Battle of Calais (1349)
The Battle of Calais in 1349 was an incident during the Hundred Years' War when a French army under Geoffrey de Charny attempted to bribe Amerigo of Pavia, an officer of the garrison of English-occupied Calais, to open a gate for them, in the early morning of either 31 December 1349 or 2 January 1350. The English had been forewarned by Amerigo, their king, Edward III led his household knights and the Calais garrison in a surprise counterattack; the French were routed by this smaller force, with significant losses and all of their leaders captured. That day Edward III dined with the highest ranking captives, treating them with royal courtesy except for Charny, whom he taunted with having abandoned his chivalric principles by both fighting during a truce and by attempting to purchase his way into Calais rather than fight; as Charny was considered a paragon of knightly behaviour and was the author of several books on chivalry the accusations struck deep. They were repeated in subsequent English propaganda.
Two years having been ransomed from English captivity, Charny was placed in charge of a French army on the Calais front. He used it to storm a small fortification commanded by Amerigo, taken captive to Saint-Omer and publicly tortured to death. Since the Norman Conquest of 1066, English monarchs had held titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals of the kings of France; the status of the English king's French fiefs was a major source of conflict between the two monarchies throughout the Middle Ages. French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose. Over the centuries, English holdings in France had varied in size, but by 1337 only Gascony in south western France and Ponthieu in northern France were left. Following a series of disagreements between Philip VI of France and Edward III of England, on 24 May 1337, Philip's Great Council in Paris agreed that the Duchy of Aquitaine Gascony, should be taken back into Philip's hands on the grounds that Edward was in breach of his obligations as a vassal.
This marked the start of the Hundred Years' War, to last one hundred and sixteen years. After nine years of inconclusive but expensive warfare, Edward III landed with an army in northern Normandy in July 1346, his army undertook a devastating chevauchée through Normandy, including the capture and sack of Caen. On 26 August the French army of Philip VI was defeated with heavy loss at the Battle of Crécy. Edward III needed a defensible port where his army could be resupplied from the sea; the Channel port of Calais suited this purpose. Calais was defensible: it boasted a double moat, it would provide a secure entrepôt into France for English armies. The port could be resupplied by sea and defended by land. Edward's army laid siege to Calais in September 1346. Philip VI failed to relieve the town, the starving defenders surrendered on 3 August 1347, it was the only large town besieged by either side during the first thirty years of the Hundred Years' War. In November 1348 the Truce of Calais was agreed between the French kings.
In May 1349 it was extended for twelve months. Calais was vital to England's effort against the French for the rest of the war, it being all but impossible to land a significant force other than at a friendly port, it allowed the accumulation of supplies and materiel prior to a campaign. A ring of substantial fortifications defending the approaches to Calais were constructed, marking the boundary of an area known as the Pale of Calais; the town had an large standing garrison of 1,400 men a small army, under the overall command of the Captain of Calais. They had specialist under-officers; these included Amerigo of Calais' galley master. Geoffrey de Charny, a senior and well known Burgundian knight in French service, had spent much of 1348 and 1349 in Picardy. Amerigo had served the French, de Charny approached him to betray Calais in exchange for a bribe; the truce facilitated contact and Charny reasoned that as a commoner by birth Amerigo would be more susceptible to avarice and as a non-Englishman he would have fewer scruples regarding treachery.
In late 1349 Charny came to an agreement with him to deliver up Calais in exchange for 20,000 écus. However, Amerigo reported the plan on 24 December at Havering near London. Edward responded gathering what troops he could and sailing for Calais. Charny meanwhile gathered a large force, some 5,500 men including most of the nobility of north east France, at Saint-Omer, 25 miles from Calais. Charny's force marched for Calais on the evening of 1 January 1350. Long before dawn they approached the town's western gate-tower; the gate was open, Amerigo emerged to greet them. He exchanged his son for the first installment of his bribe and led a small advance party of French knights into the gatehouse. Shortly a French standard was unfurled atop a tower of the gatehouse and more French crossed the drawbridge over the moat; the drawbridge partially sawn through, was broken by a large rock rolled from the wall above it, a portcullis fell in front of the French and sixty English knights surrounded them. All of the French were captured.
With a cry of "Betrayed", half of
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The London Charterhouse is a historic complex of buildings in Smithfield, dating back to the 14th century. It occupies land to the north of Charterhouse Square, lies within the London Borough of Islington; the Charterhouse began as a Carthusian priory, founded in 1371 and dissolved in 1537. Substantial fragments remain from this monastic period, but the site was rebuilt after 1545 as a large courtyard house. Thus, today it "conveys a vivid impression of the type of large rambling 16th century mansion that once existed all round London"; the Charterhouse was further altered and extended after 1611, when it became an almshouse and school, endowed by Thomas Sutton. The almshouse still occupies the site today under the name The Charterhouse. In 1348, Walter de Manny rented 13-acre of land in Spital Croft, north of Long Lane, from the Master and Brethren of St Bartholomew's Hospital for a graveyard and plague pit for victims of the Black Death. A chapel and hermitage were renamed New Church Haw; the twenty-five monks each had their own garden.
Thomas More came to the monastery for spiritual recuperation. The name is derived as an Anglicisation of La Grande Chartreuse; the monastery was closed in the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the English Reformation. As it resisted dissolution the monastery was treated harshly: the Prior, John Houghton was hanged and quartered at Tyburn and ten monks were taken to the nearby Newgate Prison, they constitute the group known as the Carthusian Martyrs. For several years after the dissolution of the priory, members of the Bassano family of instrument makers were amongst the tenants of the former monks' cells, whilst Henry VIII stored hunting equipment in the church. But, in 1545, the entire site was bought by Sir Edward North, who transformed the complex into a luxurious mansion house. North built the Great Hall and adjoining Great Chamber. In 1558, during North's occupancy, Queen Elizabeth I used the house during the preparations for her coronation. Following North's death, the property was purchased by Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, who renamed it Howard House.
In 1570, following his imprisonment in the Tower of London for scheming to marry Mary, Queen of Scots, Norfolk was placed under house arrest at the Charterhouse. He occupied his time by embellishing the house, built a long terrace in the garden leading to a tennis court. In 1571, Norfolk's involvement in the Ridolfi plot was exposed after a ciphered letter from Mary, Queen of Scots was discovered under a doormat in the house; the property passed to Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk. During his occupancy, James I held court there on his first entrance into London in 1603. In May 1611 it came into the hands of Thomas Sutton of Knaith, Lincolnshire, he was appointed Master of Ordnance in Northern Parts, acquired a fortune by the discovery of coal on two estates which he had leased near Newcastle upon Tyne, upon moving to London, he carried on a commercial career. Before he died on 12 December of that year, he endowed a hospital on the site of the Charterhouse, calling it the Hospital of King James.
In the Case of Sutton's Hospital, his will was hotly contested but upheld in court, meaning the foundation was constituted to afford a home for eighty male pensioners, to educate forty boys. Charterhouse early established a reputation for excellence in hospital care and treatment, thanks in part to Henry Levett, M. D. an Oxford graduate who joined the school as physician in 1712. Levett was esteemed for his medical writings, including an early tract on the treatment of smallpox, he was buried in Charterhouse Chapel, his widow married Andrew Tooke, the master of Charterhouse. The school, Charterhouse School, developed beyond the original intentions of its founder, to become a well-regarded public school. In 1872, under the headmastership of Rev. William Haig Brown, the school moved to new buildings in the parish of Godalming in Surrey, opening on 18 June. Following the departure of Charterhouse School, its buildings, on the site of the former monastic great cloister, were taken over by Merchant Taylors' School, until that moved out in turn in 1933 to a new site near Northwood, Hertfordshire.
The school buildings became home to the St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School, remain one of the sites occupied by its successor and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry. The main part of the cloister garth continues to be a well-tended site laid to lawn in the quadrangle of the university site; the principal historic buildings of the Charterhouse were damaged by enemy action in May 1941, during the Blitz. They were sensitively restored between 1950 and 1959 under the direction of the architects John Seely and Paul Paget, an exercise which allowed the exposure and embellishment of some medieval and much 16th- and 17th-century fabric, concealed or obs
Joanna of Flanders
Joanna of Flanders was Duchess of Brittany by her marriage to John of Montfort. Much of her life was taken up in defence of the rights of her husband and son to the dukedom, challenged by the House of Blois during the War of the Breton Succession. Known for her fiery personality, Joanna led the Montfortist cause after her husband had been captured, began the fight-back, showing considerable skill as a military leader. Shortly after taking refuge in England, she was confined to Tickhill Castle by order of King Edward III. Joanna was praised by the chronicler Jean Froissart for her courage and energy; because of her feats of leadership, David Hume described her as "the most extraordinary woman of the age". Joanna was the daughter of Louis I, Count of Nevers and Joan, Countess of Rethel, the sister of Louis I, Count of Flanders, she married John of Monfort in March 1329. John of Monfort claimed the title of Duke of Brittany, although his claim was contested by Joan of Penthièvre and her husband, Charles of Blois.
Joanna and John had two children: John IV, Duke of Brittany Joan of Brittany, Baroness of Drayton, born at the onset of the War of the Breton Succession, married before 21 October 1385 to Ralph Basset, 4th Baron Basset de Drayton When John III, Duke of Brittany died childless in 1341, he left behind a contentious succession dispute. For many years he tried to find means to ensure that the children of his stepmother, Yolande of Dreux would not inherit the Duchy, including trying to have her marriage to his father annulled. At this time he declared his heir to be his niece Joan of Penthièvre; however he reconciled with his half brother, John of Monfort, shortly before his death, indicated that he was to be the successor. Thus upon the death of Duke John III, there were two rival claimants for Brittany: the House of Montfort, led by John of Montfort and his wife Joanna, the House of Blois led by Charles of Blois and his wife Joan of Penthièvre. John of Montfort went to Paris to be heard by King Philip VI of France.
Philip was an uncle of Charles, he imprisoned John, despite having given him a promise of safe conduct. Philip and the French courts declared Joan and Charles to be the true heirs to the Duchy. Joanna announced her infant son as the leader of the Montfortist faction, she captured Redon. From there she went to Hennebont. Charles of Blois besieged the town, she sent Amaury de Clisson to ask King Edward III of England for aid. This, Edward was eager to give, since he had been claiming the French crown for himself, was therefore at odds with Philip. If he could get Brittany as an ally, this would be of great advantage for future campaigns, he prepared ships under the command of Sir Walter Manny to relieve the siege. In the siege of Hennebont, she took up arms and, dressed in armour, conducted the defence of the town, encouraging the people to fight, urging the women to "cut their skirts and take their safety in their own hands"; when she looked from a tower and saw that the enemy camp was unguarded, she led three hundred men on a charge, burned down Charles' supplies and destroyed his tents.
After this she became known as "Jeanne la Flamme". When the Blois faction realised what was happening, they cut off her retreat to the town, but she and her knights rode to Brest, drawing a portion of the Blois force with them. Having secured Brest, she gathered together extra supporters and secretly returned to Hennebont, evading the Blois forces and re-entering the town with her reinforcements. Charles of Blois tried to starve the people in Hennebont. During a long meeting the bishop of Leon tried to persuade Joanna to surrender, but from the window she saw Walter Manny's fleet from England sailing up. Hennebont was held out. Charles tried to isolate Joanna by taking other towns in Brittany. On his return he again failed to capture Hennebont. Joanna sailed to England to seek further reinforcements from King Edward, which he provided, but the English fleet was intercepted on its way to Brittany by Charles of Blois' ally, Louis of Spain. In a hard-fought battle, the sailors and knights grappled in hand-to-hand combat as Louis' men attempted to board Joanna's ship.
According to Froissart, Joanna fought in person "with the heart of a lion, in her hand she wielded a sharp glaive, wherewith she fought fiercely". The English forces beat off Louis's ships and made harbour near Vannes, her forces captured Vannes, besieged Rennes and sought to break the siege of Hennebont. From this point Joanna played little direct part in the fighting, as her faction was now being led by English warlords. With neither side able to achieve a decisive victory, by the truce of Malestroit in 1343, her husband John was released and hostilities ceased for a period, he was imprisoned once again, but escaped and resumed the conflict. When her husband died in 1345 in the midst of the war, she again became the leader of the Montfort party to protect the rights of her son John V against the House of Blois. In 1347, English forces acting on her behalf captured Charles of Blois in battle. By this time Joanna and her son were living in England. In England, after being welcomed with honor, she was confined by order of King Edward III and spent the rest of her life in confinement at Tickhill Castle and elsewhere.
King Edward III entrusted her to the care of Sir William Frank until 1346, Thomas Haukeston, John Delves and to his widow Isabella and Godfrei Foljambe. Arthur de la Borderie attributed her confinement to mental illness, but more recent research finds no evidence she wa
The Burghers of Calais
Les Bourgeois de Calais is a sculpture by Auguste Rodin, one of his best known, that exists in twelve original castings, numerous copies. It commemorates an event during the Hundred Years' War, when Calais, a French port on the English Channel, was under siege by the English for about eleven months. Calais commissioned Rodin to create the sculpture in 1884 and the work was completed in 1889. In 1346, England's Edward III, after a victory in the Battle of Crécy, laid siege to Calais, while Philip VI of France ordered the city to hold out at all costs. Philip failed to lift the siege, starvation forced the city to parley for surrender; the contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart tells a story of what happened next: Edward offered to spare the people of the city if six of its leaders would surrender themselves to him to be executed. Edward demanded that they walk out wearing nooses around their necks, carrying the keys to the city and castle. One of the wealthiest of the town leaders, Eustache de Saint Pierre, volunteered first, five other burghers joined with him.
Saint Pierre led this envoy of volunteers to the city gates. It was this moment, this poignant mix of defeat, heroic self-sacrifice, willingness to face imminent death that Rodin captured in his sculpture, scaled somewhat larger than life. According to Froissart's story, the burghers expected to be executed, but their lives were spared by the intervention of England's queen, Philippa of Hainault, who persuaded her husband to exercise mercy by claiming that their deaths would be a bad omen for her unborn child.. Other historians consider; the City of Calais had attempted to erect a statue of Eustache de Saint Pierre, eldest of the burghers, since 1845. Two prior artists were prevented from creating the sculpture: David d'Angers by his death, Auguste Clésinger by the Franco-Prussian War. In 1884 the municipal corporation of the city invited several artists, Rodin amongst them, to submit proposals for the project. Rodin's design, which included all six figures rather than just de Saint Pierre, was controversial.
The public felt that it lacked "overtly heroic antique references" which were considered integral to public sculpture. It was contained no allegorical figures, it was intended to be placed at ground level, rather than on a pedestal. The burghers were not presented in a positive image of glory. To Rodin, this was heroic, the heroism of self-sacrifice. In 1895 the monument was installed in Calais on a large pedestal in front of Parc Richelieu, a public park, contrary to the sculptor's wishes, who wanted contemporary townsfolk to "almost bump into" the figures and feel solidarity with them. Only was his vision realised, when the sculpture was moved in front of the newly completed town hall of Calais, where it now rests on a much lower base. Under French law no more than twelve original casts of works of Rodin may be made; the 1895 cast of the group of six figures still stands in Calais. Other original casts stand at: Glyptoteket in Copenhagen, cast 1903; the Musée royal de Mariemont in Morlanwelz, cast 1905.
Victoria Tower Gardens in the shadow of the Houses of Parliament in London. The inscription on the pedestal was carved by Eric Gill; the Rodin Museum in Philadelphia, cast 1925 and installed in 1929. The gardens of the Musée Rodin in Paris, cast 1926 and given to the museum in 1955. Kunstmuseum in Basel, cast 1943 and installed in 1948; the Smithsonian Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D. C. cast 1943 and installed in 1966. The National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, cast 1953 and installed in 1959; the Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena, cast 1968. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, cast 1985 and installed in 1989. Plateau in Seoul; this is the 12th and final cast in the edition, cast 1995. Copies of individual statues are: sculptures of the individual figures on the campus of Stanford University. A bust of Jean d'Aire was recovered a quarter mile away from Ground Zero, together with other pieces from works by Rodin which were in the corporate offices of Cantor Fitzgerald at the World One Trade Center.
Elsen, Albert E.. Rodin. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Jianou, Ionel. Rodin. Paris: ARTED. Laurent, Monique. Rodin. New York: Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1-56852-173-1. Benedek, Nelly Silagy. Rodin • The Burghers of Calais. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0 87099 948 6. Chevillot, Catherine. Rodin: The Laboratory of Creation. Dijon: Éditions Faton. ISBN 9782878442007. Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. Rodin. New York: Abbeville. ISBN 9780789212078. Interactive 3D imagery of The Burghers of Calais Link to The Burghers of Calais on the official website of the Musée Rodin. Rodin: The B. Gerald Cantor Collection, a full text exhibition catalogue from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on The Burghers of Calais. Cantor Collection educational pages on The Burghers of Calais with detailed illustrations. Link to account of the theft and recovery of The Burghers of Calais during WWII:Williams College Magazine, Fall 2013
Siege of Calais (1346–1347)
The Siege of Calais occurred when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England, at the conclusion of the Chevauchée of Edward III of 1346 besieged the French garrison of Calais. It was an important engagement early in the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War. During 1346, the English army attempted to take Calais by assaulting it outright. Although the English had surrounded the port, their siege lines were not tight and the French were still able get supplies into Calais by sea. Once it became clear to Edward that an assault was unlikely to be successful, he tightened his investment of the city, including the sea approaches; this tactic proved successful and due to the lack of provisions the town surrendered on 3 August 1347. The capture of Calais provided the English with an important strategic lodgement for the remainder of the Hundred Years' War and beyond; the port was not recaptured by the French until the reign of Mary I of England following the 1558 siege of Calais.
Edward III of England had asserted his claim to the throne of France in 1337, triggering war between the two nations. Edward decisively defeated the French fleet at the Battle of Sluys in 1340, his army undertook several devastating chevauchée raids throughout Normandy, plundering its vast wealth, including the ancestral seat of Caen. This campaign climaxed with the Battle of Crécy in 1346, in which the French army of Philip VI of France was defeated. By this time, Edward's army required reinforcements, so they withdrew to the north. Edward needed a defensible port where his army could be resupplied from the sea; the Channel port of Calais suited this purpose ideally. Calais was defensible: it boasted a double moat, substantial city walls, its citadel in the north-west corner had its own moat and additional fortifications; the port could be resupplied and defended by sea and land. Edward's men approached Calais in September 1346; the city's substantial walls and moats could not be breached or crossed.
Edward received aid from Flanders. King Philip of France failed to interfere with their supply lines. Edward failed to interfere with aid to the people of Calais by sailors loyal to France; the English accomplished little for over two months. By November the English were supplied with cannon and long ladders, but could not breach the city walls. Edward initiated a siege. One more French supply convoy succeeded in reaching the city, but the English navy repelled all further supply attempts. Still, King Philip continued his assault. Both armies received additional reinforcements that spring. Philip's French forces still could not displace the English from their position, surrounded by marshland. By June, the city's supplies of food and fresh water were nearly depleted. Another French supply convoy was blocked by the English fleet two months later. Five hundred children and elderly were expelled from the city so that the remaining healthy adult men and women might survive. One version of events holds that the English refused to allow these exiles to approach, so they starved to death just outside the city walls.
That version of events was contradicted by the contemporary Flemish chronicler Jean Le Bel, who praised Edward III for his charity in feeding and granting free passage and a small monetary gift to each expelled person. On August 1, the city lit fires signalling. Edward had offered to end the siege if citizens of Calais would surrender the keys to the city gates – and would sacrifice their lives. Six citizens, or "burghers", volunteered. Edward was persuaded by his advisers to allow the remaining citizens to live. After providing them with some provisions, he allowed them to leave the city. Philip destroyed the encampment from which his army had been planning to attack the English so that it would not fall into their hands. Calais fell under English control and remained as such until 1558, providing a foothold for English raids in France. Calais was lost by the English monarch Mary I following the 1558 siege of Calais; the fall of Calais marked the capture of England's last possession in mainland France.
In 1880, Calais commissioned a statue by Auguste Rodin of the town leaders at the moment of their surrender to Edward. The resulting work, The Burghers of Calais, was completed in 1889. Adams, Simon. "Siege of Calais - Summary". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 August 2017. "Jean d'Aire, Second Maquette". Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Foundation. 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33537-2. Sumption, Jonathan. "Chapter 15: The Siege of Calais 1346–1347". Trial by Battle: The Hundred Years War. Erenow.com. Retrieved 3 August 2017. Davis, Paul K.. Besieged: 100 Great Sieges from Jericho to Sarajevo. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521930-9. Lambert, Craig L.. "Edward III's siege of Calais: A reappraisal". Journal of Medieval History. Elsevier. 37: 231–342. Doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2011.05.002
Charles, Duke of Brittany
Charles of Blois-Châtillon "the Saint", was the legalist Duke of Brittany from 1341 to his death via his marriage to Joan of Penthiève, holding the title against the claims of John of Montfort. He was canonized as a Saint of the Roman Catholic Church for his devotion to religion; this canonization was annulled, although he remains beatified. Charles was born in Blois, son of Guy de Châtillon, count of Blois, by Margaret of Valois, a sister of king Philip VI of France. An devout ascetic from an early age, he showed interest in religious books but was forbidden from reading them by his father, as they did not seem appropriate to his position as a knight; as he grew older, Charles took piety to the extreme of mortifying his own flesh. It is said that he placed pebbles in his shoes, wore ropes tight with knots near his flesh, slept on straw instead of a bed, confessed every night in fear of sleeping in a state of sin, wore a cilice under his armor in battle, he was an accomplished military leader, who inspired loyalty by his religious fervour.
On 4 June 1337 in Paris, he married Joanna of Penthièvre and niece of duke John III. Together and Joanna de Châtillon fought the House of Montfort in the Breton War of Succession, with the support of the crown of France. Despite his piety, Charles did not hesitate in ordering the massacre of 1400 civilians after the siege of Quimper. After initial successes, Charles was taken prisoner by the English in 1347, his official captor was Thomas Dagworth. He stayed nine years as prisoner in the Kingdom of England. During that time, he used to visit English graveyards, where he prayed and recited Psalm 130 much to the chagrin of his own squire; when Charles asked the squire to take part in the prayer, the younger man refused, saying that the men who were buried at the English graveyards had killed his parents and friends and burned their houses. Charles was released against a ransom of about half a million écus in 1356. Upon returning to France, he decided to travel barefoot in winter from La Roche-Derrien to Tréguier Cathedral out of devotion to Saint Ivo of Kermartin.
When the common people heard of his plan, they placed straw and blankets on the street, but Charles promptly took another way. His feet became so sore, he resumed the war against the Montforts. Charles was killed in combat during the Battle of Auray in 1364, which with the second treaty of Guerande in 1381, determined the end of the Breton War of Succession as a victory for the Montforts. By his marriage to Joanna, he had five children: John I, Count of Penthièvre Guy Henry Mary, Lady of Guise, married in 1360 Louis I, Duke of Anjou Margaret, married in 1351 Charles de la Cerda According to Froissart's Chronicles, Charles had an illegitimate child, John of Blois, who died in the Battle of Auray. Considering Charles' extreme piety, historian Johan Huizinga regarded it unlikely that Charles had a child born outside marriage and that Jean Froissart was mistaken in identifying John as Charles' son. After his death, his family lobbied for his canonization as a Saint of the Roman Catholic church for his devotion to religion.
The canonization process was nullified by Pope Gregory XI at the request of Duke John IV of Brittany, Charles' final opponent in the Breton War of Succession and the recognized Duke of Brittany under the first Treaty of Guerande. Subsequently, in 1904, Charles de Châtillon was beatified and therefore may be referred to as the Blessed Charles of Blois, his Roman Catholic Feast Day is 30 September. Château de Blois Counts of Blois Dukes of Brittany family tree House of Châtillon Autrand, Francoise. "France under Charles V and Charles VI". In Jones, Michael; the New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 6, C.1300-c.1415. Cambridge University Press. Bruel, François-L.. "Inventaire de meubles et de titres trouvés au château de Josselin à la mort du connétable de Clisson". Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes. Librairie Droz. Huizinga, Johan. Herbst des Mittelalters. Translated by Kurt Köster. Stuttgart: Reclam. ISBN 978-3-15-020366-8. Jones, Michael. Creation of Brittany: A Late Medieval State; the Hambledon Press.
Prestwich, Michael. The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272-1377. Routledge. Sumption, Jonathan; the Hundred Years War, Volume 1: Trial by Battle. Faber & Faber. "Charles de Blois". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. Treccani.it, l'Enciclopedia italiana House of de Châtillon, Champagne,Bourgogne, Ponthieu & Ternois and Heraldry House of de Nanteuil Le-Haudouin and Heraldry