Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë's only novel, was published in 1847 under the pseudonym "Ellis Bell". It was written between October 1845 and June 1846. Wuthering Heights and Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey were accepted by publisher Thomas Newby before the success of their sister Charlotte's novel Jane Eyre. After Emily's death, Charlotte edited the manuscript of Wuthering Heights and arranged for the edited version to be published as a posthumous second edition in 1850. Although Wuthering Heights is now a classic of English literature, contemporaneous reviews were polarised; the English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, although an admirer of the book, referred to it as "A fiend of a book – an incredible monster The action is laid in hell, – only it seems places and people have English names there."Wuthering Heights contains elements of gothic fiction, another significant aspect is the moorland setting. The novel has inspired adaptations, including film and television dramatisations, a musical, a ballet, a song by Kate Bush.
In 1801, Lockwood, a wealthy young man from the South of England, seeking peace and recuperation, rents Thrushcross Grange in Yorkshire. He visits his landlord, who lives in a remote moorland farmhouse, Wuthering Heights. There Lockwood finds an odd assemblage: Heathcliff, who seems to be a gentleman, but whose manners are uncouth. Snowed in, Lockwood is grudgingly allowed to stay and is shown to a bedchamber, where he notices books and graffiti left by a former inhabitant named Catherine, he falls asleep and has a nightmare, in which he sees the ghostly Catherine trying to enter through the window. He cries out in fear. Lockwood is convinced. Heathcliff, believing Lockwood to be right, examines the window and opens it, hoping to allow Catherine's spirit to enter; when nothing happens, Heathcliff shows Lockwood to his own bedroom and returns to keep watch at the window. At sunrise, Heathcliff escorts Lockwood back to Thrushcross Grange. After his visit to the Heights, Lockwood becomes ill and is confined to his bed for some length of time.
The Grange housekeeper, Ellen Dean, looking after him, tells him the story of the family at the Heights during his convalescence. Thirty years earlier, the owner of Wuthering Heights was Mr. Earnshaw, who lived with his son Hindley and younger daughter Catherine. On a trip to Liverpool, Earnshaw encounters a homeless boy, described as a "dark-skinned gypsy in aspect", he adopts the boy and, as he refuses to divulge his real name, Earnshaw names him Heathcliff. Hindley feels that Heathcliff has supplanted him in his father's affections and becomes bitterly jealous. Catherine and Heathcliff spend hours each day playing on the moors, they grow close. Hindley is sent to university/college. Three years Earnshaw dies, Hindley becomes the landowner, he returns to live there with Frances. He allows Heathcliff to stay, but only as a servant, mistreats him. A few months after Hindley's return and Catherine walk to Thrushcross Grange to spy on Edgar and Isabella Linton, who live there. After being discovered, they are caught.
Catherine is injured by the Lintons' dog and taken into the house to recuperate, while Heathcliff is sent home. Catherine stays with the Lintons; the Lintons are landed gentry, Catherine is influenced by their elegant appearance and genteel manners. When she returns to Wuthering Heights, her appearance and manners are more ladylike, she laughs at Heathcliff's unkempt appearance; the next day, knowing that the Lintons are to visit, upon Nelly's advice, tries to dress up, in an effort to impress Catherine, but he and Edgar get into an argument, Hindley humiliates Heathcliff by locking him in the attic. Catherine tries to comfort Heathcliff; the following year, Frances Earnshaw gives birth to a son, named Hareton, but she dies a few months later. Hindley descends into drunkenness. Two more years pass, Catherine and Edgar Linton become friends, while she becomes more distant from Heathcliff. Edgar visits Catherine while Hindley is away, they declare themselves lovers soon afterwards. Catherine confesses to Nelly that Edgar has proposed marriage and she has accepted, although her love for Edgar is not comparable to her love for Heathcliff, whom she cannot marry because of his low social status and lack of education.
She hopes to use her position as Edgar's wife to raise Heathcliff's standing. Heathcliff overhears her say that it would "degrade" her to marry him, he runs away and disappears without a trace. Distraught over Heathcliff's departure, Catherine makes herself ill. Nelly and Edgar begin to pander to her every whim to prevent her from becoming ill again. Three years pass. Edgar and Catherine marry and go to live together at Thrushcross Grange, where Catherine enjoys being "lady of the manor". Six months Heathcliff returns, now a wealthy gentleman. Catherine is delighted. Edgar's sister, soon falls in love with Heathcliff, who despises her, but encourages the infatuation as a means of revenge; this leads to an argument with Catherine at Thrushcross Grange. Enraged by Heathcliff's constant appearance and foul parl
Hipperholme is a village in the Calderdale area of West Yorkshire, located between the towns of Halifax and Brighouse in the Hipperholme and Lightcliffe ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale. The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 11,308. Hipperholme is located at the crossroads of A58 road and A644 road, about 2.5 miles east of Halifax town centre at a height of about 522 feet a.s.l.. Lightcliffe is a village east of Hipperholme; the boundary between the two is blurred, as there are places named after Lightcliffe with Hipperholme postal addresses. Other nearby places include Hove Edge in the south and Northowram to the southwest and the northwest and Shelf in the north. Hipperholme is mentioned in the Domesday Book both as Huperun. Here the king held two carucates, it was part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. The township of Hipperholme included nearby Brighouse and Hove End and was known as Hipperholme-with-Brighouse in the late 19th century. Traditional industries in Hipperholme were the manufacture of silk and cotton goods, coal mining and tannery.
From Joseph Brooke's quarrying firm, founded in 1840 and known for their non-slip paving stones patented in 1898, arose Brookes Chemicals Ltd who produced pricric acid for military needs, bitumen road coatings. Both stone and chemical works ceased trading in 1969. Most of the Lightcliffe plant was sold in 1969 to Philips, manufacturer of electrical goods, acquired in 1986 by Crosslee plc, who produce electric household appliances and are one of the major employers in Calderdale. Hipperholme is today a thriving village with many local shops and is home to several pubs including the Whitehall, the Traveller's Inn, the Hare and Hounds, the White Horse, the Halifax Steam Brewery with Cock o' the North Bar. A recent addition is the reopening of the former Country House as the Tannery; the local state primary schools are Lightcliffe Church of Cliffe Hill School. Secondary schools are Hipperholme Grammar School, a private school, Lightcliffe Academy, a state school known as Hipperholme and Lightcliffe, before that until 1985 as Eastfield Secondary Modern School, in Lightcliffe.
Hipperholme Grammar School has two sites, the junior school is on Wakefield road and the senior school on Bramley Lane. Hipperholme stands at a crossroads. A58 road connects it with Halifax and the M62 motorway, A644 road with Brighouse and Queensbury, A649 road with Liversedge and the A62 road. There are frequent bus routes from Hipperholme to Halifax, Brighouse and Bradford; the railway between Bradford and Halifax runs through neighbouring Lightcliffe. Both villages had stations. Hipperholme station closed in 1953 and Lightcliffe station in 1965. Hipperholme and Lightcliffe's social institutions include the Old Brodleans Rugby Club, the Masonic Hall, Lightcliffe Golf Club and the Lightcliffe Club. St. Matthew's on Wakefield Road in Lightcliffe is the local parish church of the Church of England, it was built in 1874 by W. Swindon Barber in the Gothic Revival style and is a Grade II listed structure, as is the nearby tower of its predecessor building, built by William Mallinson and dates from 1775.
St John the Baptist Church of the same denomination is located north of Hipperholme on Coley Road. It was built in the early 16th century as a chapel of ease at the instigation of William Thorpe of Hipperholme, enlarged in 1596, 1631, 1711, extensively renovated on the latter occasion, replaced by a new building in 1816; the latter was built by William Bradley from Halifax and altered by Hodgson Fowler around 1900. It is a Grade II listed building. Christ Church at the crossroads of Brighouse Road and Leeds Road was built as the Hipperholme Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, starting in 1870, by William Ives in Geometric Gothic style, it was renovated in 1888. After amalgamation with Lightcliffe United Reformed Church in 2003 it obtained its present name, it serves members of the United Reformed Church and the Methodist Church in a Local Ecumenic Partnership
Henry Robinson Hall
Henry Robinson Hall was a Victorian and Edwardian landscape painter in oils and watercolours noted for his Highland cattle. Hall was born to Eliza Robinson in the City of York in 1859 and died on 31 May 1927 at Barrow-in-Furness, he lived in the City of York, Blackpool, Woodland and Barrow-in-Furness, married Mary Annie née Bleasdale. He is buried in the yard of St. Andrews parish church at Coniston. Hall was a painter who exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1902 and was a fellow of the North British Academy of Arts. Hall's known works include: A Cattle Raid in the Highlands. Coniston Lake from Lake Bank. Denizen of the Highlands. Drover with Cows by Lake Buttermere Evening. Evening Glow Highland Cattle. Highland Cattle above Loch Maree. Highland Cattle Loch Lomond. Highland Cattle, Isle of Skye. River Wyre Nr Poulton-le-Fylde; the Dying Stag. The Ghyll, Cumbria; the Home of the Golden Eagle. The Young Falconer
Southowram is a village in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England that stands on the hill top to the east of Halifax, on the south side of Shibden valley. The village falls within the Town ward of Calderdale Council, it is a small Pennine village near Bank Top and Siddal. Northowram is on the northern side of the valley and is equidistant from Halifax and Brighouse; the parish of Southowram was recorded on 1 July 1837 as part of the Halifax Registration District. It was abolished as a distinct parish on 1 April 1937, with the parish being split between Brighouse and Elland. Parts of the village centre were rebuilt in the 1970s and 1980s, but many older buildings remain. Old buildings were replaced by council housing. More such housing is to be found in the lower part of the village. Southowram retains in the main, however, a mixture of older historic and new housing, council owned and private housing. A number of old halls and farms which survived until the 1940s and 1950s were lost in subsequent decades.
A National School was built in 1839 and served as the Sunday school for the church of St Anne in the Grove opposite. The architecture employs Gothic pointed arches but Tudor-style chimneys. In the centre of the front wall are two blocked doorways with round heads. There is a carved stone plaque, the inscription on which includes "National School". In 1837, at the age of 19, Emily Brontë came to teach at the three-storey house on Law Lane, an exclusive boarding school, she stayed for only about six months, because of the strict lifestyle demanded. She was homesick and in a collection of letters, her sister Charlotte wrote about how Emily had to work from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. each day and was more of a governess than a teacher. Emily wrote poetry while at Law Hill and became fascinated by the story of intrigue and feuding which surrounded the house's builder, Jack Sharp, his near neighbours, the Walker family of Walterclough Hall, it is said she reflected the story in the plot of her novel Wuthering Heights and that the central character Heathcliff was based on Sharp himself.
A plaque on the wall commemorates Brontë's stay between 1837 and 1838. Local industries have included farming, mining for coal and fireclay, brick-manufacture, stone quarrying and mining. With the exception of farming, quarrying, continued by Marshalls plc, these industries are more or less defunct. Marshalls continues to extract stone in the area and the company has moved its headquarters to Huddersfield in recent years. However, the quarries at Brookfoot Lane remain open. A number of walls which incorporate quarry waste can still be seen in the locality those on the valley opposite Hove Edge; these walls include a rather splendid set of steps set into the side of the valley, which lead into a small narrow ginnel to permit passage along a public footpath. The Anglican church of St Anne's, situated below the village proper, surrounded by trees and fields, is an old stone-built church with a bell tower with a clock, it is the only remaining place of worship in the village. Situated as part of a house belonging to the lord of the manor, Pope Eugenius IV issued a licence in 1440 to enable the Mass to be offered.
The legal name of the parish is "St Anne-in-the-Grove, Southowram". The church was restored in 2006 after a four-year appeal, it features a beautiful rood cross and icon as well as a gallery, a fine carved stone pulpit and some fine stained-glass windows. Various non-conformist chapels have closed over the years, most recent being Southowram Methodist Church, located at the lower end of Chapel Lane; the building has now been converted to apartments. Although the Methodist chapel building has been closed the Methodist Church in Southowram continues to meet for worship and other activities in the village Community Centre. In 2010 Southowram Methodist Church combined with Boothtown Methodist and the name was changed to Boothtown and Southowram Methodist Church. Southowram is home to Southowram Cricket Club, who play at Ashday Lane, Beacon Rangers who play on Beacon Hill. Beacon Rangers are a junior team only whereas the cricket club is home to three senior teams and U11, U13, U15 & U17 teams at junior level.
All senior teams played in their respective premier divisions until the 2009 season, where all three senior teams were relegated. The club's first and second teams were promoted to the Towergate Halifax Cricket League premier divisions at the end of the 2011 season. The'new' Southowram CC was a pub team based at The Cock and Bottle Inn at the other end of the village. In 2002, Southowram CC celebrated their 25th anniversary year by winning the right to host the Parish Cup final; the local school, Withinfields Primary School, is in the centre of the village, on Law Lane and is a feeder school for Brighouse High School. The school was relocated and re-built in 1997 when the old school, being inadequate for modern needs, was demolished; the former school site is now part of a housing estate. The new school has been built so that it can be expanded if and when the village should expand. There is a library on Law Lane at the centre of the village. "The Shoulder of Mutton" on Cain Lane was a popular public house empty.
The Pack Horse public house on Cain Lane, at the centre of the village, was in 2016 converted to an Indian restaurant, but in 2017 reverted to a thriving public house, serving food. Arthur "Ashworth" Aspinall, founder of Scots College in Sydney, was born here. William Swinden Barber, was born here. Mines around Southowram North Owram in "A concise history of the parish and vicarage of Halifax, in the county of York" by John
Halifax, West Yorkshire
Halifax is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town has been a centre of woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward dealing through the Piece Hall. Halifax is known for Mackintosh's toffee products including Rolo and Quality Street; the Halifax Bank was founded and is still headquartered in Halifax. Dean Clough, one of the largest textile factories in the world at more than 1⁄2 mile long, was in the north of the town; the premises have since been converted for office and retail use including a gym, theatre and radio station. The town's name was recorded in about 1091 as Halyfax, from the Old English halh-gefeaxe, meaning "area of coarse grass in the nook of land"; this explanation is preferred to derivations from the Old English halig, in hālig feax or "holy hair", proposed by 16th-century antiquarians. The incorrect interpretation gave rise to two legends. One concerned. Another held; the legend is certainly medieval rather than ancient, although the town's coat of arms carries an image of the saint.
Another explanation ley a clearing or meadow. This etymology is based on Haley Hill, the nearby hamlet of Healey, the common occurrence of the surnames Hayley/Haley around Halifax; the erroneous derivation from halig has given rise to the demonym Haligonian, of recent origin and not in universal use. The Earldom of Halifax took the name of the town, its first creation, in the Peerage of England in 1677, was for William Savile, created Baron Savile of Eland and Viscount Halifax in 1668 and became the Marquess of Halifax. George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, became the President of the Board of Trade in 1748. In 1749 the city of Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, was named in his honour; the Halifax River in Central Florida, United States, was named after him. Halifax is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, evidence of the early settlement is indefinite. By the 12th century the township had become the religious centre of the vast parish of Halifax, which extended from Brighouse in the east to Heptonstall in the west.
Halifax Minster, parts of which date from the 12th century is dedicated to St John the Baptist. The minster's first organist, in 1766, was William Herschel; the coat of arms of Halifax include the chequers from the original coat of arms of the Earls Warenne, who held the town during Norman times. Halifax was notorious for its gibbet, an early form of guillotine used to execute criminals by decapitation, last used in 1650. A replica has been erected on the original site in Gibbet Street, its original blade is on display at Bankfield Museum. Punishment in Halifax was notoriously harsh, as remembered in the Beggar's Litany by John Taylor, a prayer whose text included "From Hull, from Halifax, from Hell, ‘tis thus, From all these three, Good Lord deliver us.". The town's 19th century wealth came from the cotton and carpet industries and like most other Yorkshire towns, it had a large number of weaving mills many of which have been lost or converted to alternate use. In November 1938, in an incident of mass hysteria, many residents believed a serial killer, the Halifax Slasher, was on the loose.
Scotland Yard concluded there were no attacks after several locals admitted they had inflicted wounds on themselves. Halifax plc started as a building society, the Halifax Permanent Benefit Building and Investment Society, in the town in 1853. Today the bank operates as a trading name of part of the Lloyds Banking Group. Yorkshire Bank, based in Leeds and known as the West Riding Penny Savings Bank, was established on 1 May 1859 by Colonel Edward Akroyd of Halifax. Halifax is twinned with Aachen in Germany; the A58 has a stretch called Aachen Way. Halifax has benefited from Single Regeneration Budget, European URBAN II and the Home Office’s Community Cohesion Fund money through Action Halifax who have a vision for "a prosperous and safe centre where all sections of the community can access opportunities to enhance their quality of life." The ancient parish of Halifax was divided into a large number of civil parishes in the 19th century. In Halifax, a body of improvement commissioners or town trustees was created between 1762 and 1823, the town became a borough constituency under the Great Reform Act of 1832.
Halifax was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888, became a county borough in 1889. Since 1974, Halifax has been the administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire. Topographically, Halifax is located in the south-eastern corner of the moorland region called the South Pennines. Halifax is situated about 4 miles from the M62 motorway, close to Huddersfield; the Tees-Exe line passes through the A641 road, which links Brighouse with Bradford and Huddersfield, The town lies 65 miles from Hull and Liverpool, about 170 miles from the cities of London, Belfast and Cardiff as the crow flies. The Hebble Brook joins the River Calder at Salterhebble. In 2004 Calderdale had a population of 192,405; the main ethnic group in Halifax is White, followed by Pakistani. Over 90% of people aged 16–74 were employed full-time. 64% of residents had qualification
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Lightcliffe is a village in West Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is situated three miles east of Halifax and two miles north west of Brighouse in the metropolitan district of Calderdale, it was created a separate parish in 1846. Lightcliffe is a dormitory village for people working in Halifax and Bradford, commuting to Leeds and Sheffield, it stretches along the Leeds roads, surrounded by fields and rolling countryside. Lightcliffe feels established and green – with many mature trees and large houses. Lightcliffe's main park, "the Stray", is 11 acres of lawn and trees and contains a war memorial erected in 1923. In April 1937, an avenue of trees was planted in the park to commemorate King George VI's coronation. Towards the village centre is the cricket club. There are the long established Lightcliffe Golf Club and Crow's Nest Golf Club; the oldest part of the village contains the Sun Inn – a former coaching inn, along what was in antiquity the main road to London. The new Lightcliffe Anglican church, St Matthew's, was built in 1875 to replace the old church.
It is a Gothic Revival building, with an embattled parapet, reminiscent of a medieval castle. On Leeds Road is situated the URC church – now converted to offices. A feature of this church is, it has a tall stained glass. The church congregation has joined with Hipperholme Methodist Church to form a Local Ecumenical Partnership worshipping at Christ Church at the main Crossroads. Lightcliffe Academy is a secondary school serving the area. Lightcliffe Church of England Primary School is located in an old stone building and Cliffe Hill Primary has newer premises. Sir Titus Salt, a wealthy businessman known for his factory at Saltaire once lived in Crow's Nest Mansion. Lightcliffe railway station