Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
Alfred William Howitt
Alfred William Howitt was an Australian anthropologist and naturalist. Mount Howitt in Victoria, and Howitt Hall, one of Monash Universitys Halls of Residence are named after him, Howitt was born in Nottingham, the son of authors William Howitt and Mary Botham. He came to the Victorian gold fields in 1852 with his father and brother to visit his uncle, Howitt was a geologist in Victoria, later, he worked as a gold warden in North Gippsland. Howitt went on to be appointed Police magistrate & Warden Crown Lands Commissioner, still, in 1861, the Royal Society of Victoria appointed Howitt leader of the Victorian Relief Expedition, with the task of establishing the fate of the Burke and Wills expedition. Howitt was a bushman, he took only the necessary equipment. There, on 16 September he found sole survivor John King, Howitt buried Burke, on a follow-up expedition to Cooper Creek in 1862, Howitt recovered the bodies of Burke and Wills for burial at the Melbourne General Cemetery. Howitt researched the culture and society of Indigenous Australians, in particular kinship and marriage, he was influenced by the theories of evolution, in 1863 he married Maria Boothby, they had five children.
Maria was the daughter of Judge Benjamin Boothby, Chief Justice of the Colony of South Australia, Howitt was Secretary for Mines in Victoria. In 1903 Howitt was awarded the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales, Howitt died in 1908 in Bairnsdale, Victoria. The recreational park named in his honour is located adjacent to the Mitchell River Bridge on the side of Bairnsdale. Howitts scientific life shared a special irony with that of his longtime friend Lorimer Fison and they were both set in motion by Lewis Henry Morgan, Morgan pinned more hope on Fison than on Howitt. However, Fison gave up his scientific pursuit shortly after Morgans death, howitts magnum opus, The Native Tribes of South East Australia, remains one of the only contemporaneous scientific studies of the native institutions of Central Australian Aborigines. Come wind, come weather, a biography of Alfred Howitt, Alfred William,1870,15 March 1870. Notes on the Aborigines of Coopers Creek, note as to descent in the Dieri tribe.
The Dieri and other kindred tribes of Central Australia, transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009, Alfred William, The native tribes of south-east Australia, Macmillan, OL 24190592M Howitt, Alfred William,1907. Personal reminiscences of Central Australia and the Burke and Wills Expedition, journal of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. Howitt, Alfred William, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, legends of the Dieri and kindred tribes of Central Australia
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea. Common usage frequently finds these names being applied to ophiuroids. About 1,500 species of starfish occur on the seabed in all the worlds oceans and they are found from the intertidal zone down to abyssal depths,6,000 m below the surface. They typically have a disc and five arms, though some species have a larger number of arms. The aboral or upper surface may be smooth, granular or spiny, many species are brightly coloured in various shades of red or orange, while others are blue, grey or brown. Starfish have tube feet operated by a system and a mouth at the centre of the oral or lower surface. They are opportunistic feeders and are predators on benthic invertebrates. Several species have specialized feeding behaviours including eversion of their stomachs and they have complex life cycles and can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most can regenerate damaged parts or lost arms and they can shed arms as a means of defence, the Asteroidea occupy several significant ecological roles.
Starfish, such as the sea star and the reef sea star, have become widely known as examples of the keystone species concept in ecology. The fossil record for starfish is ancient, dating back to the Ordovician around 450 million years ago, only the ossicles and spines of the animal are likely to be preserved, making remains hard to locate. With their appealing symmetrical shape, starfish have played a part in literature, legend and they are sometimes collected as curios, used in design or as logos, and in some cultures, despite possible toxicity, they are eaten. The scientific name Asteroidea was given to starfish by the French zoologist de Blainville in 1830 and it is derived from the Greek aster, ἀστήρ and the Greek eidos, εἶδος. The class Asteroidea belongs to the phylum Echinodermata, as well as the starfish, the echinoderms include sea urchins, sand dollars and basket stars, sea cucumbers and crinoids. The larvae of echinoderms have bilateral symmetry, but during metamorphosis this is replaced with radial symmetry, adult echinoderms are characterized by having a water vascular system with external tube feet and a calcareous endoskeleton consisting of ossicles connected by a mesh of collagen fibres.
Starfish are included in the subphylum Asterozoa, the characteristics of which include a flattened, star-shaped body as adults consisting of a central disc, the subphylum includes the two classes of Asteroidea, the starfish, and Ophiuroidea, the brittle stars and basket stars. The starfish are a large and diverse class with about 1,500 living species, there are seven extant orders, Forcipulatida, Paxillosida, Spinulosida and Velatida and two extinct ones, Calliasterellidae and Trichasteropsida. Most starfish have five arms that radiate from a central disc, Luidia ciliaris has seven arms, members of the Solasteridae have ten to fifteen while the Antarctic Labidiaster annulatus can have up to fifty
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
The Shoalhaven River rises on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range, below Euranbene Mountain, about 350 kilometres southwest of Sydney. The upper reaches of the river flow northwards through a pastoral district near the town of Braidwood. The river works its way down into a remote canyon east of Goulburn and emerges into the lowlands at Nowra in the Shoalhaven district. The river is joined by tributaries, including the Mongarlowe, Corang and Kangaroo rivers. The estuary has two entrances, approximately 5 kilometres apart, that flow into the Shoalhaven Bight within the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean, the southern entrance is located at Crookhaven Heads and is permanently open. The Shoalhaven River flows south via Berrys Canal to Greenwell Point, the construction of the canal formed Comerong Island. The canal was dug using own hand tools, and was the first land navigable canal in Australia, Berrys Canal remains one of two navigable canals in New South Wales, the other being the Alexandra Canal.
The northern entrance is located south of Shoalhaven Heads, and is open intermittently, at times of peak flow, Tallowa Dam is the only major dam on the Shoalhaven, and is a part of the Shoalhaven Scheme. It impounds the lower reaches to form Lake Yarrunga and part of Sydneys water supply. Some water is pumped out of the lake and over the Southern Highlands into Lake Burragorang, proposals for a much larger water storage at Welcome Reef on the upper Shoalhaven have been shelved. The Shoalhaven River and its tributary the Kangaroo River were once renowned as an Australian bass fishery. Recent stockings of hatchery-bred Bass in Lake Yarrunga are an attempt to remediate the situation, a fishway for Tallowa Dam was completed in August 2009. This fishway is designed to allow for the movement of bass, Lake Yarrunga has suffered the illegal introduction of highly damaging European carp, which are now present in high densities. The traditional custodians of the surrounding the Shoalhaven River, in its lower reaches, are the Aboriginal peoples of the Yuin nation.
In the land north of the river, the people from the Wodi Wodi clan are the traditional custodians, while south of the river, the Wandi Wandian clan are the traditional custodians. The explorer and navigator George Bass found the entrance to the Shoalhaven River during his voyage down the south coast of New South Wales in 1797. He gave the name Shoals Haven to the river because of the shoals of mud, the river crossings, from its headwaters to its river mouth, Bombay Crossing Warri Bridge carries the Kings Highway, near Braidwood. A bridge at this location was first opened on 23 September 1874, Stewarts Crossing is a ford on Stewarts Crossing Road
Three of the Yuin groups include, north of present-day Narooma Murramurang, north of Deua River south of Lake Conjola. Dyiringanj, or Djiringanj, from Narooma, south to Bega, the population before 1788 has been estimated at about 11000 between Cape Howe and Batemans Bay. The population was reduced to only 600 by the mid nineteenth century due to epidemics in 1789 and 1830, as well as tribal battles. 1858, d.1919 Sydney, married to Gunaal alias Rosie Carpenter from Roseby Park, children Harry, Percy, Kate, biamangas mother Elizabeth Turner was the daughter of Ko, ma of Dry River. Biamanga was given the task of Biambun because Merriman had no living children and he was given a Breast plate in 1912 which read Biamanga, King of Wallaga Lake and Bega District, born Bredbatoura. This plate is in a private Australian collection, the Eurobodalla Shire Council signed a Local Agreement with the Yuin people in 1998. In 2001, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Bega and Merrimans Local Aboriginal Land Councils, the Native Title Holders, the Yuin are considered as the traditional owners of Wallaga Lake land.
The former Wallaga Lake National Park is incorporated into Gulaga National Park, Merriman Island in Wallaga Lake is a sacred place for the Yuin people. On 25 November 1977, it was the first place in New South Wales to be declared an Aboriginal Heritage site by the New South Wales National Parks, the island was named after King Merriman, leader of the Yuin, who died in 1904. Mumbulla Mountain, located in the middle of Bega Valley Shire, was named in November 1973, after Jack Mumbulla, Mumbulla Mountain is the central place of significance in Biamanga National Park. Certain areas have been recognised as a meeting places for Aboriginal men and women. Mount Dromedary, recently renamed Gulaga Mountain, in the Gulaga National Park, is described by Aboriginal people as the place of origin for Yuin people. Gulaga itself symbolises the mother and provides a basis for Aboriginal spiritual identity, on 6 May 2006 the freehold titles to Gulaga and Biamanga National Parks were handed back to the Yuin people by the New South Wales Government.
Montague Island is known to the Yuin people as Barranguba, Barranguba is regarded as being the son of Gulaga, along with Najanuga, Barranguba being the oldest son and allowed out to sea, whereas Najanuga had to stay close to his mother. The Yuin are known as, Djiringanj, ausAnthrop Australian Aboriginal tribal database entry for Thaua Accessed 9 June 2008 Tindale, Norman Djiringanj in his Catalogue of Australian Aboriginal Tribes. Accessed 92008 Portion of Norman Tindales Tribal Boundary Map including Djiringanj, Walbanga, & Wandandian Accessed from South Australian Museum website 9 June 2008
Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It has offices in 41 countries worldwide and operates in more than thirty others, Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886, other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Chaudhuri, Seán OCasey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, Macmillan established an office in New York City. It sold its American division in 1896, which published as the Macmillan Company, Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martins Press. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company and he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, and from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament.
The company was one of the oldest independent publishing houses until 1995, Holtzbrinck purchased the remaining shares in 1999, ending the Macmillan familys ownership of the company. Even with the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and he came to the United States with his family in the service of Macmillans of England and built up a business of approximately $50,000 before he died. By my father, who eventually incorporated The Macmillan Company of New York, I succeeded my father, and we currently doing a business of approximately $12,000,000. So then, the name of Brett and the name of Macmillan have been and are synonymous in the United States, pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001, mcGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand.
The US operations of Georg von Holtzbrinck are now known as Macmillan, one of the leading companies is Macmillan, that started by selling British English dictionaries and textbooks that were adapted for Russian readers. Their site website provides Russian teachers and students with an access for tests, competitions and information on scheduled online seminars. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market. Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon, in the latter case, Amazon. com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both electronic and physical, from their website, on 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, the suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon. coms position in the market, in violation of antitrust law