Greenwood Lake is an interstate lake seven miles long, straddling the border of New York and New Jersey. It is located in the Town of Warwick and the Village of Greenwood Lake, New York and West Milford, New Jersey, it is the source of the Wanaque River. The lake was called "Quampium" by the Munsee Native Americans who lived there, it was renamed "Long Pond" by Europeans, who settled the area in the 18th century for farming and ironmaking, came to be re-christened "Greenwood Lake." It was dammed up ca. 1765 by Peter Hasenclever of The American Company to increase the size of the lake for water power used downstream at the Long Pond Ironworks. The original dam was located with is today's Fox Island, with most of the lake extending north of the state line. In 1837, the lake was again dammed, but at the location of the current dam, this time by the Morris Canal & Banking Company to supply water to the Pompton Feeder of the Morris Canal; the enlarged lake now flooded the Succor Brook at the northern end, forming the East Arm, surrounded "Lime Ridge" to create Chapel Island, flooded the extreme southern end, including parts of Belcher Creek.
The enlarged lake began to attract tourists. The Montclair and Greenwood Lake Railway reached the lake at Awosting around 1874, the "State Line" depot was established around 1876. During its resort era, several steamboats operated on the lake, including the Greenwood Lake Transportation Company's Arlington and their side-wheeler, built in 1876, which had two decks and is reported to have been capable of carrying from 200 to 400 passengers. There were other steamers that were run, such as the Pioneer and the Anita, smaller steam launches, such as the Wilhemina, the Carrie T. and the Ferncliff, run by specific hotels. These steamboats met the trains and took passengers to the various resorts around the lake in both states. There is a seaplane area on a few large marinas and lakeside restaurants with docks. Greenwood Lake Airport just south of the lake has a runway long enough to handle small jets. There are numerous restaurants along Greenwood Lake. In 2011, the film "The Magic of Bell Isle" starring Morgan Freeman was filmed along the lake.
Jasper Francis Cropsey created several paintings of Greenwood Lake beginning in 1843. Cropsey painted many paintings of the area such as American Harvesting, Greenwood Lake, Fisherman's House, Greenwood Lake, Cooley Homestead–Greenwood Lake. Cropsey met and married Maria Cooley, daughter of Issac P. Cooley, in 1847 so continued to visit the area for many years. Official on-line news blog for the Village of Greenwood Lake Village website "History of Greenwood Lake", Steve Gross
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia. The genus is distinguished by its long and rubbery properties, which have made the tree useful to humans. Sassafras trees grow from 9–35 m tall with many slender sympodial branches, smooth, orange-brown bark or yellow bark. All parts of the plants are fragrant; the species are unusual in having three distinct leaf patterns on the same plant: unlobed oval and trilobed. Three-lobed leaves are more common in Sassafras tzumu and Sassafras randaiense than in their North American counterparts, although three-lobed leaves do sometimes occur on Sassafras albidum; the young leaves and twigs are quite mucilaginous, produce a citrus-like scent when crushed. The tiny, yellow flowers are six-petaled; the fruit is a drupe, blue-black when ripe. The largest known sassafras tree in the world is in Owensboro, is over 100 feet high and 21 feet in circumference.
The genus Sassafras was first described by the Bohemian botanist Jan Presl in 1825. The name "sassafras", applied by the botanist Nicolas Monardes in 1569, comes from the French sassafras; some sources claim it originates from the Latin saxifraga or saxifragus: "stone-breaking". Sassafras trees are not within the family Saxifragaceae. Early European colonists reported that the plant was called winauk by Native Americans in Delaware and Virginia and pauane by the Timucua. Native Americans distinguished between white sassafras and red sassafras, which terms referred to the same plant but to different parts of the plant with distinct colors and uses. Sassafras was known as fennel wood due to its distinctive aroma; the genus Sassafras includes three extant and one extinct. Sassafras plants are endemic to North America and East Asia, with two species in each region that are distinguished by some important characteristics, including the frequency of three-lobed leaves and aspects of their sexual reproduction.
Taiwanese sassafras, Taiwan, is treated by some botanists in a distinct genus as Yushunia randaiensis Kamikoti, though this is not supported by recent genetic evidence, which shows Sassafras to be monophyletic. Sassafras albidum Nees – sassafras, white sassafras, red sassafras, or silky sassafras, eastern North America, from southernmost Ontario, Canada through the eastern United States, south to central Florida, west to southern Iowa and East Texas Wisconsin †Sassafras hesperia – western North American, from the Eocene Klondike Mountain Formation of Washington and British Columbia. Sassafras tzumu Hemsl. – Chinese sassafras or tzumu and southwestern China Sassafras randaiense Rehd. – Taiwan Many Lauraceae are aromatic, evergreen trees or shrubs adapted to high rainfall and humidity, but the genus Sassafras is deciduous. Deciduous sassafras trees lose all of their leaves for part of the year, depending on variations in rainfall. In deciduous tropical Lauraceae, leaf loss coincides with the dry season in tropical and arid regions.
In temperate climates, the dry season is due to the inability of the plant to absorb water available to it only in the form of ice. Sassafras is found in open woods, along fences, or in fields, it grows well in moist, well-drained, or sandy loam soils and tolerates a variety of soil types, attaining a maximum in southern and wetter areas of distribution. Sassafras albidum ranges from southern Maine and southern Ontario west to Iowa, south to central Florida and eastern Texas, in North America. Sassafras tzumu may be found in Anhui, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan and Zhejiang, China. Sassafras randaiense is native to Taiwan; the leaves, twigs and fruits are eaten by birds and mammals in small quantities. For most animals, sassafras is not consumed in large enough quantities to be important, although it is an important deer food in some areas. Carey and Gill rate its value to wildlife as their lowest rating. Sassafras leaves and twigs are consumed by white-tailed porcupines. Other sassafras leaf browsers include groundhogs, marsh rabbits, American black bears.
Rabbits eat. American beavers will cut. Sassafras fruits are eaten by many species of birds, including bobwhite quail, eastern kingbirds, great crested flycatchers, wild turkeys, gray catbirds, northern flickers, pileated woodpeckers, downy woodpeckers, thrushes and northern mockingbirds; some small mammals consume sassafras fruits. All parts of sassafras plants, including roots, twig leaves, bark and fruit, have been used for culinary and aromatic purposes, both in areas where they are endemic and in areas where they were imported, such as Europe; the wood of sassafras trees has been used as a material for building ships and furniture in China and the United States, sassafras played an important role in the history of the European colonization of the American continent in the 16th and 17th centuries. Sassafras twigs have been used as toothbrushes or fire starters. Sassafras albidum is an important ingredient in some distinct foods of the United States, it is the main ingredient in traditional root beer and sassafras root tea, groun
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
The Monksville Reservoir is an artificial lake created in 1987 by damming on the Wanaque River in West Milford, New Jersey. It is named after the former community of Monksville, relocated and flooded upon its completion; the reservoir was built to relieve chronic water shortages in northern New Jersey that occurred in the 1980s due to drought conditions. The reservoir extended the capacity of the nearby 29-million-US-gallon Wanaque Reservoir, it is owned jointly by the Hackensack Water Company and the North Jersey District Water Supply Commission. The lake is in Long Pond Ironworks State Park, located in the community of Hewitt, in West Milford, New Jersey, United States; the park is known for its old stone walls and other remnants of a once industrious ironworking community that now sits next to the swiftly flowing Wanaque River. The park is maintained by the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry; the state of New Jersey spent $2.7 million purchasing land at the site to be part of the state park before drought changed the priority to the reservoir.
15 residences owned by the Rhinesmith and Vreeland families, were purchased with NJ Green Acres funding and their owners relocated. Two homes of historic significance were moved, the others were demolished. One business, was relocated and its building demolished. Construction of the reservoir was started in 1985. Land was cleared and gravel was crushed on site and stock-piled. Stonetown Road was realigned to run over the dam. A small bailey bridge, put in place in 1977 was dismantled to be used again elsewhere; the Monksville dam is 0.4 miles long. A portion of Greenwood Lake Turnpike was realigned to higher ground; the dam impounds water from the Wanaque River flowing down from Greenwood Lake. A spillway was constructed to allow water to flow into the Wanaque Reservoir below. During times of low flow, water from the Monksville Reservoir is released into the Wanaque Reservoir below via the intake tower which mixes water from various levels of the Monksville; the dam was constructed with rollcrete.
Dirt and gravel from on-site were mixed with cement. A dry mix of this material was laid down by large spreader trucks. A water truck would sprinkle the mix every 30 minutes around the clock to cure the mix; the face of the dam on the water side was faced with concrete, the other side was earthen. In 2007 the earthen side was refaced with concrete. Building of the actual dam started in March 1987 and was completed in August 1987. Then-governor Thomas Kean was present for the ribbon-cutting ceremony in autumn 1987; the reservoir filled and was full by October 1987. The lake is used by anglers, sporting clubs, the Society for the Education of American Sailors, is the home of Highlands Rowing Center and Advanced Community Rowing Association; the reservoir is the home practice facility of the Suffern High School Novice Crew teams. The Monksville Reservoir is known for its trophy size muskellunge, walleye and trout. Monksville Reservoir Photos of paddling on Monksville Reservoir in October, 2005 Long Pond Ironworks State Park
Passaic County, New Jersey
Passaic County is a county in the U. S. state of New Jersey, part of the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 501,226, an increase of 12,177 from the 489,049 counted in the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 512,607, making it the state's ninth-most populous county, marking an increase of 2.3% from 2010. Its county seat is Paterson; the most populous place was Paterson, with 146,199 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, more than 29% of the county's population, while West Milford covered 80.32 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality and more than 40% of the county's area. Passaic County was created on February 1837, from portions of Bergen County and Essex County; the landscape of Passaic County, near the north edge of New Jersey, spans some hilly areas and has dozens of lakes. The county covers a region about 30 × 20 miles wide; the region is split including portions of Interstate 287 and I-80, near Paterson.
The Garden State Parkway cuts near Clifton. The Passaic River winds northeast past Totowa into Paterson, where the river turns south to Passaic town, on the way to Newark, further south; the highest point is any one of six areas on Bearfort Ridge in West Milford at 1,480 feet above sea level. The lowest elevation is 20 feet along the Passaic River in Clifton; the southeastern, more populous half of the county is either mildly hilly. The northwestern section is mountainous. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 197.10 square miles, including 184.59 square miles of land and 12.51 square miles of water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Paterson have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −11 °F was recorded in January 1961 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in September 1953. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.86 inches in February to 4.78 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 501,226 people, 166,785 households, 120,919.125 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,715.3 per square mile. There were 175,966 housing units at an average density of 953.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.65% White, 12.83% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 5.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 15.11% from other races, 3.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.04% of the population. There were 166,785 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.45. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 12% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.1 males. Same-sex couples headed one in 149 households in 2010; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 489,049 people, 163,856 households, 119,614 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,639 people per square mile. There were 170,048 housing units at an average density of 918 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 62.32% White, 13.22% Black or African American, 0.44% Native American, 3.69% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 16.24% from other races, 4.05% from two or more races. 29.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those who reported their ancestry, 16.6% were of Italian, 9.5% Irish, 8.1% German and 6.2% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 163,856 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.50% were married couples living together, 16.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.00% were non-families.
22.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.42. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 12.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,210, the median income for a family was $56,054. Males had a median income of $38,740 versus $29,954 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,370. About 9.40% of families and 12.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 9.20% of those age 65 or over. The Passaic County Court House and Administrative Building complex is located at the county seat in Paterson. In Passaic County's commission form of government, the Board of Chosen Freeholders discharge both executive and legislative responsibilities.
Seven Freeholders are elected at-large for three-year terms on a staggered basis. A Freeholder Director and Freeholder Deputy Director are elected from among the seven Freeholders a
Wanaque Reservoir is a man-made lake located within Wanaque and Ringwood, New Jersey along the Wanaque River. The reservoir came into being in 1928 by the construction of the Raymond Dam along the river in Wanaque. Besides the Wanaque River, the reservoir receives water from two diversions: the Pompton Lakes intake, which takes water from the Ramapo River, the Two Bridges intake, which takes water from the Pompton River, it is the second largest reservoir in New Jersey by volume, after Round Valley Reservoir. Construction of the Wanaque Reservoir represented a significant achievement in enabling the supply of potable water to local areas that didn't have safe drinking water sources; the project took quite an extensive time. After eight years of construction, water was delivered to customers for the first time in 1930. Upon completion, the Wanaque Reservoir supplied water to several member municipalities including Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair, Newark and Paterson. A major feature that came with the construction of Wanaque Reservoir was the West Brook Road Bridge.
The bridge was constructed to carry the re-located West Brook Road across the Wanaque Reservoir. Construction of the West Brook Road Bridge began in 1926 and it was opened to traffic in 1928; the bridge was to be rebuilt for safety reasons and the new bridge was completed in early 2018. Wanaque Reservoir Drought 2016