a famous name in British aircraft production. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft and Armstrong Siddeley Motors became subsidiaries of Hawker Siddeley, with Sopwith himself becoming the new chairman of Armstrong Siddeley Motors. Armstrong Siddeley was merged with the aircraft engine business of Bristol Aeroplane Company to form Bristol Siddeley as part of an ongoing rationalisation under government influence of the British aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturers.
Armstrong Siddeley produced their last cars in 1960. Bristol Siddeley and Rolls-Royce merged in 1966, the latter subsuming the former which remained for a while as an aircraft engine division within Rolls-Royce. In June 1972, Rolls-Royce Ltd sold all the stock of spares plus all patents, drawings and the name of Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd to the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd; this meant that "Armstrong Siddeley" and "A-S Sphinx Logo" are trademarks and copyright of the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd. The "Siddeley" name survived a while longer in aviation, through Hawker Siddeley Aviation and Hawker Siddeley Dynamics. In 1977 they joined with others to become British Aerospace which with further mergers is now BAE Systems; the first car produced from the union was a massive machine, a 5-litre 30 hp. A smaller 18 hp appeared in 1922 and a 2-litre 14 hp was introduced in 1923. 1928 saw the company's first 15 hp six. This was a pioneering year for the marque, during which it first offered the Wilson preselector gearbox as an optional extra.
In 1930 the company marketed four models, of 12, 15, 20, 30 hp, the last costing £1450. The company's rather staid image was endorsed during the 1930s by the introduction of a range of six-cylinder cars with ohv engines, though a four-cylinder 12 hp was kept in production until 1936. In 1932 - or thereabouts, a line of special, rather more sporty designs was started which resulted in the Rally Tourer series; the aim was to help shake of the somewhat pedestrian image of what was in fact a rather advanced product. Of the 16 rally tourers built, many were used by the owners or senior directors, were entered into various rallies, achieving some good results and making for good publicity. Only one of those 16 special cars is now known to exist: a 1933, Long-15 Rally Tourer which, according to the records, shared the same body as the 20hp version. In 1933, the 5-litre six-cylinder Siddeley Special was announced, featuring a Hiduminium aluminium alloy engine. Car production continued at a reduced rate throughout 1940, a few were assembled in 1941.
The week that World War II ended in Europe, Armstrong Siddeley introduced its first post-war models.
Mark V tank
The British Mark V tank was an upgraded version of the Mark IV tank. It was first deployed in 1918, used in action during the closing months of World War I, in the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War on the White Russian side, by the Red Army, after they were captured; the tank was improved in several aspects, chiefly the new steering system and engine, but it fell short in other areas such as mechanical reliability and its insufficient ventilation. However, the Mark V was successful given its limited service history, primitive design; the Mark V was, at first, intended to be a new design of tank, of which a wooden mock-up had been completed. The designation "Mark V" was switched to an improved version of the Mark IV, equipped with the new systems; the original design of the Mark IV was to have been a large improvement on the Mark III, but had been scaled back due to technical delays. The Mark V thus turned out similar to the original design of the Mark IV – i.e. a modified Mark III.
Production of the Mark V started at Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon at the end of 1917. Four hundred were built, 200 Males and Females. Several were converted to Hermaphrodites by one female sponson; this measure was intended to ensure that female tanks would not be outgunned when faced with captured British male tanks in German use, or the Germans' own A7V. The Mark V was to be followed by the more advanced Tank Mark VI, but this was abandoned in December 1917, to ensure sufficient production by British and French factories of the Tank Mark VIII for a planned 1919 offensive. However, the war ended in November 1918, few Mark VIIIs would be built; the Mark V was the basis of the Mk IX Troop Carrier, a dedicated Armoured Personnel Carrier, but only 34 were completed by the end of the war. After the war, most of the British Army's tank units were disbanded, leaving five tank battalions equipped with either the Mark V or the Medium Mark C; the British Army's interest shifted more to lighter, faster tanks, the Mark V was replaced by the Vickers Medium Mark I during the mid-1920s.
The Vickers A1E1 Independent reached prototype stage in 1926, but it was abandoned for lack of funds. The remaining Mark Vs appear to have been replaced by medium tanks by the end of the decade. In early 1917, some British tanks were tested with experimental powerplant and transmissions ordered by Albert Stern; these included petrol-electric schemes, hydraulic systems, a multiple clutch system, an epicyclic gearbox from Major W. G. Wilson. Though the petrol-electrics had advantages, Wilson's design was capable of production and was selected for use in future tanks; the Mark V had more power from a new Ricardo engine. Use of Wilson's epicyclic steering gear meant. On the roof towards the rear of the tank, behind the engine, was a second raised cabin, with hinged sides that allowed the crew to attach the unditching beam without exiting the vehicle. An additional machine-gun mount was fitted at the rear of the hull; the Ricardo engine was still in the centre of the crew compartment which led to miserable crew conditions from its heat output.
The noise interfered with crew communication. The second problem with the Ricardo engine lack thereof; the Ricardo engine was of a somewhat unorthodox design, but it was efficient and, with proper care and attention, most of the issues could be mitigated. However, during combat proper maintenance, while important, was the least of the crew's concerns; the ventilation was the area. The previous Marks I-IV drew cooling air from inside the tank, through the radiator, expelled the air through a vent, which provided a constant supply of moving air for the crew. In contrast, the Mark V, drew air from outside the tank, across the radiator, expelled the air though a vent, which left the air inside the crew compartment stagnant; the only ventilation for the crew compartment, other than the driver and gunner view-ports, located on all sides of the tank, was a roof-mounted Keith fan. This fan was inadequate for maintaining a stable supply of clean air for the crew of a Mark V. In an attempt to stop the tank threat, the German Army began digging wider trenches that made it difficult for tanks to cross.
For example, trenches in the Hindenburg Line were widened to 11 or 12 feet, more than the British tanks' 10 feet trench-crossing ability. To counter this, Sir William Tritton developed the Tadpole Tail, an extension of the tracks to be fitted to the back of a tank, this lengthened the tank by about 9 feet, it was hoped that this longer tank might carry a squad of infantry with Vickers or Lewis machine guns, but the conditions inside were so extreme that the men became ill, after some early experiments, although several hundred were manufactured, the idea was abandoned. This in turn caused Major Philip Johnson of the Central Tank Corps Workshops to devise a plan of his own, he cut a Mark IV in half and inserted three extra panels, lengt
Percy Sinclair Pilcher was a British inventor and pioneer aviator, his country's foremost experimenter in unpowered flight at the end of the nineteenth century. He was planning a flight with a motor-driven hang glider, but died in the crash of another glider before he could make the attempt, his memorial is in a field opposite Stanford Hall. Percy Pilcher was born in Bath in 1866, served in the Royal Navy for seven years from 1880. Thereafter he became an apprentice with the shipbuilders, Randolph and Company, of Govan in Glasgow. In 1891 Pilcher began work as assistant lecturer at Glasgow University and took a growing interest in aviation, he built a hang glider called The Bat which he flew for the first time in 1895. These discussions led to Pilcher building The Beetle and The Gull. Based on the work of his mentor Otto Lilienthal, in 1897 Pilcher built a glider called The Hawk with which he broke the world distance record when he flew 250 m at the grounds of Stanford Hall near Lutterworth in Leicestershire, England.
Pilcher set his sights upon powered flight: he developed a triplane, to be powered by a 4 hp engine. Pilcher formed a company with Walter Gordon Wilson, to become a successful motor engineer and credited by the 1919 Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors as the co-inventor of the tank, along with Sir William Tritton. On 30 September 1899, having completed his triplane, he had intended to demonstrate it to a group of onlookers and potential sponsors in a field near Stanford Hall. However, days before, the engine crankshaft had broken and, so as not to disappoint his guests, he decided to fly the Hawk instead; the weather was stormy and rainy. Whilst flying, the tail snapped and Pilcher plunged 10 metres to the ground: he died two days from his injuries with his triplane having never been publicly flown, he is buried in west London. A stone monument to him stands in the field near Stanford Hall at the point where he crashed, a full-sized replica of his "The Hawk" glider is displayed at Stanford Hall.
The original Hawk is in the collections of National Museums Scotland. Pilcher is one of the unsuccessful aviation pioneers mentioned in the Marc Blitzstein composition The Airborne Symphony. In 2011 he was one of seven inaugural inductees to the Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame. Pilcher's plans were lost for many years, his name was long forgotten except by a few enthusiasts; when the centenary of the Wright brothers' flight approached, a new effort was made to find the lost work, some correspondence was found in a private American collection. From this it was possible to discern the basis of his design. Based on Lilienthal's work, Pilcher understood how to produce lift using winglike structures, but at this time a full mathematical description was years away, so many elements were still missing. In particular, Pilcher was stuck trying to design a wing that could lift the weight of an engine, the aircraft itself and the occupant – each increase in wing area increased the weight so much that yet more lift was required, requiring a larger wing – a vicious circle.
Pilcher's breakthrough, thanks to correspondence with another pioneer, Octave Chanute, was to stack smaller, lighter wings one atop the other in an arrangement we know today as the biplane or triplane. This allowed the wings to generate much more lift without a corresponding increase in weight. In 2003, a research effort carried out at the School of Aeronautics at Cranfield University, commissioned by the BBC2 television series "Horizon", has shown that Pilcher's design was more or less workable, had he been able to develop his engine, it is possible he would have succeeded in being the first to fly a heavier-than-air powered aircraft with some degree of control. Cranfield built a replica of Pilcher's aircraft and added the Wright brothers' innovation of wing-warping as a safety backup for roll control. Pilcher's original design did not include aerodynamic controls such as ailerons or elevator. After a short initial test flight piloted by the aircraft designer Bill Brookes, the craft achieved a sustained flight of 1 minute and 25 seconds, compared to 59 seconds for the Wright Brothers' best flight at Kitty Hawk.
This was achieved under dead calm conditions as an additional safety measure. A monument to Percy Pilcher is located at Upper Austin Lodge to the south of Kent, he flew his Hawk glider from this location. Aviation history A British Gliding Pioneer: The Experiments of Percy Pilcher Lots of info about Pilcher More info about Pilcher Guardian story about Pilcher The BBC Horizon programme's website about Pilcher
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Riley was a British motorcar and bicycle manufacturer from 1890. Riley became part of the Nuffield Organisation in 1938 and was merged into the British Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968. Ln July 1969 British Leyland announced the immediate end of Riley production, although 1969 was a difficult year for the UK auto industry and many cars from Riley's inventory may have been first registered in 1970. Today, the Riley trademark is owned by BMW; the business began as the Bonnick Cycle Company of England. In 1890 during the pedal cycle craze that swept Britain at the end of the 19th century William Riley Jr. who had interests in the textile industry purchased the business and in 1896 incorporated a company to own it named The Riley Cycle Company Limited. Cycle gear maker Sturmey Archer was added to the portfolio. Riley's middle son, left school in the same year and soon began to dabble in automobiles, he built his first car at 16, in 1898, because his father did not approve. It featured the first mechanically operated inlet valve.
By 1899, Percy Riley moved from producing motorcycles to his first prototype four-wheeled quadricycle. Little is known about Percy Riley's first "motor-car", it is, well attested that the engine featured mechanically operated cylinder valves at a time when other engines depended on the vacuum effect of the descending piston to suck the inlet valve open. That was demonstrated some years when Benz developed and patented a mechanically operated inlet valve process of their own but were unable to collect royalties on their system from British companies. In 1900, Riley sold a single three-wheeled automobile. Meanwhile, the elder of the Riley brothers, Victor Riley, although supportive of his brother's embryonic motor-car enterprise, devoted his energies to the core bicycle business. Riley's founder William Riley remained resolutely opposed to diverting the resources of his bicycle business into motor cars, in 1902 three of his sons, Victor and younger brother Allan Riley pooled resources, borrowed a necessary balancing amount from their mother and in 1903 established the separate Riley Engine Company in Coventry.
A few years the other two Riley brothers and Cecil, having left school joined their elder brothers in the business. At first, the Riley Engine Company supplied engines for Riley motorcycles and to Singer, a newly emerging motorcycle manufacturer in the area, but the Riley Engine Company soon began to focus on four-wheeled automobiles, their Vee-Twin Tourer prototype, produced in 1905, can be considered the first proper Riley car. The Riley Engine Company expanded the next year. William Riley reversed his former opposition to his sons' preference for motorised vehicles and Riley Cycle halted motorcycle production in 1907 to focus on automobiles. Bicycle production ceased in 1911. In 1912, the Riley Cycle Company changed its name to Riley Limited as William Riley focused it on becoming a wire-spoked wheel supplier for the burgeoning motor industry, the detachable wheel having been invented by Percy and distributed to over 180 motor manufacturers, by 1912 the father's business had dropped automobile manufacture in order to concentrate capacity and resources on the wheels.
Exploitation of this new and expanding lucrative business sector made commercial sense for William Riley, but the abandonment of his motor-bicycle and of his automobile business, the principal customer for his sons' Riley Engine Company enforced a rethink on the engine business. In early 1913, Percy was joined by three of his brothers to focus on manufacturing entire automobiles; the works was located near Percy's Riley Engine Company. The first new model, the 17/30, was introduced at the London Motor Show that year. Soon afterwards, Stanley Riley founded yet another business, the Nero Engine Company, to produce his own 4-cylinder 10 hp car. Riley began manufacturing aeroplane engines and became a key supplier in Britain's buildup for World War I. In 1918, after the war, the Riley companies were restructured. Nero joined Riley as the sole producer of automobiles. Riley Motor Manufacturing under the control of Allan Riley became Midland Motor Bodies, a coachbuilder for Riley. Riley Engine Company continued under Percy as the engine supplier.
At this time, Riley's blue diamond badge, designed by Harry Rush appeared. The motto was "As old as the industry, as modern as the hour." Riley grew through the 1920s and 1930s. The Riley Engine Company produced 4-, 6-, 8-cylinder engines, while Midland built more than a dozen different bodies. Riley models at this time included: Saloons: Adelphi,'Continental', Falcon, Mentone, Monaco, Victor Coupes: Ascot, Lincock Tourers: Alpine, Gamecock Sports: Brooklands, Imp, MPH, Sprite Limousines: Edinburgh, WinchesterIntroduced in 1926 in a humble but innovatively designed fabric bodied saloon, Percy Riley's ground-breaking Riley 9 engine- a small capacity, high revving unit- was ahead of its time in many respects. Having hemispherical combustion chambers and inclined overhead valves, it has been called the most significant engine development of the 1920s. With twin camshafts set high in the cylinder block and valves operated by short pushrods, it provided power and efficiency without the servicing complexity of an OHC layout.
It soon attracted the attention of builders of ` specials' intended for sporting purposes. One such was engineer/driver J. G. Pa
Tanks in World War I
The development of tanks in World War I was a response to the stalemate that had developed on the Western Front. Although vehicles that incorporated the basic principles of the tank had been projected in the decade or so before the War, it was the alarmingly heavy casualties of the start of its trench warfare that stimulated development. Research took place in both Great Britain and France, with Germany only belatedly following the Allies' lead. In Great Britain, an initial vehicle, nicknamed Little Willie, was constructed at William Foster & Co. during August and September 1915. The prototype of a new design that became the Mark I tank was demonstrated to the British Army on February 2 1916. Although termed "Landships" by the Landship Committee, production vehicles were named "tanks", to preserve secrecy; the term was chosen when it became known that the factory workers at William Foster referred to the first prototype as "the tank" because of its resemblance to a steel water tank. The French fielded their first tanks in April 1917 and produced far more tanks than all other countries, combined.
The Germans, on the other hand, began development only in response to the appearance of Allied tanks on the battlefield. Whilst the Allies manufactured several thousand tanks during the war, Germany deployed only 20 of its own; the first tanks were mechanically unreliable. There were problems that caused considerable attrition rates during combat transit; the shelled terrain was impassable to conventional vehicles, only mobile tanks such as the Mark IV and FTs performed reasonably well. The Mark I's rhomboid shape, caterpillar tracks, 26-foot length meant that it could negotiate obstacles wide trenches, that wheeled vehicles could not. Along with the tank, the first self-propelled gun and the first armoured personnel carrier were constructed in World War I; the conceptual roots of the tank go back to ancient times, with siege engines which were able to provide protection for troops moving up against stone walls or other fortifications. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the demonstrable power of steam, James Cowan presented a proposal for a Steam Powered Land Ram in 1855, towards the end of the Crimean War.
Looking like a helmet on'footed' Boydell wheels, early forerunners of the Pedrail wheel, it was an armoured steam tractor equipped with cannon and rotating scythes sprouting from the sides. Lord Palmerston is said to have dismissed it as'barbaric'. From 1904 to 1909, David Roberts, the engineer and managing director of Hornsby & Sons of Grantham, built a series of tractors using his patented'chain-track' which were put through their paces by the British Army, a section of which wanted to evaluate artillery tractors. At one point in 1908, Major William E. Donohue of the Mechanical Transport Committee remarked to Roberts that he should design a new machine with armour, capable of carrying its own gun. But, disheartened by years of fruitless tinkering for the Army, Roberts did not take up the idea. In years he expressed regret at not having pursued it. An engineer in the Austro-Hungarian Army, Lieutenant Gunther Burstyn, inspired by Holt tractors, designed a tracked armoured vehicle in 1911 carrying a light gun in a rotating turret.
The Austrian government said it would be interested in evaluating it if Burstyn could secure commercial backing to produce a prototype. Lacking the requisite contacts, he let it drop. An approach to the German government was fruitless. In 1912, a South Australian, Lancelot De Mole, submitted a proposal to the British War Office for a "chain-rail vehicle which could be steered and carry heavy loads over rough ground and trenches". De Mole made more proposals to the War Office in 1914 and 1916, with a culminating proposal in late 1917, accompanied by a huge one-eighth scale model, yet all fell on deaf ears. De Mole's proposal had the climbing face, so typical of the World War I British tanks, but it is unknown whether there was some connection. Inquiries to the government of Australia, after the war, yielded polite responses that Mr. De Mole's ideas had been too advanced for the time to be properly recognised at their just value; the Commission on Awards to Inventors in 1919, which adjudicated all the competing claims to the development of the tank, recognised the brilliance of De Mole's design considering that it was superior to the machines developed, but due to its narrow remit, could only make a payment of £987 to De Mole to cover his expenses.
De Mole noted in 1919 that he was urged by friends before the war to approach the Germans with his design, but declined to do so for patriotic reasons. Before World War I, motorized vehicles were still uncommon, their use on the battlefield was limited of heavier vehicles. Armoured cars soon became more commonplace with most belligerents in more open terrain. On August 23, 1914, the French Colonel Jean Baptiste Eugène Estienne a major proponent of tanks, declared: Messieurs, la victoire appartiendra dans cette guerre à celui des deux belligérants qui parviendra le premier à placer un canon de 75 sur une voiture capable de se mouvoir en tout terrain. Armored cars did indeed prove useful in op