Peter Blake (artist)
Sir Peter Thomas Blake, CBE, RDI, RA is an English pop artist, best known for co-creating the sleeve design for the Beatles album Sgt. His other best known include the cover of the Band Aid single Do They Know Its Christmas. And the Live Aid concert poster, Blake designed the 2012 Brit Award statuette. One of the best known British pop artists, Blake is considered to be a prominent figure in the pop art movement, central to his paintings are his interest in images from popular culture which have infused his collages. In 2002 he was knighted at Buckingham Palace for his services to art, born in Dartford,25 June 1932, Kent, he was educated at the Gravesend Technical College school of Art, and the Royal College of Art. During the late 1950s, Blake became one of the best known British pop artists and his paintings from this time included imagery from advertisements, music hall entertainment, and wrestlers, often including collaged elements. Blake was included in exhibitions at the Institute of Contemporary Arts and had his first solo exhibition in 1960.
In the Young Contemporaries exhibition of 1961 in which he exhibited alongside David Hockney and R. B. Kitaj, Blake won the John Moores junior award for Self Portrait with Badges. From 1963 Blake was represented by Robert Fraser placing him at the centre of swinging London and his Captain Webb Matchbox piece is another of his works in the pop art movement. On the Balcony is a significant early work remains an iconic piece of British Pop Art. The work, which appears to be a collage but is painted, among other things. It was inspired by a painting by Honoré Sharrer depicting workers holding famous paintings, Blake has referred to the work of other artists many times. Another example, The First Real Target a standard archery target with the title written across the top is a play on paintings of targets by Kenneth Noland and he designed the sleeve for Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band with his wife Jann Haworth, the American-born artist whom he married in 1963, peppers sleeve has become an iconic work of pop art, much imitated and Blakes best-known work.
Producing the collage necessitated the construction of a set with photographs and objects, such as flowers. Blake has subsequently complained about the fee he received for the design. Blake made sleeves for the Band Aid single, Do They Know Its Christmas, Paul Wellers Stanley Road and the Ian Dury tribute album Brand New Boots and Panties. He designed the sleeves for Pentangles Sweet Child and The Whos Face Dances, in 1969, Blake left London to live near Bath
Bramber is a former manor and civil parish in the Horsham District of West Sussex, England. It has a mediaeval castle which was the caput of a large feudal barony. Bramber is located on the edge of the South Downs. Nearby are the communities of Steyning to the west and Upper Beeding to the east, the closest historical connection, however, is with the village of Botolphs to the south. The ecclesiastical parishes of Bramber and Botolphs were united possibly as early as 1526, the priests official residence became the imposing Bramber mansion and landmark now called Burletts and located on Clays Hill. The union of the parish councils followed 400 years in 1933. Bramber was the caput of a feudal barony held from the 11th to 14th centuries by the Braose family which was noted for its impact on the medieval history of the southern Welsh Marches. On a small hill stand the remains of Bramber Castle, a Norman castle built by the family, Bramber Parish Church of St Nicholas was originally built as the castle chapel and is the only part of the castle site not in ruins.
The church attracts large numbers of tourists, and is the oldest post-conquest Norman church in Sussex, Bramber Castle originally protected the Rape of Bramber, the historic sub-division of the county of Sussex. Another historic building in Bramber is St Marys House, a late 15th century timber-framed house on an associated with the Knights Templar. The present building was constructed in about 1470 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and founder of Magdalen College, the house has beautiful gardens with topiary figures, and a quite large secret garden at the back. The house is open to the public in season, and there is a tearoom in the grounds, the house has a music room which has two 14th century ornately-carved stone chantry tombs serve as fireplaces, and is regularly used for concerts and recitals. This should not be confused with the nearby Beeding Bridge, a bridge which now spans the main course of the river. King Charles II is claimed to have stayed at St Marys House during his escape to France after defeat at the Battle of Worcester, the Monarchs Way long-distance footpath, following Charless supposed route to Shoreham-by-Sea, crosses the Adur at Bramber.
The house has been used in a number of productions including an episode of Doctor Who where the TARDIS landed inside. Its owners since 1984 are Peter Thorogood and Roger Linton, just outside Bramber, in the direction of Botolphs village, formerly stood a medieval hospital and nunnery, caring for sufferers of leprosy, and dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene. Although long since closed, this part of Bramber is still known as the Maudlin District, Maudlyn House stands on the site of the hospital, and nearby roads include Maudlin Lane, Maudlyn Park, Maudlyn Parkway, and Maudlyn Close. Historically, Bramber returned two members to the unreformed House of Commons, amongst the most famous politicians to serve as Member for Bramber was William Wilberforce, the anti-slavery campaigner, and independent Tory politician
Taxidermy is the preserving of an animals body via stuffing or mounting for the purpose of display or study. Animals are often, but not always, portrayed in a life-like state, the word taxidermy refers to the process of preserving the animal, but the word is used to describe the end product, which are often called mounts. The word taxidermy is derived from the Greek words taxis and derma, taxis means to to move, and derma means skin. The word taxidermy translates to arrangement of skin, Taxidermy is practiced primarily on vertebrates but can be done to larger insects and arachnids under some circumstances. Taxidermy takes on a number of forms and purposes, including natural history displays, hunting trophies, study skins. A person who practices taxidermy is called a taxidermist and they may practice professionally for museums or as businesses catering to hunters and fishermen, or as amateurs, such as hobbyists and fishermen. A taxidermist is aided by familiarity with anatomy, painting, preserving animal skins has been practiced for a long time.
Embalmed animals have been found with Egyptian mummies, although embalming incorporates the use of lifelike poses, it is not considered taxidermy. In the Middle Ages, crude examples of taxidermy were displayed by astrologers, the earliest methods of preservation of birds for natural history cabinets were published in 1748 by Reaumur in France. Techniques for mounting were described in 1752 by M. B, there were several pioneers of taxidermy in France, Germany and England around this time. For a while, clay was used to some of the soft parts. By the 18th century, almost every town had a tannery business, in the 19th century, hunters began bringing their trophies to upholstery shops, where the upholsterers would actually sew up the animal skins and stuff them with rags and cotton. The term stuffing or a stuffed animal evolved from this form of taxidermy. Professional taxidermists prefer the term mounting to stuffing, more sophisticated cotton-wrapped wire bodies supporting sewn-on cured skins soon followed.
In France, Louis Dufresne, taxidermist at the Muséum national dHistoire naturelle from 1793 and this technique enabled the museum to build the greatest collection of birds in the world. Ward established one of the earliest taxidermy firms, Rowland Ward Ltd. of Picadilly, the art of taxidermy remained relatively undeveloped, and the specimens that were created remained stiff and unconvincing. The golden age of taxidermy was during the Victorian era, when mounted animals became a part of interior design. The father of modern taxidermy is considered to be John Hancock, an avid collector of birds, which he would shoot himself, he began modelling them with clay and casting in plaster
Cruelty to animals
Cruelty to animals sometimes encompasses inflicting harm or suffering for personal amusement, as in zoosadism. Laws concerning animal cruelty are designed to prevent the needless cruelty, divergent approaches to such laws occur in different jurisdictions throughout the world. For example, some laws govern methods of killing animals for food, clothing, or other products, Cruelty to animals is not necessarily the same thing as disrespect towards animals. In broad terms, there are three approaches to the issue of cruelty to animals. Utilitarian advocates argue from the position of costs and benefits and vary in their conclusions as to the treatment of animals. Some utilitarians argue for an approach which is closer to the animal welfare position. Animal rights theorists criticize these positions, arguing that the unnecessary and humane are subject to widely differing interpretations. They say that the way to ensure protection for animals is to end their status as property. Certain thinkers, still viewed cruelty against animals as an injustice, renaissance polymath Leonardo da Vincis regard for animal welfare, for example, is well-documented.
He was particularly troubled by the sight of birds in captivity, da Vinci expressed anger within his notebooks with the fact that humans use their strength and power to raise animals for slaughter. René Descartes contrarily believed that non-humans are automata, complex machines with no soul, mind, in Cartesian dualism, consciousness was unique to human among all other animals and linked to physical matter by divine grace. However, close analysis shows that many features such as complex sign usage, tool use. Charles Darwin, by presenting the theory of evolution, revolutionized the way that humans viewed their relationship with other species, Darwin believed that not only did human beings have a direct kinship with other animals, but the latter had social and moral lives too. Later, in The Descent of Man, he wrote, There is no difference between man and the higher mammals in their mental faculties. Some philosophers and intellectuals, such as Peter Singer and Tom Regan, have argued that animals ability to feel pain as humans does make their well-being worthy of equal consideration, There are many precursors of this train of thought.
Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, famously wrote in his An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, The question is not, can they reason nor can they talk. These arguments have prompted some to suggest that animals well-being should enter a social welfare function directly, in one survey of United States homeowners, 68% of respondents said they actually consider the price of meat a more important issue. Animal cruelty can be broken down into two categories and passive
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. Brighton and Hove was created as an authority in 1997. Until then, Chichester was Sussexs only city, Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented approximately east to west. In the south-west is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain, North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond which is the well-wooded Sussex Weald. The name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, which was founded, according to legend, in 825, it was absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex and subsequently into the kingdom of England. It was the home of some of Europes earliest hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove, in 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as a territory and cultural region. It has had a police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media.
In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate the rich culture. Based on the emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the existence of Englands 39 historic counties. The name Sussex is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, which is in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means of the South Saxons, the South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries. The earliest known usage of the term South Saxons is in a charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm. The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong, the New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map. Three United States counties, and a former division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex. The flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic swallows, on a background, blazoned as Azure.
Officially recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the shield of Sussex. The first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons
David Royston Bailey, CBE is an English fashion and portrait photographer. David Bailey was born in Leytonstone East London, to Herbert Bailey, a cutter, and his wife, Sharon. From the age of three he lived in East Ham, Bailey developed a love of natural history, and this led him into photography. Suffering from undiagnosed dyslexia, he experienced problems at school and he attended a private school, Clarks College in Ilford, where he says they taught him less than the more basic council school. As well as dyslexia he has the motor skill disorder dyspraxia, in one school year, he claims he only attended 33 times. He left school on his birthday, to become a copy boy at the Fleet Street offices of the Yorkshire Post. He raced through a series of dead end jobs, before his call up for National Service in 1956, the appropriation of his trumpet forced him to consider other creative outlets, and he bought a Rolleiflex camera. He was demobbed in August 1958, and determined to pursue a career in photography, unable to obtain a place at the London College of Printing because of his school record, he became a second assistant to David Ollins, in Charlotte Mews.
He earned £3 10s a week, and acted as studio dogsbody and he was delighted to be called to an interview with photographer John French. He undertook a large amount of freelance work, along with Terence Donovan and Brian Duffy, Bailey captured and helped create the Swinging London of the 1960s, a culture of fashion and celebrity chic. The three photographers socialised with actors and royalty, and found themselves elevated to celebrity status, they were the first real celebrity photographers, named by Norman Parkinson the Black Trinity. The film Blowup, directed by Michelangelo Antonioni, depicts the life of a London fashion photographer whose character was inspired by Bailey, the Box was an unusual and unique commercial release. It reflected the status of the photographer that one could sell a collection of prints in this way. The record sale for a copy of Box of Pin-Ups is reported as north of £20,000, Baileys ascent at Vogue was meteoric. Within months he was shooting covers and, at the height of his productivity, penelope Tree, a former girlfriend, described him as the king lion on the Savannah, incredibly attractive, with a dangerous vibe.
He was the electricity, the brightest, most powerful, most talented, american Vogues creative director Grace Coddington, a model herself, said It was the Sixties, it was a raving time, and Bailey was unbelievably good-looking. He was everything that you wanted him to be – like the Beatles but accessible – and we were all killing ourselves to be his model, although he hooked up with Jean Shrimpton pretty quickly. Of model Jean Shrimpton, Bailey said, She was magic, in a way she was the cheapest model in the world – you only needed to shoot half a roll of film and you had it
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
The domestic canary, often simply known as the canary, is a domesticated form of the wild canary, a small songbird in the finch family originating from the Macaronesian Islands. Canaries were first bred in captivity in the 17th century and they were brought over by Spanish sailors to Europe. This bird became expensive and fashionable to breeding in courts of Spanish and English kings, monks started breeding them and only sold the males. This kept the birds in short supply and drove the price up, eventually Italians obtained hens and were able to breed the birds themselves. This made them popular and resulted in many breeds arising. First the birds were only owned by the rich but eventually the local citizens started to breed them and, many breeds arose through selective breeding, and they are still very popular today for their voices. Typically, the canary is kept as a popular cage. Given proper housing and care, a canarys lifespan ranges from 10 to 15 years, the birds are named after Spains Canary Islands, which derive their name from the Latin Insula Canaria, meaning island of dogs, due to its vast multitudes of dogs of very large size.
Canaries are generally divided into three groups, Colour bred canaries Type canaries Song canaries. While wild canaries are a colour, domestic canaries have been selectively bred for a wide variety of colours, such as yellow, brown, white. Canaries are judged in competitions following the annual molt in the summer and this means that in the Northern Hemisphere the show season generally begins in October or November and runs through December or January. Birds can only be shown by the person who raised them, a show bird must have a unique band on its leg indicating the year of birth, the band number, and the club to which the breeder belongs. There are many shows all over the world. The world show is held in Europe each year and attracts thousands of breeders, as many as 20,000 birds are brought together for this competition. Canaries were once used in coal mining as an early warning system. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide or methane in the mine would kill the bird before affecting the miners, signs of distress from the bird indicated to the miners that conditions were unsafe.
The use of canaries in British mines was phased out in 1986. The phrase canary in a mine is frequently used to refer to a person or thing which serves as an early warning of a coming crisis
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Dioramas are often built by hobbyists as part of related hobbies such as military vehicle modeling, miniature figure modeling, or aircraft modeling. The word diorama originated in 1823 as a type of picture-viewing device, the word literally means through that which is seen, from the Greek di- through + orama that which is seen, a sight. The diorama was invented by Louis Daguerre and Charles Marie Bouton, first exhibited in Paris in July 1822, the meaning small-scale replica of a scene, etc. is from 1902. Daguerres diorama consisted of a piece of material painted on both sides, when illuminated from the front, the scene would be shown in one state and by switching to illumination from behind another phase or aspect would be seen. Scenes in daylight changed to moonlight, a train travelling on a track would crash, or an earthquake would be shown in before, one of the first uses of dioramas in a museum was in Stockholm, where the Biological Museum opened in 1893. It had several dioramas, over three floors and they were implemented by the National Museum Grigore Antipa from Bucharest Romania and constituted a source of inspiration for many important museums in the world.
Miniature dioramas are typically smaller, and use scale models. Such a scale model-based diorama is used, for example, in Chicagos Museum of Science and this diorama employs a common model railroading scale of 1,87. Hobbyist dioramas often use such as 1,35 or 1,48. An early, and exceptionally large example was created between 1830 and 1838 by a British Army officer, william Siborne, and represents the Battle of Waterloo at about 7.45 pm, on 18 June,1815. The diorama measures 8.33 by 6 metres and used around 70,000 model soldiers in its construction and it is now part of the collection of the National Army Museum in London. Sheperd Paine, a prominent hobbyist, popularized the modern miniature diorama beginning in the 1970s, modern museum dioramas may be seen in most major natural history museums. Often the distant painted background or sky will be painted upon a continuous curved surface so that the viewer is not distracted by corners, all of these techniques are means of presenting a realistic view of a large scene in a compact space. A photograph or single-eye view of such a diorama can be especially convincing since in case there is no distraction by the binocular perception of depth.
Carl Akeley, a naturalist and taxidermist, is credited with creating the first ever habitat diorama in the year 1889, akeleys diorama featured taxidermied beavers in a three-dimensional habitat with a realistic, painted background. With the support of curator Frank M. Chapman, Akeley designed the popular habitat dioramas featured at the American Museum of Natural History, combining art with science, these exhibitions were intended to educate the public about the growing need for habitat conservation. The modern AMNH Exhibitions Lab is charged with the creation of all dioramas, miniature dioramas may be used to represent scenes from historic events. A typical example of type are the dioramas to be seen at Norways Resistance Museum in Oslo
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. In North America the term Mother Goose Rhymes, introduced in the century, is still often used. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays, the first English collections, Tommy Thumbs Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumbs Pretty Song Book, were published before 1744. John Newberys compilation of English rhymes, Mother Gooses Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle, is the first record we have of many classic rhymes, the oldest childrens songs of which we have records are lullabies, intended to help a child sleep. Lullabies can be found in human culture. The English term lullaby is thought to come from lu, lu or la la sounds made by mothers or nurses to calm children, until the modern era lullabies were usually only recorded incidentally in written sources. The Roman nurses lullaby, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacta, is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive.
Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including Lullay, my liking, my son, my sweting. However, most of those used today date from the 17th century, for example, a well known lullaby such as Rock-a-bye, baby on a tree top, cannot be found in records until the late-18th century when it was printed by John Newbery. A French poem, similar to Thirty days hath September, numbering the days of the month, was recorded in the 13th century, from the Middle Ages there are records of short childrens rhyming songs, often as marginalia. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays, pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, bakers man is one of the oldest surviving English nursery rhymes. The earliest recorded version of the rhyme appears in Thomas dUrfeys play The Campaigners from 1698. The publication of John Newberys compilation of English rhymes, Mother Gooses Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle, is the first record we have of many classic rhymes, about half of the currently recognised traditional English rhymes were known by the mid-18th century.
In the early 19th century printed collections of rhymes began to spread to countries, including Robert Chamberss Popular Rhymes of Scotland and in the United States. Early folk song often collected nursery rhymes, including in Scotland Sir Walter Scott and in Germany Clemens Brentano. By the time of Sabine Baring-Goulds A Book of Nursery Songs, folklore was a study, full of comments. A professional anthropologist, Andrew Lang produced The Nursery Rhyme Book in 1897, the early years of the 20th century are notable for the illustrations to childrens books including Caldecotts Hey Diddle Diddle Picture Book and Arthur Rackhams Mother Goose. The definitive study of English rhymes remains the work of Iona, many nursery rhymes have been argued to have hidden meanings and origins