Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. For 2015, the Census Bureaus Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 281,944, Newark is the second largest city in the New York metropolitan area, located approximately 8 miles west of lower Manhattan. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest European cities in the United States and its location at the mouth of the Passaic River, has made the citys waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark-Elizabeth is the container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal airport in the United States. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible. com, IDT Corporation, the U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well.
Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, The Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five wards, the East, South and Central wards. Newarks Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nations largest collection of cherry blossom trees, Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. It was conceived as an assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31,1693 it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27,1713. It was incorporated on February 21,1798 by the New Jersey Legislatures Township Act of 1798, during its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11,1836, replacing Newark Township, the previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1,1905.
In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood, as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known as Ivy Hill was re-annexed to Newarks Vailsburg. During the American Revolutionary War British troops made several raids into the town, the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had an area of 26.107 square miles. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, the citys altitude ranges from 0 in the east to approximately 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is essentially a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, Newarks high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i. e. genre, design and style. This includes the arts of painting and architecture as well as the minor arts of ceramics, furniture. As a term, art history encompasses several methods of studying the arts, in common usage referring to works of art. One branch of this area of study is aesthetics, which includes investigating the enigma of the sublime, art history is not these things, because the art historian uses historical method to answer the questions, How did the artist come to create the work. Who were his or her teachers, who were his or her disciples. What historical forces shaped the artists oeuvre, and How did he or she and the creation, in turn, affect the course of artistic and social events. It is, questionable whether many questions of this kind can be answered satisfactorily without considering basic questions about the nature of art, unfortunately the current disciplinary gap between art history and the philosophy of art often hinders this inquiry.
Art history is not only a biographical endeavor, Art historians often root their studies in the scrutiny of individual objects. They thus attempt to answer in historically specific ways, questions such as, what meaning did this object convey. Did the artist meet their goals well, the historical backbone of the discipline is a celebratory chronology of beautiful creations commissioned by public or religious bodies or wealthy individuals in western Europe. Such a canon remains prominent, as indicated by the selection of objects present in art history textbooks, since the 20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline to be more inclusive of non-Western art, art made by women, and vernacular creativity. Art history as we know it in the 21st century began in the 19th century but has precedents that date to the ancient world, advances in photographic reproduction and printing techniques after World War II increased the ability of reproductions of artworks. Such technologies have helped to advance the discipline in profound ways, the study of visual art thus described, can be a practice that involves understanding context and social significance.
Art historians employ a number of methods in their research into the ontology, Art historians often examine work in the context of its time. In short, this approach examines the work of art in the context of the world within which it was created, Art historians often examine work through an analysis of form, that is, the creators use of line, color and composition. This approach examines how the artist uses a picture plane or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space to create his or her art. The way these individual elements are employed results in representational or non-representational art, is the artist imitating an object or image found in nature. The closer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the art is realistic, is the artist not imitating, but instead relying on symbolism, or in an important way striving to capture natures essence, rather than copy it directly
Order of Leopold (Belgium)
The Order of Leopold is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood. It is the highest order of Belgium and is named in honour of King Leopold I and it consists of a military, a maritime and a civilian division. The maritime division is awarded to personnel of the merchant navy. The decoration was established on 11 July 1832 and is awarded for bravery in combat or for meritorious service of immense benefit to the Belgian nation. The Order of Leopold is awarded by royal decree, when Belgium became independent of the Netherlands, there was a urgent need to create a national honour system that could serve as a diplomatic gift. The first King of the Belgians, Leopold I of Belgium, two years after the independence, the young King officially founded the dynastic Order of Leopold. The king approved the colour and grades both civil and military, and the official motto L’Union fait la Force/Eendracht maakt Macht, in the early 19th century, the court sent the Grand Cordon as a diplomatic gift.
The founder gave his French family grand Cordons as wedding gifts, people who fought in the Belgian revolution became members in great numbers. In 1838 the King lost his right to create members, this was on the responsibility of the foreign office. At the end of his reign the major political elite were members of the order, King Leopold II gifted major Belgian artists and clergy into the order. At the end of World War I, the Order became internationally recognised for its famous members, the order was bestowed as a personal marriage gift by the King Leopold II to Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern and Ernst Gunther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1878 the King named several diplomatic dignitaries Grand cordon in honour of his wedding celebration. In 1919 King Albert granted all Lieutenant-Generals of the Belgian Army the Grand Cordon in Brussels, one of the rare Ladies in the order was Countess Renée de Merode. The Order can be bestowed post-mortem, for example, Emile Verhaeren received the Grand Cordon after his death, people can lose the order, for example what happened during World War I with Alfred Wotquenne.
After the Second World War, the Order of Leopold was bestowed on the officers of foreign militaries who had helped to liberate Belgium from the occupation of German forces. Most illustrious was the grand Cordons with Palms given by the King to Sir Winston Churchill, the medal was granted to Karel Bossart in 1962, and Josip Broz Tito in 1970. Annually, there are two days when the King normally grants membership, on April 8 and on November 15. During state visits, the Order of Leopold is the most important diplomatic gift of the state, in 2015 some protest was noted when King Philippe offered the Grand Cordon to President Erdogan of Turkey during his state visit in Belgium
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Bedford Hills, New York
Bedford Hills is a hamlet in the Town of Bedford, Westchester County, New York, United States. The population was 3,001 at the 2010 census, which lists the community as a census-designated place, the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility for Women is located in the hamlet. When the railroad was built in 1847, Bedford Hills was known as Bedford Station, Bedford Hills is the seat of government of the Town of Bedford. The Town House, built in 1927, and Town buildings containing the Police Department, the Richard H. Mandel House, designed by Edward Durell Stone, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Bedford Hills is the site of Stepping Stones, the home of Alcoholics Anonymous co-founder Bill W. and his wife Lois Burnham Wilson. The home, located at 62 Oak Road in Katonah, is on the National Register of Historic Places, Bedford Hills is located at 41°14′12″N 073°41′40″W and its elevation is 341 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, Bedford Hills has an area of 1.006 square miles.
The newspaper began publishing in 1995, the Record-Review web site is www. record-review. com. Bedford Hills Elementary School is a K-5 school which many children in the town attend, the Bedford Hills Free Library is located in Bedford Hills and is a member of the Westchester Library System. In May 2010, Bedford Hills celebrated its centennial with a number of events, including a scavenger hunt. Glenn Close, actress Michael Douglas and Catherine Zeta-Jones, kimya Dawson, musician Nan Hayworth, former Congresswoman. Julie Strauss-Gabel, editor of acclaimed young adult literature
Delft School (painting)
Not to be confused with the Delft School of architecture. The Delft School is a category of mid-17th-century Dutch Golden Age painting named after its main base and it is best known for genre painting, images of domestic life, views of households, church interiors, courtyards and the streets of that city. Carel Fabritius and Nicolaes Maes are seen as the originators of these localised specialties in the 1640s that were continued in the 1650s by Pieter de Hooch, Vermeer is the most famous of these painters today. The architectural interiors of Gerard Houckgeest, Emanuel de Witte and Hendrick Cornelisz, van Vliet are notable contributions. Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School, the School of Delft at Essential Vermeer Vermeer and the Delft School Vermeer and the Delft School Vermeer and the Delft School, by Walter Liedtke
Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet
Hendrick Corneliszoon van Vliet was a Dutch Golden Age painter remembered mostly for his church interiors. He studied under his uncle Willem van der Vliet and was admitted to the guild in Delft in 1632. He was good at perspective but took up painting with Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt. Van Vliet started out with architectural painting, particularly the painting of church interiors, before him, architectural painting had been pioneered by Pieter Saenredam, who introduced innovative techniques of perspective. By mid century, architectural painting gained great popularity, among the churches painted by Van Vliet are the Pieterskerk in Leiden, the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft, and the Oude Kerk in Delft. Emanuel de Witte and Gerard Houckgeest, painted these Delft church interiors, paintings of the tomb of William the Silent were quite popular
Rutgers was chartered as Queens College on November 10,1766. It is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution, for most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church. The college expanded its role in research and instruction in agriculture, engineering and it gained university status in 1924 with the introduction of graduate education and further expansion. However, Rutgers evolved into a public research university after being designated The State University of New Jersey by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. It is one of two colonial colleges that became public universities. Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey, the New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, the university has additional facilities elsewhere in New Jersey. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate, through several years of effort by the Rev.
Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and Rev. The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the community until 1959. New Brunswick was chosen as the location over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population, despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion. When the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, in its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queens College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton, in 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, called Old Queens, designed by architect John McComb, Jr. The colleges third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27,1809, shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, and shared facilities with Queens College.
During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens, in 1830, the Queens College Grammar School moved across the street, and in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre tract less than one-half miles away. According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values, the Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and divide into the College of Engineering and the College of Agriculture. Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, with the development of graduate education, and the continued expansion of the institution, the collection of schools became Rutgers University in 1924. Rutgers College continued as an arts college within the university. Rutgers was designated the State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956, shortly after, the University of Newark was merged with Rutgers in 1946, as were the College of South Jersey and South Jersey Law School, in 1950.
These two institutions became Rutgers University–Newark and Rutgers University–Camden, respectively, on September 10,1970, after much debate, the Board of Governors voted to admit women into Rutgers College
Pieter Jansz. Saenredam
Saenredam was a painter of the Dutch Golden Age, known for his distinctive paintings of whitewashed church interiors. Saenredam was born in Assendelft, the son of the Northern Mannerist printmaker, in 1612 Saenredam moved permanently to Haarlem, where he became a pupil of Frans de Grebber. In 1614 he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, a painting in the British Museum by his friend Jacob Van Campen shows him to be very short and hunch backed. He was a contemporary of the painter-architects Jacob van Campen, Salomon de Bray, Saenredam specialized in the representation of church interiors. These pictures were based on measurements of the building and meticulously-rendered sketches, done on site, in pencil, pen. Painting took place in the studio, often years after the studiee were made, started to create his paintings, often after a delay of many years. Unlike de Wittes, Saenredams views are usually aligned with a main axis of the church. Although Utrecht was the centre of the remaining Catholic population of the mainly Calvinist United Provinces, the drawing for Saenredam’s Interior of St.
Martins Cathedral, Utrecht is typical. As a Catholic church the Cathedral had been highly decorated, then, in the Dutch Revolt the church fell into Protestant hands, it was ‘cleaned’ of Catholic influences. The altarpieces and statuary were removed, and the walls and ceiling were white washed, in any case, Saenredam wanted to record this time of change by documenting the country’s buildings. Many artists before him had specialized in imaginary and fanciful architecture, according to the J. Paul Getty Trust Saenredam’s church paintings…owe their poetry to his remarkable blend of fact and fiction. He began by making drawings of buildings that record measurements. This meticulous preparation helped him to create accurate and enchanting paintings. The measurements aided him in using scientific linear perspective, just like Andrea Pozzo and he was able to use his measurements to create a realistic image with depth. There are a number of his works in British collections. In 2000-2001 the Centraal Museum at Utrecht held an exhibition of his drawings and paintings.
Perhaps his best known works are a pair of oil paintings both titled Interior of the Buurkerk, Utrecht. One hangs in Londons National Gallery, the other in the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, in their simplicity and semi-abstract formalism, they foreshadow more modern works such as those of Mondrian and Feininger
Valhalla, New York
Valhalla is a hamlet and census-designated place located within the town of Mount Pleasant, in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. Its population was 3,162 at the 2010 U. S. Census, the name comes from Valhalla, a heavenly abode in Norse mythology. According to local historians and published works, the wife of a postmaster was a fan of the works of the composer Richard Wagner. Her preference led to the choice of the name Valhalla, after the paradise of slain warriors in that mythology. It is most generally agreed that Xavier Reiter, a French horn player with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, the village still maintains its association with death through noted people who were buried in its cemeteries. Initially 250 acres in size, the cemetery was expanded to 600 acres in 1905, but reduced to 460 acres in 1912, when a portion of its land was sold to the neighboring Gate of Heaven Cemetery. It is where the remains lie of Herbert Howard Booth, the son of the Salvation Army founder William Booth and it is the resting place of Harriet Quimby, Americas first certified female pilot.
Famous Pakistani delegate to the United Nations, Professor Syed Ahmed Shah Bukhari known by his pen name Patras Bokhari is buried there. On July 12,2006, the Westchester tornado, an F2 event, touched down in nearby Hawthorne and proceeded to move into Valhalla and this was one of the strongest tornadoes the area had ever seen, as tornadoes of this magnitude are mostly in the Midwest. Power lines were knocked down, and hundreds of trees were uprooted, there were no deaths, but much of Valhalla changed as a result. On September 11,2006, a memorial to September 11 victims was dedicated at the Kensico Dam by Westchester County, the piece, known as The Rising, honors the 109 county residents who were killed in the terrorist attacks. In July 2007, Valhalla hosted the ceremony of the 2007 Empire State Games. The ceremony was held at the Kensico Dam honoring the athletes, eSPNs Jeremy Schaap was a keynote speaker. On February 3,2015, in the Valhalla train crash, the crash caused six deaths and 15 injuries, including seven serious.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the hamlet has an area of 0.81 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,379 people,1,847 households, the population density was 2,010.6 per square mile. There were 1,886 housing units at a density of 704. 9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the hamlet was 95. 85% White,0. 76% African American,0. 07% Native American,2. 12% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 30% from other races, and 0. 87% from two or more races