Overhead camshaft abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves and pushrods. Compared with OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system that drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance and greater design flexibility; the fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the engine's ability to exchange induction and exhaust gases. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length.
The OHC design allows for higher engine speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs, as a result of having lower valvetrain mass. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output. Disadvantages of the OHC design include the complexity of the camshaft drive, the need to re-time the drive system each time the cylinder head is removed, the accessibility of tappet adjustment if necessary. In earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design. In an inline engine, this means there is one camshaft in the head, whilst in an engine with more than one cylinder head, such as a V engine or a horizontally-opposed engine – there are two camshafts, one per cylinder bank. In the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves traditionally via a bucket tappet. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads. Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure.
SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared with overhead valve designs when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. An example of an SOHC design using shim and bucket valve adjustment was the engine installed in the Hillman Imp, a small, early-1960s two-door saloon car with a rear-mounted aluminium-alloy engine based on the Coventry Climax FWMA race engines. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the same side of the engine block; this did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs. In the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder; the Toyota system used hydraulic tappets. The Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve-clearance adjustment; the multivalve Sprint version of the Triumph Slant-4 engine used a system where the camshaft was placed directly over the inlet valves, with the same cams that opened the intake valves directly opening the exhaust valves via rocker arms.
Honda used a similar valvetrain system in their motorcycles, using the term "Unicam" for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the inlet valve, indirectly, through a short rocker arm, on the exhaust valve; this allows a light valvetrain to operate valves in a flat combustion chamber. The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes and has been used on the Honda VFR1200 since 2010. A dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves; this design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with an SOHC engine, since the rocker arms are reduced in size or eliminated. A DOHC design exhaust valves than in SOHC engines; this can give a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds. DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug, which in turn improves combustion efficiency.
Engines having more than one bank of cylinders with two camshafts in total remain SOHC and "twin cam" unless each cylinder bank has two camshafts. Although the term "twin cam" is used to refer to DOHC engines, it is imprecise, as it includes designs with two block-mounted camshafts. Examples include the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam engine, Riley car engines from 1926 to the mid 1950s, Triumph motorcycle parallel-twins from the 1930s to the 1980s, Indian Chief and Scout V-twins from 1920 to the 1950s; the terms "multivalve" and "DOHC" do not refer to the same thing: not all multivalve engines are DOHC and not all DOHC engines are multivalve. Examples of DOHC engines with two valves per cylinder include the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, the Jaguar XK6 engine and the Lotus Ford Twin Cam engine. Most recent DOHC engines are multivalve, with between five valves per cylinder. More than two overhead camshafts are not known to have been tried in a production engine. However, MotoCzysz has designed a motorcycle engine with a triple overhead camshaft configuration, with the intake ports descending through the cylind
Coventry Climax was a British forklift truck, fire pump and other speciality engine manufacturer. The company was started in 1903 as Lee Stroyer, but two years following the departure of Stroyer, it was relocated to Paynes Lane and renamed as Coventry-Simplex by H. Pelham Lee, a former Daimler employee, who saw a need for competition in the nascent piston engine market. An early user was GWK, who produced over 1,000 light cars with Coventry-Simplex two-cylinder engines between 1911 and 1915. Just before World War I a Coventry-Simplex engine was used by Lionel Martin to power the first Aston Martin car. Ernest Shackleton selected Coventry-Simplex to power the tractors that were to be used in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914. Hundreds of Coventry-Simplex engines were manufactured during World War I to be used in generating sets for searchlights. In 1917 the company was moved to East Street, Coventry. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s they supplied engines to many companies manufacturing light cars such as Abbey, AJS, Ashton-Evans, Bayliss-Thomas, Crossley, Crouch, GWK, Morgan, Triumph and Standard.
In the 1920s the company moved to Friars Road, Coventry and in the late 1930s they acquired the former Riley premises on Widdrington Road, Coventry. In the early 1930s the company supplied engines for buses. With the closure of Swift in 1931, the company was left with a stock of engines that were converted to drive electric generators, giving the company an entry into a new field; the economic problems of the 1930s hit the business hard and Leonard Pelham Lee, who had taken over from his father, diversified into the production of water-pumping equipment and the "Godiva" was born. Going into the war, Coventry Climax used their marine diesel experience to further develop and build the Armstrong Whitworth supercharged H30 multifuel engine for military use; this has been fitted as an auxiliary engine in the British Chieftain and Challenger battle tanks and Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems. In the late 1940s, the company shifted away from automobile engines and into other markets, including marine diesels, fire pumps, forklift trucks.
In 1946, the ET199 was announced, which the company claimed was the first British-produced forklift truck. The ET199 was designed to carry a 4,000 lb load with a 24-inch load centre, with a 9 ft lift height. In 1950, Harry Mundy and Walter Hassan joined Coventry Climax, a new lightweight all-aluminium overhead camshaft engine was developed in response to the government's ambitious requisition outline asking for a portable fire pump, capable of pumping double the amount of water specified in the previous outline, with half the weight; this was designated the FW, for "Feather Weight". The engine was displayed at the Motor Show in London and attracted attention from the motor racing fraternity for its high "horsepower per pound of weight". With strong persuasions at the show including those by Cyril Kieft and a young Colin Chapman, Lee concluded that success in competition could lead to more customers for the company and so the team designed the FWA, a Feather Weight engine for Automobiles; the first Coventry Climax racing engine appeared at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans in the front of one of two Kieft 1100 sports racers, but both cars failed to finish the race due to problems unrelated to the engines.
The FWA became popular in sportscar racing and was followed by the Mark II and by the FWB which had a capacity of nearly 1.5-litres. The new Formula Two regulations suited the 1.5-litre engine and it became the engine to have in F2 racing. The following year, the first Climax engines began to appear in Formula One in the back of Cooper chassis; these were FWBs but the FPF engine followed. Stirling Moss scored the company's first Formula One victory, in Argentina in 1958, using a 2-litre version of the engine. In general terms, the engines were not powerful enough to compete with the 2.5-litre machinery and it was not until the 2.5-litre version of the FPF arrived in 1959 that Jack Brabham was able to win the world championship in a Cooper-Climax. At the same time, the company produced the FWE engine for Lotus Elite and this enjoyed considerable success in sports car racing, with a series of class wins at the Le Mans events in the early 1960s. In 1961, there was a new 1.5-litre formula and the FPF engine was given a new lease on life, although the company began work on a V8 engine, designated the FWMV, this began winning races in 1962 with Jim Clark.
There were a total of 22 Grand Prix victories before 1966 with crossplane, two- and four-valve versions of the FWMV. When the new, 3-litre, formula was introduced, Coventry Climax decided not to build engines for the new formula and withdrew from racing after the unsuccessful FWMW project, with the exception of the new 2-Litre version of the FWMV. In the early 1960s, Coventry Climax was approached by Rootes to mass-produce FWMAs for use in a compact family car project called Apex with an all-aluminium alloy over head cam engine combined with a full-syncromesh aluminium transaxle; this combination was considered radical at the time the syncromesh on all forward gears, declared'impossible' by Alec Issigonis of BMC Mini fame. The adoption to mass-production was successful, the project came out to the market as the 875cc Hillman Imp totaling over 400,000 units made by 1976 including the 998cc version. At Earls Court in 1962 Coventry Climax' chairman Leonard Pelham Lee announced the withdrawal from building Formula 1 e
Joel Woolf Barnato was a British financier and racing driver, one of the "Bentley Boys" of the 1920s. He achieved three consecutive wins out of three entries in the 24 Hours of Le Mans race; the youngest son of Fanny Bees and Barney Barnato, who had made a fortune as a "Randlord" in South African diamond and gold mining, he was a relative of the Joel family of entrepreneurs. Born at Spencer House, 27 St James's Place, London, he had a sister Leah Primrose and brother Isaac "Jack" Henry; the family divided their time between London, Colwyn Bay and South Africa. In 1897, when Woolf two years old, his father died near Madeira during a sea crossing from South Africa to London; the official verdict was suicide. Woolf hence inherited his father's fortune at the time, but with the monies placed in trust, he only inherited his first instalment of £250,000, in 1914 aged 19. In addition, Woolf benefited from a further inheritance after the murder of Woolf Barnato Joel in Johannesburg in 1898. Barnato was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.
Barnato's attitude to a new sport that took his interests, was to immerse himself in the learning process, practising endlessly and taking lessons only from the best instructors he could find. His desire to excel at whatever he attempted was considerable, he collected prizes for motor boat racing, using his Bentley-powered boat'Ardenrun V', a good amateur boxer and a keen shot. He bred horses whilst at his house Ardenrun, hunted with the Old Surrey and Burstow Foxhounds, he was a strong swimmer, played tennis to'country house level'. He took golf lessons at Coombe Hill Golf Club, Surrey, with the club professional Archie Compston, a friend of King Edward VIII. Barnato served as an officer in the Royal Field Artillery, British Army in World War I. Serving in France and Palestine, he attained the rank of captain in the latter stages of the war. Having claimed a share of the business's profits from 1897 to 1916, in 1917 he broke off his business arrangements with the Joels. After a long legal dispute in South Africa, Woolf settled for £900,000 plus £50,000 in costs.
He sued his family for the £50,000, as well as £23,883 for disbursements. Following settlement of the case, Barnato played first-class cricket, appearing as wicket-keeper with Surrey County Cricket Club from 1928 to 1930. Barnato acquired his first Bentley in 1925, just 12 months before he acquired the business itself. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races, he was a member of a social set of wealthy British motorists known as the "Bentley Boys" who favoured the cars of W. O. Bentley. Many were independently wealthy with a background in military service. Barnato was nicknamed "Babe", in ironic deference to his heavyweight boxer's build. Inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his finance and investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the company and its workforce. A subsequent agreed wind-up of the original Bentley company was agreed, with all existing creditors paid off for £75,000, but with existing shares devalued from £1.00 each to just 1 shilling, or 5% or their original value.
Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares, meaning that he controlled the company, became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 as a debenture in July 1927. With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars, the six-cylinder 6½ Litre. However, the supercharged 4½ Litre, which Barnato pushed through against Bentley's wishes, had poor durability and failed on the track; the Wall Street Crash of 1929 affected the Bentley business with the Great Depression reducing demand for the company's expensive products. In July 1931 two mortgage payments on the firm that were guaranteed by Barnato fell due, accepting the inevitable, he advised the lenders that he was "unable to meet these debts." On 10 July, on the application of the mortgagee, the court appointed a Receiver to Bentley Motors Limited. After a period where it appeared that Napier was going to acquire the business, the firm passed into the hands of Rolls-Royce in November 1931 for the sum of £125,000 after a sealed bid auction.
Barnato received around £42,000 in return for his shares in the business, having bought a sizeable stake in Rolls-Royce not long before Bentley Motors was liquidated. By 1934 he was again on the board of Bentley Motors Ltd. Barnato first went motor racing in 1921, when after importing an eight-litre Locomobile from the United States, he signed-up to race at the Brooklands Easter meeting. Having come third in the 100-mile Long Handicap, he swapped to a Calthorpe to compete in the following Whitsun meeting. For the 1922 season he bought a 1921 chassis Talbot directly from its owner/driver Malcolm Campbell, for 1923 a Sir Alastair Miller customised-racing Wolseley Racing Moth. At the start of the 1924 season Barnato obtained an eight-litre Hispano-Suiza H6C chassis, which he commissioned Jarvis of Wimbledon to build a suitable racing body for. Barnato established an eight-litre class racing record for the car. In late 1924 he obtained a prototype Bentley 3 Litre chassis, subsequently fitted with a boat-tail body by Jarvis for a cost of £400.
Barnato used the car to win several major Brooklands races, partnered by John Duff set a new 3 Litre 24-hour record averaging 95.03 miles per hour at
Jaguar XK6 engine
The Jaguar XK6 is an inline 6-cylinder dual overhead camshaft engine produced by Jaguar Cars between 1949 and 1992. Introduced as a 3.4-litre, it earned fame on both the road and track, being produced in five displacements between 2.4 and 4.2-litres for Jaguar passenger cars, with other sizes being made by Jaguar and privateers for racing. A de-rated version was used in certain military vehicles built by Alvis and Daimler. Prior to World War II, SS Cars used three engines produced by the Standard Motor Company: a 1.5-litre 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines of 2.5 and 3.5 litres. Sir William Lyons and his engine designers. Rather than developing prototype engines after the war, it is claimed that Jaguar's wartime engine developments went far beyond mere discussion and design, extending to the construction and testing of several prototype engines as early as 1943; the initial aim was to produce a series of engines of higher than normal output that would be able to stay ahead of the competition without revision for many years and which Sir William insisted had to "look good".
In 1942-43, a range of configurations was considered and it was concluded that, for good breathing and high bmep, the new engines would need vee-opposed valves operating in hemispherical combustion chambers. Two configurations of this type were selected for comparison in 1943 and the prototypes named "XG" and "XF"; the XG 4-cylinder of 1,776 cc, first tested in October 1943, was based on the 1.5-litre Standard block and used its single cam-in-block to operate the opposed valves via a complicated crossover pushrod arrangement, similar to that of the pre-war BMW 328. The XF 4-cylinder of 1,732 cc used the now familiar dual overhead cam configuration and was first tested in November 1944; the XG was found to suffer from excessive pushrod and rocker noise and gas flow figures through its vertical valve ports did not equal those of the horizontal ports on the XF. Therefore, from these two options, the DOHC XF layout was selected. 4-cyl engine development progressed as follows: XG Pushrod engine 73 x 106 x 4 1776 cc May to Nov 1944 XF 75 x 98 x 4 1732 cc Nov 1944 to Jun 1945 XK1 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Oct 1945 to Nov 1946 XK2 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Feb to Sep 1946 XK3 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Dec 1946 to Feb 1947 XK4 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Nov 1946 to Dec 1947 Gardner Engine 1970 cc 1948 XK Number 1 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1949-1952 XK Number 2 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1950-1952 XK 5-bearing crank 1970 cc 1953By September 1947 a 3.2-litre 6-cylinder version had been produced, called the "XJ 6-cylinder", intended to replace both Standard-based 6-cylinder units.
Testing showed the need for higher torque at low speeds than this engine could produce and hence it was'stroked' to 3,442 cc to form the "XK 6-cylinder", which saw its debut in an open two-seat XK120 sports car at the 1948 London Motor Show. Following this the XK6 powered a number of other models in subsequent years; the XG prototype soldiered on as a component testbed until 1948. There existed an "XK 4-cylinder" of 1,790 cc first tested in October 1945 and remaining under development alongside the XK 6-cylinder units. At the time of William Heynes' paper presented to the IMechE in February 1953, the XK 4-cylinder was still referred to as being under development, it was only dropped as a possible production engine in 1953, by which time it had been realised that Jaguar's image in the market had moved beyond the need for a replacement for the old 1.5-litre Standard 4-cylinder unit. Because the 6-cylinder XK prototypes were found to be so much more refined than the 4-cylinder versions, in 1951 a 1,986 cc 6-cylinder version of the XK 6-cylinder was built to see if it would suffice as a smaller scale engine.
By 1954 this had grown to 2,483 cc and it was this short-block version of the XK 6-cylinder, fitted to the new compact Jaguar 2.4-litre released in that year. None of the 4-cylinder prototypes advanced to production but Lt. Col. Goldie Gardner's speed record team did fit a 1970 cc version to the MG streamliner EX-135 in 1948 to take the 2,000 cc class record at 177 mph, on the Jabbeke motorway in Belgium. There are some misleading claims of an intervening "XJ" 4-cyl prototype but it seems the only person who referred to them as such was William Heynes in a paper presented to the IMechE in 1953. Heynes stated there were many 4-cyl variants following the XF but it was he alone who loosely grouped them as XJ; the last mention of XF was in July 1945 and the first mention of XK was in October of the same year. This doesn't give much room for a series of XJ engines. There are no mentions of XJ in the archive. If there is a XJ, the first one is to have been referred to as XK1 internally. There were three others of nominally 1790 cc capacity called XK2, XK3 & XK4.
It is these are what Heynes referred to as "XJ". The
Airport crash tender
An airport crash tender is a specialised fire engine designed for use in aircraft rescue and firefighting at aerodromes and military air bases. Airport crash tenders are powerful machines, they offer good acceleration for their size and weight, are able to negotiate rough terrain outside the airport area, carry large capacities of water and fire fighting foam, are fitted with powerful high-capacity pumps and water/foam cannons, are capable of delivering firefighting media over long distances. They can be mounted on 4x4, 6x6, or 8x8 wheeled chassis. In order to decrease their turning radius, the 8x8 wheeled unit may have all four front wheels steerable. Newer airport crash tenders incorporate twin-agent nozzles/injection systems to inject a stream of Purple-K dry chemical into the AFFF firefighting foam stream, knocking-down the fire faster; some have Halotron tanks with handlines for situations that require a clean agent to be utilized. These features give the airport crash tenders a capability to reach an airplane and put out large fires with jet fuel involved.
Some tenders have an elevated extended extinguishing arm, giving a possibility to raise a water/foam cannon into the height of 10 to 20 meters, that can puncture through superficial structures of an aeroplane to fight a fire inside the fuselage. Some arms have a reinforced nozzle, called a snozzle, according to the United States National Transportation Safety Board is a "piercing nozzle on the fire truck, used to penetrate an airplane's fuselage and dispense AFFF to extinguish fire inside the cabin or cargo area." The International Civil Aviation Organization has given standards and recommended practices on rescue fire fighting categories of civil aerodromes. National aviation authorities may have given further requirements on aerodrome rescue and fire services; the rescue fire services are based on a critical aircraft based on a statistical analysis of movements on the airport. The aerodrome category is based on the size of the biggest aircraft taking a movement on the aerodrome. In addition, the number of movements of the critical aircraft is calculated, the category can be decreased by one if the number of movements is lower than the standard describes.
For example, at an airport handling Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 aircraft with a single Boeing 777 service per week, the airport fire service has to cater up to the ICAO category 7 of the 737 and A320. There are minimum category levels based on e.g. the number of seats in the critical aircraft. Depending on the airport category, the standards determine the minimum number of rescue fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, requirements are given on the water and foam capacities, discharge rates for foam solutions, minimum dry chemical powder amounts, reserve stocks of fire fighting agents, ability to operate on rough terrain, acceleration of the air crash tenders; the end of each runway has to be achieved in a response time of two minutes, any part of the movement area has to be achieved in a response time not exceeding three minutes. Airport rescue and firefighting services operate many specialist vehicles to provide emergency cover at airports, they include: 1) Crash tenders 2) "Domestic" type fire appliances.
Domestic appliances are similar in function and appearance to fire appliances operated by county fire services / departments. They are not as heavy as airport crash tenders; the units are ordinarily used to respond to fire incidents in airport terminal buildings but respond to aircraft incidents. The appliances carry Breathing Apparatus, rescue equipment, firefighting media, cutting equipment. 3) "First attack" or "rapid intervention vehicles". RIVs are smaller, nimble fire appliances capable of quick acceleration and high speed, they carry less equipment than Domestic and Crash Tenders but arrive first on scene at aircraft incidents to begin rescue and firefighting operations whilst heavier / larger units approach. 4) General purpose vehicles. Oshkosh Striker Water salute
Holloway is an inner-city district of the London Borough of Islington, 3.3 miles north of Charing Cross, which follows the line of the Holloway Road. At the centre of Holloway is the Nag's Head commercial area which sits between the more residential Upper Holloway and Lower Holloway neighbourhoods. Holloway has a multicultural population, it is the home of Arsenal F. C.. Holloway is in the historic county of Middlesex; the origins of the name are disputed. In Lower Holloway, the former Back Road, now Liverpool Road was used to rest and graze the cattle before entering London. Others believe the name derives from Hallow and refers to the road's historic significance as part of the pilgrimage route to Walsingham. No documentary evidence can be found to support either derivation; the main stretch of Holloway Road runs through the site of the former villages of Tollington and Stroud. The exact time of their founding is not known, but the earliest record of them dates from the Domesday Book; the names ceased to be used by the late 17th century, but are still preserved in the local place names Tollington Park and Stroud Green.
The original route, from London, led through Tollington Lane, but such was the state of this road by the 14th century, that the Bishop of London built a new road up Highgate Hill, was claiming tolls by 1318. This was the origins of the Great North Road, now the A1; until the 18th century the area was predominantly rural, but as London expanded in the second half of the 19th century it became built-up. Holloway, like much of inner north London, experienced rapid growth around the early 1900s and became an important local shopping centre; this was aided by the importance of the road junction at Nag's Head which became an important hub for trolleybus services up to their withdrawal in the 1950s. The London and North Eastern Railway opened a station here, which had a significant impact on the residential and commercial development of the neighbourhood in the latter part of the 19th century; the station, now closed, was at the same spot as the current Holloway Road tube station, on the Piccadilly line.
In 1921, the first sexual health clinic for women in the whole of the UK was opened in Holloway by Marie Stopes. The Mothers' Clinic at 61 Marlborough Road, North London, opened on 17 March 1921; the clinic was supported by visiting doctors. It offered mothers birth control advice, taught them birth control methods and dispensed Stopes own "Pro-Race" brand cervical cap; the free clinic was open to all married women for knowledge about reproductive health. Stopes opposed abortion. In the late 1930s, the Odeon cinema on the junction of Tufnell Park Road and Holloway Road was built as a Gaumont but was damaged by a doodlebug during the Second World War, it has undergone extensive refurbishment but retains its impressive foyer and staircase. It is Grade II listed. During the Second World War, parts of Holloway experienced intense bombing due to its proximity to King's Cross railway station. Holloway was home to HMP Holloway in Parkhurst Road, first built in 1852 housing both male and female prisoners, from 1902 until its closure in 2016 housed only women and was the UK's major female prison.
Prisoners, held at the original prison include Ruth Ellis, Isabella Glyn, Christabel Pankhurst and Oscar Wilde. The site is due to be redeveloped. Like many other parts of Islington, the gentrification of Holloway is now under way in the Hillmarton and Mercers Road/Tavistock Terrace conservation areas. There are many luxury development projects taking place over a large area between the Arsenal stadium development and Caledonian Road. In addition, Islington London Borough Council have earmarked many improvement projects for the Nag's Head area over the next decade, it is home to the large, sprawling Andover housing estate. Near to Holloway Road tube station is the North Campus of London Metropolitan University; this includes Stapleton House and the Learning Centre. Another prominent feature in Holloway is the Emirates Stadium, home of Arsenal F. C; the area is home to many artists and people who work in the media, including many journalists and professionals working in film and television. It is known as a hotspot for many of London's graffiti artists.
At the 2001 census, the population of Holloway was 41,329, of 52 % female. It is home to a multicultural population and is one of the most densely populated areas of London. Edward Lear Artist, illustrator and poet, was born and brought up in Holloway. Joe Meek Legendary Telstar record producer, sound engineer, audio inventor, lived and died at 304 Holloway Road N7 - produced the first record by a British rock group to reach number one in the US Hot 100. Spent five weeks at number one in the UK singles chart. John Lydon born 31 January 1956 AKA Johnny Rotten - Singer songwriter musician with The Sex Pistols and PIL Public Image Limited grew up in Benwell Road, in the Holloway area of north London. Kaya Scodelario, actress. Douglas Adams wrote the novel The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy at 19 Kingsdown Road Ton
London Metropolitan University
London Metropolitan University known as London Met, is a public research university in London, England. The University of North London and London Guildhall University merged in 2002 to create the university. With roots going back to 1848, it is one of London's oldest educational institutions; the university has campuses in the City of London and in the London Borough of Islington, a museum and libraries. Special collections include the TUC Library, the Irish Studies Collection and the Frederick Parker Collection. London Metropolitan University was formed on 1 August 2002 by the merger of London Guildhall University and the University of North London. In October 2006 the University opened a new Science Centre as part of a £30m investment in its science department at the North campus on Holloway Road, with a "Super Lab" claimed to be one of Europe's most advanced science teaching facilities, 280 workstations equipped with digital audio visual interactive equipment. In 1848 Charles James Blomfield, the Bishop of London, called upon the clergy to establish evening classes to improve the moral and spiritual condition of young men in London.
In response, the bishop Charles Mackenzie, who instituted the Metropolitan Evening Classes for Young Men in Crosby Hall, London, with student fees at one shilling per session. Subjects on the original curriculum included Greek, Hebrew, History, Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; this fledgling college came under royal patronage following the visit of Prince Albert to the classes in 1851. In 1860 the classes moved to Sussex Hall, the former Livery Hall of the Bricklayers' Company, in Leadenhall Street. By this time, some 800 students were enrolled annually. In 1861 the classes were named the City of London College. Over the next twenty years, the College was one of the pioneers in the introduction of commercial and technical subjects; the college built new premises in White Street at a cost of £16,000 and were opened in 1881. In 1891 the college joined Birkbeck Institute and the Northampton Institute to form the City Polytechnic by a Charity Commissioners' scheme to facilitate funding for these institutions by the City Parochial Foundation, to enable the three institutions to work cooperatively.
However this attempted federation did not function in practice, as each institution continued to operate more or less independently. The City Polytechnic concept was dissolved in 1906 and the City of London College came under the supervision of London County Council. In December 1940 the college's building was destroyed by a German air raid. City of London College subsequently moved into premises at 84 Moorgate in 1944. In 1948, the City of London College celebrated its centenary with a service of thanksgiving addressed by the Archbishop of Canterbury at St Paul's Cathedral. In 1970 the college merged with Sir John Cass College to form the City of London Polytechnic. In 1977 it became the home of the Fawcett Society library, afterwards the Women's Library. Under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 the Polytechnic was awarded university status, it was renamed London Guildhall University, to demonstrate its links with the City of London and the City's many guilds/livery companies. It was unassociated based at the Barbican Centre.
It was ranked 30th out of the UK's 43 new universities in the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise. In August 2004, in the midst of a contract dispute with former LGU staff following the merger with the University of North London, it was reported that the management of the merged institution had ordered the destruction of the entire print run of a history of the university – London Guildhall University: From Polytechnic to University – authored by Sean Glynn a senior research fellow in the department of Politics and Modern History; the former LGU campus is now the city campus and is located at the intersection of the City of London financial district and the old East End, near Aldgate East, Tower Hill and Liverpool Street tube stations. There are buildings located at Minories, Jewry Street, Central House, Whitechapel High Street, Calcutta House, Commercial Road and Goulston Street. There is a gymnasium for the use of staff and students at the Whitechapel High St. building, Founded as the Northern Polytechnic Institute in 1896, it merged in 1971 with the North Western Polytechnic, established in 1929, to become the Polytechnic of North London.
Until the passing of the Education Reform Act 1988, the Polytechnic was under the control of the Inner London Education Authority – part of the Greater London Council and awarded the degrees of the former Council for National Academic Awards. Under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, the institution, a pioneer of widening participation and access to higher education, was granted university status and the right to award its own degrees. Following the merger with London Guildhall University, London Metropolitan University became the largest unitary university in Greater London; the former UNL campus is now the North campus and is located on Holloway Road, near Holloway Road and Highbury & Islington tube stations. In May 2008, London Metropolitan University presented the 14th Dalai Lama with an Honorary Doctorate of Philosophy, for "promoting peace globally"; this move caused controversy among the Chinese public and the overseas Chinese community, who view th