Martins Ferry, Ohio
Martins Ferry is a city in Belmont County, United States, on the Ohio River. It is the largest city in Belmont County; the population was 6,915 as of the 2010 census. Martins Ferry is part of the Wheeling Metropolitan Statistical Area. Martins Ferry is the oldest European settlement in the state of Ohio, having been settled at least as early as 1779 a decade before Marietta; the community was a westward extension of the city of Wheeling, but at that time, settlement on the west bank of the Ohio River was not permitted. Through the years, it has been known as Hoglinstown, Norristown, Jefferson and Martin's Ferry. Squatters from across the Ohio were the earliest settlers; the settlement formed in the shadow of Virginia's Fort Henry on the Virginia side of the Ohio, built in 1774. The town was disbanded a couple of times before becoming established as Norristown in 1785. In 1795, the town of Jefferson was platted by Absalom Martin, one of the city's earliest settlers, who operated a ferry there. In 1801, he abandoned his plat when St. Clairsville was selected as the county seat of the newly organized county of Belmont, one of the founding territories of the Northwest Territory.
In 1835, Ebenezer Martin, the son of Absalom Martin, redesigned the town, which he called "Martinsville", with a grid system of streets, much of which survives to this day. Martinsville remained an unincorporated settlement for a long time, it was incorporated as a village in 1865 and renamed Martin's Ferry for Ebenezer's father's ferry. It was chartered as a city in 1885, sometime the apostrophe was dropped from the city's name; the city developed as an important industrial center during the late 19th century and early 20th century. It became an important rail river port. Over the past 50 years, the town's population has decreased as industries have closed or moved elsewhere. Today, the city's population is less than half of. Martins Ferry is at 40°5′57″N 80°43′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.33 square miles, all land. The town is built on two basic plateaus between the Ohio River; the lower plateau, along the river, is dominated by a large industrial park, the Martins Ferry Football Stadium, Ohio State Route 7.
The higher plateau, the larger of the two, is predominantly residential and commercial, is home to most of the city's residents. It rises to a steep hillside in the west that forms a natural wall. Directly across the river lies the city of Wheeling, West Virginia, to the east is the Pennsylvania state line; the city of Columbus, Ohio, is 125 miles to the west, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is 59 miles northeast of the city. On the southern end of town, Martins Ferry is directly connected to the village of Bridgeport; as of the census of 2010, there were 6,915 people, 3,022 households, 1,787 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,967.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,431 housing units at an average density of 1,472.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.6% White, 5.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race 0.7% of the population. There were 3,022 households of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.9% were non-families.
35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 42.1 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.8% male and 53.2% female. During the census of 2000, there were 7,226 people, 3,202 households, 1,959 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,345.1 people per square mile. There were 3,680 housing units at an average density of 1,703.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.19% White, 5.11% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population. There were 3,202 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.2% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families.
35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,960, the median income for a family was $32,365. Males had a median income of $30,486 versus $21,979 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,672. About 16.1% of families and 18.3% of the population were below the poverty line, includi
Asa Long was an American checkers player, winner of multiple US Championships, spanning more than sixty years, a one-time World Champion. Asa A. Long was born in Antwerp, Ohio in 1904; as a child he learned the game of checkers. At 16, Long won the state tournament and at 18 he became the youngest person to win the US national championship. In the 1920s, Long began to devoting himself to studying the game in more depth as he had in essence been a remarkable amateur, it is said. After that, LOng would go on to win the world title in 1934, he became less active in the mid-1940s and in 1948 lost to Walter Hellman, a player from Indiana whom he had beaten before. In the 1970s Long's involvement revived and in 1984 he became the oldest person to win the US championship in a surprise victory; this gave him the record as both oldest national champion. In 1992, Long played his last important match, against the Chinook computer. Before that he had mentored Marion Tinsley who would defeat Long with consistency and be deemed the greatest player in the history of the game.
Asa Long was a grandmaster for 70 years in total. In 1929, Long married Isabel who died in 1979, he had two surviving sons with her and had grandchildren. Long credited his inner calm to his Christian faith, he lived in Ohio for most of his life. Reprint of an article in The Times Profile of Asa Long by Richard Fortman Another profile of Asa Long Asa Long at Find a Grave
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
English draughts or checkers called American checkers or straight checkers, is a form of the strategy board game draughts. It is played on an 8×8 chequered board with 12 pieces per side; the pieces move and capture diagonally forward, until they reach the opposite end of the board, when they are crowned and can thereafter move and capture both backward and forward. As in all forms of draughts, English draughts is played by two opponents, alternating turns on opposite sides of the board; the pieces are red, or white. Enemy pieces are captured by jumping over them; the 8×8 variant of draughts was weakly solved in 2007 by the team of Canadian computer scientist Jonathan Schaeffer. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play. Though pieces are traditionally made of wood, now many are made of plastic, though other materials may be used. Pieces are flat and cylindrical, they are invariably split into one lighter colour. Traditionally and in tournaments, these colours are red and white, but black and red are common in the United States, as well as dark- and light-stained wooden pieces.
The darker-coloured side is referred to as "Black". There are two classes of pieces: kings. Men are single pieces. Kings consist of two men of the same colour, stacked one on top of the other; the bottom piece is referred to as crowned. Some sets have pieces with a crown molded, engraved or painted on one side, allowing the player to turn the piece over or to place the crown-side up on the crowned man, further differentiating kings from men. Pieces are manufactured with indentations to aid stacking; each player starts with 12 men on the dark squares of the three rows closest to that player's side. The row closest to each player is crownhead; the player with the darker-coloured pieces moves first. Turns alternate. There are two different ways to move in English draughts: Simple move: A simple move consists of moving a piece one square diagonally to an adjacent unoccupied dark square. Uncrowned pieces can move diagonally forward only. Jump: A jump consists of moving a piece, diagonally adjacent an opponent's piece, to an empty square beyond it in the same direction.
Men can jump diagonally forward only. A jumped piece is removed from the game. Any piece, king or man, can jump a king. Multiple jumps are possible, if after one jump, another piece is eligible to be jumped—even if that jump is in a different diagonal direction. If more than one multi-jump is available, the player can choose which piece to jump with, which sequence of jumps to make; the sequence chosen is not required to be the one. Jumping is always mandatory: if a player has the option to jump, he must take it if doing so results in disadvantage for the jumping player. For example, a mandated single jump might set up the player such that the opponent has a multi-jump in reply. If a man moves into the kings row on the opponent's side of the board, it is crowned as a king and gains the ability to move both forward and backward. If a man jumps into the kings row, the current move terminates. A player wins by capturing all of the opponent's pieces or by leaving the opponent with no legal move; the game ends by agreement.
In tournament English draughts, a variation called. The first three moves are drawn at random from a set of accepted openings. Two games are played with each player having a turn at either side; this can make for more exciting matches. Three-move restriction has been played in the U. S. championship since 1934. A two-move restriction was used from 1900 until 1934 in the United States and in the British Isles until the 1950s. Before 1900, championships were played without restriction, a style is called Go. One rule of long standing that has fallen out of favour is the huffing rule. In this variation jumping is not mandatory, but if a player does not take their jump, the piece that could have made the jump is blown or huffed, i.e. removed from the board. After huffing the offending piece, the opponent takes their turn as normal. Huffing has been abolished by both the American Checker Federation and the English Draughts Association. Two common rule variants, not recognised by player associations, are:Capturing with a king precedes capturing with a man.
In this case, any available capture can be made at the player's choice. A man that has jumped to become a king, can in the same turn continue to capture other pieces in a multi-jump. There is a standardised notation for recording games. All 32 reachable board squares are numbered in sequence; the numbering starts in Black's double-corner. Black's squares on the first rank are numbered 1 to 4. Moves are recorded as "from-to", so a move from 9 to 14 would be recorded 9-14. Captures are notated with an "x" connecting the end squares; the game result is abbreviated as BW/RW or WW. White resigned after Black's 46th move. [Event "1981 World Championship
Gary is a city in Lake County, United States, 25 miles from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary borders southern Lake Michigan. Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation; the city is known for its large steel mills, as the birthplace of the Jackson 5 music group. The population of Gary was 80,294 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in the state of Indiana, it was a prosperous city from the 1920s through the mid-1960s due to its booming steel industry, but overseas competition and restructuring of the steel industry resulted in a decline and a severe loss of jobs. Since the late 1960s, Gary has suffered drastic population loss, falling by 55 percent from its peak of 178,320 in 1960; the city faces the difficulties of many Rust Belt cities, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all houses in the city are abandoned. Gary, was founded in 1906 by the United States Steel Corporation as the home for its new plant, Gary Works.
The city was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. Gary was the site of civil unrest in the steel strike of 1919. On October 4, 1919, a riot broke out on Broadway, the main north-south street through downtown Gary, between striking steel workers and strike breakers brought in from outside. Three days Indiana governor James P. Goodrich declared martial law. Shortly thereafter, over 4,000 federal troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood arrived to restore order; the jobs offered by the steel industry provided Gary with rapid growth and a diverse population within the first 26 years of its founding. According to the 1920 United States Census, 29.7% of Gary's population at the time was classified as foreign-born from eastern European countries, with another 30.8% classified as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. By the 1930 United States Census, the first census in which Gary's population exceeded 100,000, the city was the fifth largest in Indiana and comparable in size to South Bend, Fort Wayne, Evansville.
At that time, 19.3% of the population was classified as foreign-born, with another 25.9% as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. In addition to white internal migrants, Gary had attracted numerous African-American migrants from the South in the Great Migration, 17.8% of the population was classified as black. 3.5% was classified as Mexican. Gary's fortunes have fallen with those of the steel industry; the growth of the steel industry brought prosperity to the community. Broadway was known as a commercial center for the region. Department stores and architecturally significant movie houses were built in the downtown area and the Glen Park neighborhood. In the 1960s, like many other American urban centers reliant on one particular industry, Gary entered a spiral of decline. Gary's decline was brought on by the growing overseas competitiveness in the steel industry, which had caused U. S. Steel to lay off many workers from the Gary area; the U. S. Steel Gary Works employed over 30,000 in 1970, declined to just 6,000 by 1990, further declined to 5,100 in August 2015.
Attempts to shore up the city's economy with major construction projects, such as a Holiday Inn hotel and the Genesis Convention Center, failed to reverse the decline. Rapid racial change occurred in Gary during the late 20th century; these population changes resulted in political change which reflected the racial demographics of Gary: the non-white share of the city's population increased from 21% in 1930, 39% in 1960, to 53% in 1970. Non-whites were restricted to live in the Midtown section just south of downtown. Gary had one of the nation's first African-American mayors, Richard G. Hatcher, hosted the ground-breaking 1972 National Black Political Convention. Since the 1930s, Gary had developed a reputation as a tough city due to rampant political corruption, racial violence & segregation, labor unrest, industrial pollution. In the 1960s through the 1980s, surrounding suburban localities such as Merrillville, Crown Point and Valparaiso experienced rapid growth, including new homes and shopping districts.
Owing to white flight, economic distress, a perception of skyrocketing crime, many middle-class and affluent residents moved to other cities in the metro area. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gary had the highest percentage of African-Americans of U. S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more, 84%. This no longer applies to Gary since the population of the city has now fallen well below 100,000 residents; as of 2013, the Gary Department of Redevelopment has estimated that one-third of all homes in the city are unoccupied and/or abandoned. U. S. Steel continues to be a major steel producer, but with only a fraction of its former level of employment. While Gary has failed to reestablish a manufacturing base since its population peak, two casinos opened along the Gary lakeshore in the 1990s, although this has been aggravated by the state closing of Cline Avenue, an important access to the area. Today, Gary faces the difficulties of a Rust Belt city, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels.
Gary has closed several of its schools within the last ten years. While some of the school buildings have been reused, most remain unused since their closing; as of 2014, Gary is consid
Marion Franklin Tinsley was an American mathematician and checkers player. He is considered to be the greatest checkers player who lived. Tinsley was world champion 1955–1958 and 1975–1991 and never lost a world championship match, lost only seven games in his 45-year career, he withdrew from championship play during the years 1958–1975, relinquishing the title during that time. It was said that Tinsley was "to checkers what Leonardo da Vinci was to science, what Michelangelo was to art and what Beethoven was to music." Tinsley was born in Ironton and was the son of a school teacher and a farmer who became a sheriff. He "felt unloved" by his parents. To gain the affection of his parents, he competed in spelling bees as a child, he said of his parents disapproval: "And as a twig is bent, it grows: As I grew up, I still kept feeling that way."He skipped four of his first eight grades. Tinsley had a doctorate from Ohio State University in the mathematical discipline of combinatorial analysis, he worked as a professor of mathematics at Florida A&M University.
Tinsley once claimed to have spent 10,000 hours studying checkers while in graduate school. Tinsley served as a lay preacher in the Disciples of Christ church. 8-time world champion: 1954, 1955, 1958, 1979, 1981, 1985, 1987, 1989 1-time world champion: 1952 Tinsley retired from championship play in 1991. In August 1992, he defeated the Chinook computer program 4–2 in a match. Chinook had placed second at the U. S. Nationals in 1990, which qualifies one to compete for a national title. However, the American Checkers Federation and the English Draughts Association refused to allow a computer to play for the title. Unable to appeal their decision, Tinsley resigned his title as World Champion and indicated his desire to play against Chinook; the unofficial yet publicized match was organized, was won by Tinsley. In one game from their match in 1990, playing with white pieces, made a mistake on the tenth move. Tinsley remarked, "You're going to regret that." Chinook resigned after move 36, only 26 moves later.
The lead programmer Jonathan Schaeffer looked back into the database and discovered that Tinsley picked the only strategy that could have defeated Chinook from that point and Tinsley was able to see the win 64 moves into the future. The ACF and the EDA were placed in the awkward position of naming a new world champion, a title which would be worthless as long as Tinsley was alive; the ACF granted Tinsley the title of World Champion Emeritus as a solution. In August 1994, a second match with Chinook was organized, but Tinsley withdrew after only six games for health reasons. Don Lafferty, rated the number two player in the world at the time, replaced Tinsley and fought Chinook to a drawn match at game 20. Tinsley was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer a week after the match, died seven months later. Tinsley died in Humble, Texas, on April 3, 1995, at the age of 68, he lived in Conyers, but was visiting his sister in Texas when he died of cancer. He was survived by a twin sister, Mary Clark, who lives in Humble, by two brothers, Ed, of Sarasota, Fla. and Joe, of Thornville, Ohio.
He is buried at Greenlawn Cemetery, Ohio, next to his father, Edward H. Tinsley, buried on November 19, 1948, his mother, Viola Mae Tinsley, buried on June 1, 1987, his brother, Harold Edward Tinsley is buried there, was buried on July 6, 2007. In 1957, Tinsley appeared. List of draughts players University of Alberta article on Tinsley Marion Tinsley at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Marion Tinsley at Find a Grave
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC