Robert III of Scotland
Robert III, born John Stewart, was King of Scotland from 1390 to his death. He was known as Earl of Carrick before ascending the throne at the age of 53, he was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimated with the marriage of his parents in 1347. John joined his father and other magnates in a rebellion against his grand-uncle David II early in 1363 but submitted to him soon afterwards, he was held the earldom of Atholl. In 1368 David created him Earl of Carrick, his father became king in 1371 after the unexpected death of the childless King David. In the succeeding years Carrick was influential in the government of the kingdom but became progressively more impatient at his father's longevity. In 1384 Carrick was appointed the king's lieutenant after having influenced the general council to remove Robert II from direct rule. Carrick's administration saw a renewal of the conflict with England. In 1388 the Scots defeated the English at the Battle of Otterburn where the Scots' commander, Earl of Douglas, was killed.
By this time Carrick had been badly injured but the loss of his powerful ally, saw a turnaround in magnate support in favour of his younger brother Robert, Earl of Fife, in December 1388 the council transferred the lieutenancy to Fife. In 1390, Robert II died and Carrick ascended the throne as Robert III but without authority to rule directly. Fife continued as lieutenant until February 1393 when power was returned to the king in conjunction with his son David. At a council in 1399 owing to the king's'sickness of his person', now Duke of Rothesay, became lieutenant under the supervision of a special parliamentary group dominated by Fife, now styled Duke of Albany. After this, Robert III withdrew to his lands in the west and for a time played little or no part in affairs of state, he was powerless to interfere when a dispute between Albany and Rothesay arose in 1401, leading to Rothesay's imprisonment and death in March 1402. The general council reappointed him as lieutenant; the only impediment now remaining to an Albany Stewart monarchy was the king's only surviving son, Earl of Carrick.
After a clash with Albany's Douglas allies in 1406, the 11-year-old James tried to escape to France. The vessel was intercepted and James became the prisoner of Henry IV of England. Robert III died shortly after learning of his heir's imprisonment. John Stewart was born c.1337/40 to Robert, Steward of Scotland and heir presumptive to the throne, Elizabeth Mure. Robert's mother Marjorie and her half-brother, David II, were the children of the first Bruce king, Robert I. Following his parents' marriage sometime after 22 November 1347 after Pope Clement VI's dispensation, his three brothers and six sisters were legitimated. Styled Lord of Kyle, John is first recorded in the 1350s as the commander of a campaign in the lordship of Annandale to re-establish Scottish control over English occupied territory. In 1363, he joined his father along with the earls of Douglas and March in a failed insurrection against Robert's uncle, David II; the reasons for the rebellion were varied. In 1362, David II supported several of his royal favourites in their titles to lands in the Stewart earldom of Monteith and thwarted Stewart claims to the earldom of Fife.
The king's involvement and eventual marriage with Margaret Drummond may have represented a threat in the Steward's own earldom of Strathearn where the Drummonds had interests, while Douglas and March mistrusted David's intentions towards them. These nobles were unhappy at the king's squandering of funds provided to him for his ransom, with the prospect that they could be sent to England as guarantors for the ransom payments; the dissension between the king and the Stewarts looked to have been settled before the end of spring 1367. On 31 May the Steward gave the earldom of Atholl to John, who by this time was married to Annabella Drummond, the daughter of the queen's deceased brother, Sir John Drummond. David II reinforced the position of John and Annabella by providing them with the earldom of Carrick on 22 June 1368 and the tacit approval of John as the king's probable heir. A Stewart succession was endangered when David II had his marriage to Margaret annulled in March 1369 leaving the king free to remarry and with the prospect of a Bruce heir.
On 22 February 1371 David II unexpectedly died to the relief of both John and his father. Robert was crowned at Scone Abbey on 27 March 1371 and before this date had given John—now styled Steward of Scotland—the ancestral lands surrounding the Firth of Clyde; the manner in which the succession was to take place was first entailed by Robert I when female heirs were excluded and David II attempted unsuccessfully on several occasions to have the council change the succession procedure. Robert II moved to ensure the succession of John when the general council attending his coronation named Carrick as heir—in 1373 the Stewart succession was further strengthened when parliament passed entails defining the manner in which each of the king's sons could inherit the crown. After the coronation John Dunbar who had received the lordship of Fife from David II now resigned the title so that the king's second son, earl of Monteith could receive the earldom of Fife—Dunbar was compensated with the provision of the earldom of Moray.
A son, the future Duke of Rothesay, was born to Carrick and Annabella on 24 October 1378. In 1381, Carrick was calling himself'lieutenant for the marches' sustained by his connections to border magnates such as his brother-in-law, James Douglas, son of William, Earl of Douglas, whom
William Douglas of Nithsdale
Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale was a Scottish knight and Northern Crusader. William Douglas was an illegitimate son of Archibald the Grim, 3rd Earl of Douglas and an unknown mother. A man of dashing bearing, Douglas was with the Franco-Scots army when it unsuccessfully besieged Carlisle Castle in 1385, the defending Governor being Lord Clifford, he is recorded as there killing many Englishmen. According to Andrew of Wyntoun: "A yhowng joly bachelere Prysyd gretly wes off were, For he wes evyr traveland Qwhille be se and qwhille be land To skathe his fays rycht besy Swa that thai dred him grettumly" Douglas had gained his spurs by 1387 when he married Egidia Stewart, princess of Scotland, a daughter of King Robert II. According to the Liber Pluscarden, Egidia Stewart's beauty was well renowned. Charles V of France had "sent a certain most subtle painter to do her portrait and portray her charms, intending to take her to wife." But the King of France and all other of Egidia's admirers had lost out to the chivalric charms of Douglas.
As part of her marriage portion went the lands of Nithsdale in south-western Scotland, Herbertshire in the county of Stirling and an annuity of £300. Within his first year of marriage the young Nithsdale led a punitive raid against Irish raiders, troubling the tenantry of his father's Fiefdom of Galloway. In early summer 1388, with a party of 500 well prepared veteran men-at-arms he sailed into Carlingford Lough, landed outside the town and summoned their leaders; the chief of the townsfolk offered a sum for a temporary truce. Secretly the townsfolk sent off to Dundalk with which they were obliged. 800 spearmen from Dundalk surprised the Scots camp by night, were supported by a sortie from Carlingford town. The Scots, veterans of years of brutal Border warfare, drove the Irishmen off, captured the town and burnt it, seized the Castle and captured 15 ships in the harbour. En route back to Scotland Nithsdale "ravaged" the Isle of Man. Nithsdale's expeditionary force sailed back into Loch Ryan with enough time to participate in the raiding of Northern England, to culminate in the Battle of Otterburn on 19 August, in which he fought with distinction.
The year after Otterburn a truce was called between England. Nithsdale on a knightly quest for glory decided, about 1389, to join the Teutonic Knights, who were fighting the Lithuanians in eastern Europe. Nithsdale had quarrelled with Lord Clifford, a former adversary at Carlisle and whose forebear had claimed Douglasdale under Edward I of England's oppression. While both were abroad, it is alleged that Clifford challenged Nithsdale to single combat, that Douglas went to France to obtain special armour for the fight. Clifford, died on 18 August 1391, but Nithsdale is said to have kept their'tryst', whilst walking upon the bridge leading to the main gate at Danzig was "killed by the English"; the burghers of Danzig decided that "upon account of a signal service which the Douglas family did to this city in relieving it in its utmost extremities against the Poles, the Scotch were allowed to be free burghers of the town". Subsequently the stone fascia of the Hohe Thor was adorned with the coat of arms of this nobleman and for centuries it was referred to as the Douglas Port or Douglas Gate, described as such as late as 1734.
In 1391, Douglas was in the Baltic, became involved in a brawl with Sir Thomas de Clifford, in which Douglas was killed. By Princess Egidia, Nithsdale had two children: Egidia Douglas, known as the "Fair Maid of Nithsdale" married:1. Henry Sinclair, 2nd Earl of Orkney 2. Sir Alasdair Stewart son of Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of AlbanySir William Douglas, Knt. Lord of Nithsdale, knighted when young as he is described as chevalier in a safe-conduct dated 30 January 1406, when he could not have been more than nineteen. Maxwell, Sir Herbert. A History of the House of Douglas, 2 vols, London, 1902. Fraser, Sir William; the Douglas Book 4 vols, Edinburgh, 1885. Balfour Paul, Sir James; the Scots Peerage 9 vols, Edinburgh, 1906. Summerson, Henry. "Clifford, Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/5662
Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany was a peerage title, bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and the British royal family in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor. The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title was the first Dukedom created in Scotland, it passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch. The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483, his son John Stewart was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old; the fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death.
That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns; the title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown; the cities of New York and Albany, New York, were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; the title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings. The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria.
Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward, was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. His grandson, Ernst Leopold, only son of Charles Edward's eldest son Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, sometimes used the title "Duke of Albany", although the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 stipulates that any successor of a suspended peer shall be restored to the peerage only by direction of the sovereign, the successor's petition for restoration having been submitted for and obtained a satisfactory review of the appropriate Privy Council committee. Other titles: Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan, Earl of Atholl Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, third son of Robert IIOther titles: Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, eldest son of the 1st Duke was attainted and his honours forfeit in 1425 Other titles: Earl of March, Earl of Mar and Earl of Garioch Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482 forfeited them again in 1483Other titles: Earl of March John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515.
The honours became extinct upon his death without issue Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville's play Gorboduc includes Fergus, the Duke of Albany, who tries to claim the British throne after Gorboduc's death through his royal descent. William Shakespeare's King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, husband to Lear's daughter Goneril. In the movie Kate & Leopold, Leopold is the Duke of Albany meant to be the same person as the historic Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, who would have held the title at that time, as the fictitious character comments that his surname is Mountbatten. Duchess of Albany Duke of York Duke of York and Albany Alba Albany
Monarchy of Ireland
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until—for what became the Republic of Ireland—the early twentieth century. Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, remains under a monarchical system of government; the Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland ended with the Norman invasion of Ireland, when the kingdom became a fief of the Holy See under the Lordship of the King of England. This lasted until the Parliament of Ireland conferred the crown of Ireland upon King Henry VIII of England during the English Reformation; the monarch of England held the crowns of Ireland in a personal union. The Union of the Crowns in 1603 expanded the personal union to include Scotland; the personal union between England and Scotland became a political union with the enactments of the Acts of Union 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. The crowns of Great Britain and Ireland remained in personal union until it was ended by the Acts of Union 1800, which united Ireland and Great Britain into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from January 1801 until December 1922.
After that date, most of Ireland left the United Kingdom to become the independent Irish Free State, a dominion within the British Empire. Both the Free State and the United Kingdom, which changed its name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927, had the same person as monarch: George V. In 1937, the year after George V's death, the Free State adopted a new constitution which changed the state's name to Ireland and removed all mention of the monarch. In April 1949, Ireland was declared a republic, with the description of the Republic of Ireland, it left the Commonwealth of Nations. Since April 1949, the only part of the island of Ireland that has retained a monarchical system is Northern Ireland. Gaelic Ireland consisted of as few as five and as many as nine Primary kingdoms which were subdivided into many minor smaller kingdoms; the primary kingdoms were Ailech, Airgíalla, Leinster, Osraige, Munster and Ulster. Until the end of Gaelic Ireland they continued to fluctuate and contract in size, as well as dissolving or being amalgamated into new entities.
The role of High King of Ireland was titular and absolute. Gaelic Ireland was not ruled as a unitary state; the names of Connacht, Ulster and Munster are still in use, now applied to the four modern provinces of Ireland. The following is a list of their kings. Kings of Ailech Kings of Airgíalla Kings of Connacht Kings of Leinster Kings of Mide Kings of Osraige Kings of Munster Kings of Thomond Kings of Ulster Máire Herbert has noted that "Annal evidence from the late eighth century in Ireland suggests that the larger provincial kingships were accruing power at the expense of smaller political units. Leading kings appear in public roles at church-state proclamations...and at royal conferences with their peers.". Responding to the assumption of the title ri hErenn uile by Mael Sechlainn I in 862, she furthermore states that the ninth-century assumption of the title of "ri Erenn" was a first step towards the definition of a national kingship and a territorially-based Irish realm, yet change only gained ground after the stranglehold of Uí Néill power-structures was broken in the eleventh century....
The renaming of a kingship... engendered a new self-perception which shaped the future definition of a kingdom and of its subjects. The achievements of Mael Sechlainn and his successors were purely personal, open to destruction upon their deaths. Between 846–1022, again from 1042–1166, kings from the leading Irish kingdoms made greater attempts to compel the rest of the island's populace to their rule, with varying degrees of success, until the inauguration of Ruaidri Ua Conchobair in 1166, Mael Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid, 846–860 Aed Findliath, 861–876 Flann Sinna, 877–914 Niall Glundub, 915–917 Donnchad Donn, 918–942 Congalach Cnogba, 943–954 Domnall ua Neill, 955–978 Mael Sechnaill mac Domnaill, 979–1002, he was arguably the first undisputed full king of Ireland. He was the only Gaelic one, as the events of the Norman invasion of 1169–1171 brought about the destruction of the high-kingship, the direct involvement of the Kings of England in Irish politics. One of Ruaidrí's first acts as King was the conquest of Leinster, which resulted in the exile of its king, Diarmait Mac Murchada.
Ruaidrí obtained terms and hostages from all the notable kings and lords. He celebrated the Oneach Tailtann, a recognised prerogative of the High Kings, made a number of notable charitable gifts and donations. However, his caput remained in his home territory in central Connacht. Ireland's recognised capital, was ruled by Ascall mac Ragnaill, who had submitted to Ruaidri. Only with the arrival of MacMurrough's Anglo-Norman allies in
Duke of Richmond
Duke of Richmond is a title in the Peerage of England, created four times in British history. It has been held by members of the royal Stuart families; the current dukedom of Richmond was created in 1675 for Charles Lennox, the illegitimate son of King Charles II of England and a Breton noblewoman, Louise de Penancoët de Kérouaille. The Duke of Richmond and Lennox was furthermore created Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1876, meaning that the Duke holds three dukedoms— plus, in pretence, the French Duchy of Aubigny-sur-Nère— more than any other person in the realm. Prior to the creation of the Dukedom the early nobles of England associated with Richmondshire were Lords and Earls of Richmond. At times the honour of Richmond was held without a title; the Dukedom of Richmond emerged under King Henry VIII. The first creation of a dukedom of Richmond was made in 1525 for Henry FitzRoy, an illegitimate son of King Henry VIII, his mother was Elizabeth Blount. Upon the Duke's death without children in 1536, his titles became extinct.
The second creation was in 1623 for Ludovic Stuart, 2nd Duke of Lennox, who held other titles in the peerage of Scotland. He was created Earl of Richmond and Baron Settrington in 1613 and Duke of Richmond in the peerage of England in 1623 as a member of the Lennox line in the House of Stuart; these became extinct at his death in 1624, but his Scottish honours devolved on his brother Esmé, Earl of March, who thus became 3rd Duke of Lennox in the peerage of Scotland. Esmé's son James, 4th Duke of Lennox subsequently received the third creation of the dukedom of Richmond in 1641, when the two dukedoms again became united. In 1672, on the death of James' nephew Charles, 3rd Duke of Richmond and 6th Duke of Lennox, both titles again became extinct; the fourth creation of the dukedom of Richmond was in August 1675, when Charles II granted the title to Charles Lennox, his illegitimate son by Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. Charles Lennox was further created Duke of Lennox a month later.
Charles' son Charles, succeeded to the French title Duke of Aubigny on the death of his grandmother in 1734. The 6th Duke of Richmond and Lennox was created Duke of Gordon in 1876. Thus, the Duke holds more than any other person in the realm; the subsidiary titles of the dukedom created in 1675 are Earl of March, Earl of Darnley, Earl of Kinrara, Baron Settrington, of Settrington in the County of York, Lord Torbolton. The Dukes of Richmond and Gordon are styled Duke of Richmond and Gordon. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon they were styled Duke of Lennox; the titles Earl of March and Baron Settrington were created in the peerage of England along with the Dukedom of Richmond. The titles Earl of Darnley and Lord Torbolton were created in the Peerage of Scotland along with the Dukedom of Lennox; the title Earl of Kinrara was created in the peerage of the United Kingdom with the Dukedom of Gordon. The eldest son of the Duke uses the courtesy title Earl of Kinrara. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon, the courtesy title used was Earl of March.
The family seat is Goodwood House near West Sussex. The heir apparent is Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the 11th Duke. Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the 11th Duke Lord William Rupert Gordon-Lennox, second son of the 11th Duke Lord Frederick Lysander Gordon-Lennox, third son of the 11th Duke James David Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 7th Duke Henry Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Charles William Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Thomas Edward Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Edward Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Alexander Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Angus Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Geordie Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Charles Bernard Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Archie Clement Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Col. David Henry Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 7th Duke Henry George Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 6th Duke Ian Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Philip George Hugh Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Thomas Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Alec George Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 6th Duke The earlier dukes bore: Quarterly 1 and 4 azure three fleurs-de-lis and a bordure engrailed Or.
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, bore the Tudor royal arms with a border quarterly ermine and compony azure and argent, a baton sinister argent for bastardy, overall an escutcheon of Nottingham. Earl of Newcastle Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lennox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 419–420. ThePeerage.com Tillyard, Stella. Aristocrats