The Bothnian Sea links the Bothnian Bay with the Baltic proper. Kvarken is situated between the two. Together, the Bothnian Sea and Bay make up a larger geographical entity, the Gulf of Bothnia, where the Bothnian Sea is the southern part; the whole Gulf of Bothnia is situated between Sweden, to the West, Finland, to the East, the Sea of Åland and Archipelago Sea to the South. The surface area of Bothnian Sea is 79,000 km²; the largest coastal towns, from south to north, are Rauma and Pori in Finland, Gävle and Sundsvall in Sweden. Umeå and Vaasa lie near Bothnian Bay. Bothnian Sea National Park Media related to Bothnian Sea at Wikimedia Commons
Foxe Basin is a shallow oceanic basin north of Hudson Bay, in Nunavut, located between Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula. For most of the year, it is blocked by sea drift ice made up of multiple ice floes; the nutrient-rich cold waters found in the basin are known to be favourable to phytoplankton and the numerous islands within it are important bird habitats, including Sabine's gulls and many types of shorebirds. Bowhead whales migrate to the northern part of the basin each summer; the basin takes its name from the English explorer Luke Foxe who entered the lower part in 1631. Foxe Basin is a broad, predominantly shallow depression less than 100 metres in depth, while to the south, depths of up to 400 metres occur; the tidal range decreases from 5 m in the southeast to less than 1 m in the northwest. During much of the year, landfast ice dominates in the north, while pack ice prevails towards the south. Foxe Basin itself is ice-free until September, open pack ice being common throughout the summer.
Vigorous tidal currents and strong winds keep the ice pack in constant motion and contribute to the numerous polynyas and shore leads which are found throughout the region. This same motion, combined with the high sediment content of the water makes the sea ice of Foxe Basin dark and rough distinguishable from other ice in the Canadian Arctic. Foxe Basin is connected to the Gulf of Boothia via the narrow Fury and Hecla Strait, to Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait via the wide Foxe Channel, it is connected to Repulse Bay and Roes Welcome Sound via Frozen Strait. The terrain is rocky and rugged in the southern half of the region, low-lying in the north. High cliffs are found across the southern portion of the region. Coastal marshes and tidal flats up to 6.5 km in width are found in the vast lowland section of eastern Foxe Basin, as well as in the bays of Southampton Island. This is one of the little-known areas of the Canadian Arctic, though it is proving to be biologically rich and diverse; the numerous polynyas in northern Foxe Basin support high densities of bearded seals and the largest walrus herd in Canada.
Ringed seal and polar bear are common, with north Southampton Island as one of the highest-density polar bear denning areas in Canada. This area is an important summering area for the bowhead whale, beluga whale and narwhal. Both bowhead belugas winter in the waters of northeastern Hudson Bay. Bowheads were the only known baleen whales to occur in the Hudson Bay, but some other species of whale, such as humpback and minke, are confirmed to migrate into the waters as well; the region is the main North American stronghold of the Sabine's gull, with some 10,000 pairs nesting here. Moderate numbers of black guillemots, Arctic terns and glaucous and ivory gulls breed here; the Great Plain of the Koukdjuak on Baffin Island is the world's largest goose nesting colony, with upwards of 1.5 million birds, 75 percent of which are lesser snow geese and the remainder Canada and brant geese. Shorebirds and ducks are abundant. Several hundred thousand thick-billed murres breed on the cliffs of Digges Sound and Coats Island to the south.
This region is not yet represented in the national marine conservation areas system. Studies to identify preliminary representative marine areas have yet to be undertaken
Borders of the oceans
The borders of the oceans are the limits of the Earth's oceanic waters. The definition and number of oceans can vary depending on the adopted criteria. Though described as several separate oceans, the world's oceanic waters constitute one global, interconnected body of salt water sometimes referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean; this concept of a continuous body of water with free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, other criteria; the principal divisions are the: Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, bays and other names. Geologically, an ocean is an area of oceanic crust covered by water. Oceanic crust is the thin layer of solidified volcanic basalt. Continental crust is less dense. From this perspective, the Earth has three oceans: the World Ocean, the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea.
The latter two were formed by the collision of Cimmeria with Laurasia. The Mediterranean Sea is at times a discrete ocean, because tectonic plate movement has broken its connection to the World Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar; the Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean through the Bosporus, but the Bosporus is a natural canal cut through continental rock some 7,000 years ago, rather than a piece of oceanic sea floor like the Strait of Gibraltar. Despite their names, some smaller landlocked "seas" are not connected with the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea and numerous salt lakes such as the Aral Sea. A complete hierarchy showing which seas belong to which oceans, according to the International Hydrographic Organization and for the whole planet, is available at the European Marine Gazetteer website. See the list of seas article for the seas included in each ocean area. Note there are many varying definitions of the world's seas and no single authority; the Arctic Ocean covers much of the Arctic and washes upon northern North America and Eurasia and is sometimes considered a sea or estuary of the Atlantic.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Arctic Ocean as follows: Between Greenland and West Spitzbergen — The Northern limit of Greenland Sea. Between West Spitzbergen and North East Land — the parallel of lat. 80°N. From Cape Leigh Smith to Cape Kohlsaat — the Northern limit of Barentsz Sea. From Cape Kohlsaat to Cape Molotov — the Northern limit of Kara Sea. From Cape Molotov to the Northern extremity of Kotelni Island — the Northern limit of Laptev Sea. From the Northern extremity of Kotelni Island to the Northern point of Wrangel Island — the Northern limit of East Siberian Sea. From the Northern point of Wrangel Island to Point Barrow — the Northern limit of Chuckchi Sea. From Point Barrow to Cape Land's End on Prince Patrick Island — the Northern limit of Beaufort Sea, through the Northwest coast of Prince Patrick Island to Cape Leopold M'Clintock, thence to Cape Murray and along the Northwest coast to the extreme Northerly point. Note that these definitions exclude any marginal waterbodies that are separately defined by the IHO, though these are considered to be part of the Arctic Ocean.
The CIA defines the limits of the Arctic Ocean differently, as depicted in the map comparing its definition to the IHO's definition. The Atlantic Ocean separates the Americas from Africa, it may be further subdivided by the equator into southern portions. The 3rd edition in force, of the International Hydrographic Organization's Limits of Oceans and Seas defines the limits of the North Atlantic Ocean as follows: On the West; the Eastern limits of the Caribbean Sea, the Southeastern limits of the Gulf of Mexico from the North coast of Cuba to Key West, the Southwestern limit of the Bay of Fundy and the Southeastern and Northeastern limits of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. On the North; the Southern limit of Davis Strait from the coast of Labrador to Greenland and the Southwestern limit of the Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from Greenland to the Shetland Islands. On the East; the Northwestern limit of the North Sea, the Northern and Western limits of the Scottish Seas, the Southern limit of the Irish Sea, the Western limits of the Bristol and English Channels, of the Bay of Biscay and of the Mediterranean Sea.
On the South. The equator, from the coast of Brazil to the Southwestern limit of the Gulf of Guinea; the 3rd edition of the International Hydrographic Organization's Limits of Oceans and Seas defines the limits of the South Atlantic Ocean as follows: On the Southwest. The meridian of Cape Horn, Chile from Tierra del Fuego to the Antarctic Continent; the limit of the Rio de La Plata. On the North; the Southern limit of the North Atlantic Ocean. On the Northeast; the limit of the Gulf of Guinea. On the Southeast. From Cape Agulhas along the meridian
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
The Fram Strait is the passage between Greenland and Svalbard, located between 77°N and 81°N latitudes and centered on the prime meridian. The Greenland and Norwegian Seas lie south of Fram Strait, while the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean lies to the north. Fram Strait is noted for being the only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the World Oceans; the dominant oceanographic features of the region are the West Spitsbergen Current on the east side of the strait and the East Greenland Current on the west. Fram Strait is the northernmost ocean area having ice-free conditions throughout the year; the width of the strait is about 450 km, but because of the wide continental shelves of Greenland and Spitsbergen, the deep portion of Fram Strait is only about 300 km wide. The ocean over the Greenland continental shelf is covered with ice. Within Fram Strait, the sill connecting the Arctic and Fram Strait is 2545 m deep; the Knipovich Ridge, the northernmost section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, extends northward through the strait to connect to the Nansen-Gakkel Ridge of the Arctic Ocean.
A rift valley, caused by sea-floor spreading, runs parallel to the Knipovich Ridge. The Molloy Deep within Fram Strait is the deepest point of the Arctic; this small basin at 79°8.5′N and 2°47′E has a maximum depth of 5607 m. The Yermak Plateau, with a mean depth of about 650 m, lies to the northwest of Spitsbergen. Fram Strait was home to a large population of Bowhead whales called the Greenland right whale. By mid-17th century, the Svalbard population of Bowhead whales was reduced to near extinction by excessive whaling. Western Fram Strait may be a wintering ground for this Critically Endangered population; the use of the name "Fram Strait" for the passage between Spitsbergen and Greenland appears to have come into common use in the oceanographic literature in the 1970s. Fram Strait is named after the Norwegian ship Fram. In an 1893 expedition led by Fridtjof Nansen, the Fram drifted for two years across the Arctic before exiting the Arctic through what is now known as Fram Strait. According to glaciologist and geographer Moira Dunbar, an early adopter of the name, the name "Fram Strait" originated in the Russian scientific literature.
While in common use in the oceanographic scientific literature, the name appears to be unofficial. Fram Strait is the only deep-water connection between the Arctic. Other gateways are the Barents Sea Opening, the Bering Strait and various small channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, they are all shallower than Fram Strait, leaving Fram Strait the only route by which deep water can be exchanged between the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. This exchange occurs in both directions, with specific water masses identified with specific regions flowing between the Oceans. Water with characteristics of the deep Canadian and Eurasian Basins of the Arctic are observed leaving the Arctic in the deep western side of Fram Strait, for example. On the eastern side, cold water from the Norwegian Sea is observed entering the Arctic below the West Spitsbergen Current. In recent years the nature and interactions of these water masses have been changing, symptoms of the changes occurring with the ocean's climate.
Warm, salty water is transported northward from the Atlantic by the West Spitsbergen Current in the east of the strait. The West Spitsbergen Current is the northernmost branch of the North Atlantic Current system; this water forms. The sub-surface flow has a strong seasonality with a minimal volume transport in winter; this current transports internal energy into the Arctic Ocean. The northward velocity is maximum in winter, so the heat transport is highest in winter. On the west side of the strait, the East Greenland Current flows southward on the Greenland Shelf; the current carries is cold and fresh water out of the Arctic that corresponds to a water mass called Polar water. The Fram Strait area is located downwind of the Transpolar Drift and therefore covered by multi-year ice in the west of the strait, next to the coast of Greenland. 90% of sea ice exported from the Arctic is transported by the East Greenland Current. Sea ice corresponds to fresh water, since its salt content of 4 per mil is much less than the 35 per mil for sea water.
The Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the Norwegian Polar Institute have maintained long term monitoring measurements in Fram Strait to obtain volume- and energy-budgets through this choke point. The observations serve to assess the development of the Arctic Ocean as a sink for terrestrial organic carbon; the AWI=NPI observing array consists of a line of up to 16 moorings across Fram Strait. The mooring line has been maintained since 1997 with a spacing of 25 km. At up to five different depths, the moored array measures the water velocity and salinity of the water column. Computer simulations suggest that 60 to 70% of the fluctuation of the sea ice flowing through the Fram Strait is correlated with a 6–7 year fluctuation in which the Icelandic Low Pressure system extends eastward into the Barents Sea; the amount of sea ice passing through the Fram Strait varies from year to year and affects the global climate through its influence on thermohaline circulation. The warming in the Fram Strait region has amplified Arctic shrinkage, serves as a positive feedback mechanism for transporting more internal energy to the Arctic Ocean.
In the past century, the sea surface temperature at Fram Strait has on average warmed 1.9 °C, is 1.4 °C warmer than during the Medieval Warm Period
The Greenland Sea is a body of water that borders Greenland to the west, the Svalbard archipelago to the east, Fram Strait and the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Norwegian Sea and Iceland to the south. The Greenland Sea is defined as part of the Arctic Ocean, sometimes as part of the Atlantic Ocean. However, definitions of the Arctic Ocean and its seas tend to be arbitrary. In general usage the term "Arctic Ocean" would exclude the Greenland Sea. In oceanographic studies the Greenland Sea is considered part of the Nordic Seas, along with the Norwegian Sea; the Nordic Seas are the main connection between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans and, as such, could be of great significance in a possible shutdown of thermohaline circulation. In oceanography the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas are referred to collectively as the "Arctic Mediterranean Sea", a marginal sea of the Atlantic; the sea has Arctic climate with regular northern winds and temperatures rising above 0 °C. It contained the Odden ice tongue area, which extended eastward from the main East Greenland ice edge in the vicinity of 72–74°N during the winter and acted as a key winter ice formation area in the Arctic.
The West Ice forms in winter in the Greenland Sea, north of Iceland, between Greenland and Jan Mayen island. It is a major breeding ground of harp seal and hooded seal, used for seal hunting for more than 200 years; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Greenland Sea as follows: On the North. A line joining the Northernmost point of Spitzbergen to the Northernmost point of Greenland. On the East; the West coast of West Spitzbergen. On the Southeast. A line joining the Southernmost point of West Spitzbergen to the Northern point of Jan Mayen Island, down the West coast of that island to its Southern extreme, thence a Line to the Eastern extreme of Gerpir in Iceland. On the Southwest. A line joining Straumnes to Cape Nansen in Greenland. On the West; the East and Northeast coast of Greenland between Cape Nansen and the northernmost point. While the sea has been known for millennia, the first scientific investigations were carried out in 1876–1878 as part of the Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition.
Since many countries Norway and Russia have sent scientific expeditions to the area. The complex water current system in the Greenland Sea was described in 1909 by Fridtjof Nansen; the Greenland Sea was a popular hunting ground for the whaling industry for 300 years, until 1911 based in Spitsbergen. At that point, the rich whale population here, was so depleted that the industry was no longer profitable; the remaining whales of the Greenland Sea has been protected since, but the populations have not shown any proof of significant regeneration. Since the late 1990s, polar biologists reports an increase in the local bowhead whale population and in 2015, arctic scientists discovered a surprising abundance of them in a small area; these results may be interpreted as an early sign of a beginning recovery for this particular species, that once formed the largest bowhead population in the world, at an estimated 52,000 whales. The Inuit hunted whales on a non-industrial scale in the Greenland Sea since the 15th century, as evidenced by archaeology.
The first complete man-powered crossing of the Greenland Sea was achieved in 2017 by rowing expedition, Polar Row led by Fiann Paul. The Greenland Sea is bounded to the west by the island of Greenland, to the south by the Denmark Strait and Iceland. To the southeast, behind the Jan Mayen island lies the vast expanse of the Norwegian Sea, of which Greenland Sea may be considered an extension. Across the Fram Strait to the northeast, the sea is delimited by the Svalbard archipelago; the bottom of the Greenland Sea is a depression bounded to the south by the underwater Greenland-Iceland ridge and to the east by the Mohns Ridge and Knipovich Ridge. To the west, the bottom rises first but rapidly toward the wide Greenland coastal strip. Silts fill the submarine gorges. Although the deepest point inside of the sea is 4,846 m, depths down to 5,570 m have been measured in the Molloy Deep of the Fram Strait which connects the sea to the Arctic Ocean on the north; the Greenland ice sheet reaches down to the sea at Jokel Bay.
Major islands of the Greenland Sea include the Svalbard archipelago, Jan Mayen as well as coastal islands off the NE Greenland shores, such as Hovgaard, Godfred Hansen, Île-de-France, Norske and Schnauder islands. Of those, only the Svalbard islands are inhabited, Jan Mayen has only temporal military staff. After the League of Nations gave Norway jurisdiction over the island, in 1921 Norway opened the first meteorological station there, a subject of contention between Germany and United Kingdom during World War II. Several radio and meteorological stations operate on the island nowadays; the climate is Arctic and varies across the vast sea area. Air temperatures fluctuate between −49 °C near Spitsbergen in winter and 25 °C off Greenland in summer. Averages are −10 °C in the south and −26 °C in the north in February, the coldest month; the corresponding values for the warmest month, are 5 °C in the south and 0 °C in the north. The summer is short: The number of days per year when the temperature rises above 0 °C varies between 225 in the north to 334 in the south.