Bushy Park in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames is the second largest of Londons Royal Parks, at 445 hectares in area, after Richmond Park. The park, most of which is open to the public, is north of Hampton Court Palace. It is surrounded by Teddington, Hampton Hill and Hampton Wick, the parks acid grasslands are mostly just above the 25-foot contour. In September 2014 most of it was designated a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest together with Hampton Court Park and Hampton Court Golf Course as Bushy Park, the park is Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The area now known as Bushy Park has been settled for at least the past 4,000 years, there is evidence that the area was used in the medieval period for agricultural purposes. A keen hunter, he established them as deer-hunting grounds and this period saw the construction of the main thoroughfare, Chestnut Avenue, which runs from Park Road in Teddington to the Lion Gate entrance to Hampton Court Palace in Hampton Court Road.
This avenue and the Arethusa Diana Fountain were designed by Sir Christopher Wren as an approach to Hampton Court Palace. The park has long been popular with locals, but visitors from further afield. From the mid-19th century until World War II, Londoners came here to celebrate Chestnut Sunday, the customs were discovered and resurrected in 1993 by Colin and Mu Pain. Among those who served as ranger was King William IV, while Duke of Clarence, to ensure his consort Queen Adelaide, could remain at their long-time home after his death, he immediately appointed her as his successor as ranger. During World War I, Bushy Park housed the Kings Canadian Hospital, during World War II, General Dwight D. Eisenhower planned the D-Day landings from Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force at Camp Griffiss in the Park. A memorial by Carlos Rey dedicated to the Allied troops who fell on D-Day now marks the spot where General Eisenhowers tent stood, the nearby Eisenhower House is named in the Generals honour.
Spaatz went on to command the US Army Air Forces throughout the European Theatre of Operations, known by its US Army code, AAF-586, Camp Griffiss/Widewing was often confused with the wartime headquarters of Eighth Air Force Fighter Command at Bushey Hall, near Watford, Hertfordshire. It has fishing and model boating ponds, horse rides, formal plantations of trees and other plants, wildlife conservation areas and herds of both red deer and fallow deer. As part of an upgrade of the facilities, the new Pheasantry Café was added. The work was supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund, the closest railway stations are Hampton Court in East Molesey to the south, Hampton Wick to the east and Fulwell to the north, and Hampton to the west. All are within a 10- to 20-minute walk, transport for London bus routes 111,216 and 411 pass the Hampton Court Gate on Hampton Court Road. R70, R68 and 285 buses stop near the two Hampton Hill Gates off the High Street, while the R68 serves the Blandford Road Gate before continuing to Hampton Court Green via Hampton Hill
Victoria Park, London
Victoria Park is a park in Bow in Greater London, England. The park is 86.18 hectares of space that opened in 1845. The park has applied to the neighbourhood around it which is entirely within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. The park has two cafes, The Pavilion Cafe in the West and The Park Cafe in the East, there are two playgrounds, one on either side of the park, as well as sporting facilities and a skatepark in the East. The park is home to many artifacts and features and has decorative gardens. Victoria Park is used as a venue and hosts many festivals each year. The park is approximately a mile away from the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, owing to its proximity to the Olympic park, it became a venue for the BT London Live event along with Hyde Park during the London 2012 Olympic Games. The park has in recent years gone through a 12 million pound refurbishment and it has won the Green Flag Peoples Choice Award for the most popular public green space in 2012,2014 and 2015, no other park in the UK has won the award three times.
The Crown Estate purchased 218 acres which were out by notable London planner. A part of the area was known as Bonner Fields, after Bishop Bonner, the land had originally been parkland, associated with the Bishops Palace, but by the mid-1800s had been spoiled by the extraction of gravel, and clay for bricks. It was opened to the public in 1845 and this large park is reminiscent of Regents Park, though much less busy, and is considered by some as the finest park in the East End. It is bounded on two sides by canals, the Regents Canal lies to the west, while its branch, there is a gate named after Edmund Bonner. Two pedestrian alcoves, surviving fragments of the old London Bridge and they were part of the 1760 refurbishment of the 600-year-old bridge, by Sir Robert Taylor and George Dance the Younger, and provided protection for pedestrians on the narrow carriageway. The insignia of the Bridge Association can be seen inside these alcoves, the alcoves have been Grade II listed, since 1951. The Lido opened in 1936 and reopened in 1952 following damage during the Second World War, it was closed in 1986, in the latter half of the 19th Century, Victoria Park became an essential amenity for the working classes of the East End.
For some East End children in the 1880s, this may have been the large stretch of uninterrupted greenery they ever encountered. Facilities like the Bathing Pond —later superseded by the park lido—would have introduced many to swimming in an era when many public baths were still simply communal washing facilities, so it should come as no surprise that the scene at the numerous Speakers Corners was a lively one. Although any one could set up their own soapbox, the biggest crowds were drawn to star socialist speakers such as William Morris
Richmond Park, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, was created by Charles I in the 17th century as a deer park. The largest of Londons Royal Parks, it is of national and international importance for wildlife conservation and its landscapes have inspired many famous artists and it has been a location for several films and TV series. Richmond Park includes many buildings of architectural or historic interest, the Grade I-listed White Lodge was formerly a royal residence and is now home to the Royal Ballet School. Historically the preserve of the monarch, the park is now open for all to use and includes a course and other facilities for sport. It played an important role in world wars and in the 1948 and 2012 Olympics. Richmond Park is the largest of Londons Royal Parks and it is the second-largest park in London and is Britains second-largest urban walled park after Sutton Park, Birmingham. Measuring 3.69 square miles, it is comparable in size to Pariss Bois de Vincennes and it is almost half the size of Casa de Campo and around three times the size of Central Park in New York.
Of national and international importance for conservation, most of Richmond Park is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The largest Site of Special Scientific Interest in London, it was designated as an SSSI in 1992, excluding the area of the course, Pembroke Lodge Gardens. In its citation, Natural England said, Richmond Park has been managed as a deer park since the seventeenth century. In particular, Richmond Park is of importance for its diverse deadwood beetle fauna associated with the ancient trees found throughout the parkland, in addition the park supports the most extensive area of dry acid grassland in Greater London. The park was designated as an SAC in April 2005 on account of its having a number of ancient trees with decaying timber. A public open space since the mid C19, Richmond Park is located in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It is close to Richmond, Kingston upon Thames, Roehampton, day-to-day management of the Royal Parks has been delegated to The Royal Parks, an executive agency of the Department for Culture and Sport.
The Royal Parks Board sets the direction for the agency. Appointments to the Board are made by the Mayor of London, the Friends of Richmond Park and the Friends of Bushy Park co-chair the Richmond and Bushy Parks Forum, comprising 38 local groups of local stakeholder organisations. Although welcoming the principles of the new arrangements, the forum. Richmond Park is enclosed by a wall with several gates
Hyde Park, London
Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in London and one of its Royal Parks. The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water, the park is contiguous with Kensington Gardens, which are often assumed to be part of Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens has been separate since 1728, when Queen Caroline divided them. To the southeast, outside the park, is Hyde Park Corner, during daylight, the two parks merge seamlessly into each other, but Kensington Gardens closes at dusk, and Hyde Park remains open throughout the year from 5 a. m. until midnight. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in the park, for which the Crystal Palace, the park became a traditional location for mass demonstrations. The Chartists, the Reform League, the suffragettes, and the Stop the War Coalition have all held protests there, many protesters on the Liberty and Livelihood March in 2002 started their march from Hyde Park. Hyde Park is a ward of the City of Westminster, the population of the ward at the 2011 Census was 12,462.
Hyde Park was created for hunting by Henry Vlll in 1536, Charles I created the Ring, and in 1637 he opened the park to the general public. In 1652, during the Interregnum, Parliament ordered the 620-acre park to be sold for ready money and it realised £17,000 with an additional £765 6s 2d for the resident deer. In 1689, when William III moved his residence to Kensington Palace on the far side of Hyde Park, public transport entering London from the west runs parallel to the Kings private road along Kensington Gore, just outside the park. In the late 1800s, the row was used by the wealthy for horseback rides, the first coherent landscaping was undertaken by Charles Bridgeman for Queen Caroline, under the supervision of Charles Withers, the Surveyor-General of Woods and Forests, who took some credit. It was completed in 1733 at a cost to the public purse of £20,000, the 2nd Viscount Weymouth was made Ranger of Hyde Park in 1739 and shortly after began digging the Serpentine lakes at Longleat.
The Serpentine is divided from the Long Water by a bridge designed by George Rennie, one of the most important events to take place in the park was the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Crystal Palace was constructed on the side of the park. The public did not want the building to remain after the closure of the exhibition and he had it moved to Sydenham Hill in South London. At the age of twenty-five, Decimus Burton was commissioned by the Office of Woods and he laid out the paths and driveways and designed a series of lodges, the Screen/Gate at Hyde Park Corner and the Wellington Arch. The Screen and the Arch originally formed a single composition, designed to provide a transition between Hyde Park and Green Park, although the arch was moved. An early description reports, It consists of a screen of handsome fluted Ionic columns, the extent of the whole frontage is about 107 ft. The two side gateways, in their elevations, present two insulated Ionic columns, flanked by antae, all these entrances are finished by a blocking, the sides of the central one being decorated with a beautiful frieze, representing a naval and military triumphal procession
Wimbledon Park is the name of an urban park in Wimbledon and of the suburb south and east of the park and the Wimbledon Park tube station. The park itself is 27 hectares in area, the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is immediately to the west of the park. Wimbledon Park should not be confused with the larger and better known Wimbledon Common. A series of owners enlarged the park northwards and eastwards, by the 19th century it was at its largest extent, and one of the homes of the Earls Spencer, lords of the manor. In 1846, the 4th Earl Spencer sold the estate and house to John Augustus Beaumont a property developer who laid out new roads, two roads still bear his name today – Augustus Road and Beaumont Road. Development of the area was slow at first, but continued throughout the half of the 19th century. Late in the 20th century the London Borough of Merton sold on the Golf Course to the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, leaving just the public park and the lake in its ownership.
Along the parks northern edge lies Horse Close wood, a patch of old planted woodland, largely consisting of Ash. The London Underground District line runs to the east of the Park between Southfields tube station and Wimbledon Park station, the park contains an athletics stadium with 400m track. Every November a large fireworks display takes place in Wimbledon Park, organised by Merton Council it is one of the largest and most popular shows in London
The design and maintenance is usually done by government, typically on the local level, but may occasionally be contracted out to a private sector company. A park is an area of space provided for recreational use. Grass is typically kept short to discourage insect pests and to allow for the enjoyment of picnics, trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade. An early purpose-built public park, although financed privately, was Princes Park in the Liverpool suburb of Toxteth and this was laid out to the designs of Joseph Paxton from 1842 and opened in 1843. The land on which the park was built was purchased by Richard Vaughan Yates, the creation of Princes Park showed great foresight and introduced a number of highly influential ideas. First and foremost was the provision of space for the benefit of townspeople. Nashs remodelling of St Jamess Park from 1827 and the sequence of processional routes he created to link The Mall with Regents Park completely transformed the appearance of Londons West End.
Liverpool had a presence on the scene of global maritime trade before 1800. The latter was commenced in 1843 with the help of public finance, frederick Law Olmsted visited Birkenhead Park in 1850 and praised its qualities. Indeed, Paxton is widely credited as having one of the principal influences on Olmsted. Another early public park is the Peel Park, England opened on 22 August 1846, in The Politics of Park Design, A History of Urban Parks in America, Professor Galen Cranz identifies four phases of park design in the U. S. As time passed and the area grew around the parks, land in these parks was used for other purposes, such as zoos, golf courses. These parks continue to draw visitors from around the region and are considered regional parks, because they require a higher level of management than smaller local parks. According to the Trust for Public Land, the three most visited parks in the United States are Central Park in New York, Lincoln Park in Chicago. In the early 1900s, according to Cranz, U. S. cities built neighborhood parks with swimming pools and civic buildings and these smaller parks were built in residential neighborhoods, and tried to serve all residents with programs for seniors, adults and children.
Green space was of secondary importance, as urban land prices climbed, new urban parks in the 1960s and after have been mainly pocket parks. One such example of a park is Chess Park in Glendale. This award-winning park was given an award by the American Society of Landscape Architects and these small parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, and often a playground for children
Wandsworth /ˈwɒnzwərθ/ is a district of southwest London within the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is situated 4.6 miles southwest of Charing Cross, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Wandsworth takes its name from the River Wandle, which enters the Thames at Wandsworth, Wandsworth appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Wandesorde and Wendelesorde. This means enclosure of Waendel, whose name is lent to the River Wandle. At the time of the Domesday Book, the manor of Wandsworth was held partly by William, son of Ansculfy and its Domesday assets were 12 hides, with 5½ ploughs and 22 acres of meadow. Between Wandsworth town centre and the river is the site of Young & Cos Ram Brewery, traditional draught beer was produced on the site for 425 years starting from 1581, making the Ram Brewery the oldest site in Britain at which beer had been brewed continuously. Shire horse-drawn brewery drays were used to deliver beer to local pubs. Whilst brewing by Youngs stopped in September 2006 when Young & Co merged its operations with Charles Wells of Bedford, a planning application to redevelop the site for residential and shopping/leisure mixed use was submitted in 2012.
Wandsworth gas plant was built in 1834 against the River Thames near Wandsworth Bridge, the undertaking became the Wandsworth and Putney Gaslight and Coke Company in 1854 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1856. Coal for making coal gas was brought by sea from North East England, the firm grew by a series of mergers and takeovers so that by 1936 it served a considerable area of south-west London. The companys name evolved each time it merged with or took over neighbouring gas companies, the company was nationalised in 1949 and became part of the South Eastern Gas Board. Wandsworth, home of Minibus Hinton, has a low foreign born population for London as a whole at 28. 1%, the former wharf area of the river-front is now lined with new apartment blocks, with several bars and restaurants. Notable pubs include the Ship Inn and the Waterfront, on the western and eastern side of Wandsworth Bridge respectively, in the area is the Royal Victoria Patriotic Building, which now contains flats, a theatre school and a restaurant.
The Tonsleys/Old York Road is an area of old Wandsworth close to the river and town centre. It has a village feel with the Old York Roads cafes, the area has three notable pubs, the Royal Standard, the East Hill and the Alma. Bradys Fish Restaurant serves traditional fish and chips, the area was recently used as the location for the BBC TV series Outnumbered. East Hill is an area of large Victorian houses bordered by the west side of Wandsworth Common, Wandsworth High Street is dominated by the regenerated Southside shopping centre and restaurant complex. Behind the shopping centre, and following the River Wandle upstream towards Earlsfield, Wandsworth Museum occupies the former Victorian library in West Hill having been moved here in 2007
Barn Elms is an open space in Barnes in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It is located on the loop of the River Thames between Barnes and Fulham. The WWT London Wetland Centre lies to the north of the open space, the site is split in two, the Barn Elms Playing Fields and the Barn Elms Sports Centre which includes a boathouse as well as a sports centre. Beverley Brook flows across the part of the open space. There are facilities for amateur sport, such as football, tennis and cricket. It is the ground for Barnes Eagles FC, Stonewall FC. The facilities were under threat of development until the local community petitioned Richmond Council. To ensure the future of Barn Elms as playing fields the community has created the Barn Elms Sports Trust, in April 2013, Barn Elms Sports Trust were officially awarded the management contract of the Barn Elms Playing Fields following a 12-month interim management period. The oldest plane tree in London is located at Barn Elms and it is the home ground for the semi-professional Barnes RFC.
Its name is derived from the Georgian house and parkland, the manor house of Barnes. In earlier times the house of Barnes was in the ownership of the Archbishop of Canterbury and of the Dean. The Georgian house replaced the one occupied by Sir Francis Walsingham. Queen Elizabeth I would visit Barn Elms to see her Spymaster, Barn Elms features in English literary history from the time the royalist poet Abraham Cowley moved to the house belonging to John Cartwright in 1663. In the 1660s Barn Elms became a destination for boating picnics. Here the Kit-Kat portraits hung, Tonsons extensions to the house, c1703, seem to have made under the general advice of John Vanbrugh. During Tonsons tenure, John Hughes wrote a description of sunrise in Barn-Elms, Let Phoebus his late happiness rehearse. Ye verdant Elms, that towering grace this grove Be sacred still to Beauty and to Love. John James Heidegger, the impresario, resided at Barn Elms, where he entertained George II
David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC was a British Liberal politician and statesman. As Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state. His most important role came as the highly energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government, during and he was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the Central Powers. He made an impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader. Furthermore, in foreign affairs he played a role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference. His main political problem was that he was not loyal to his Liberal party—he was always a political maverick, while he was Prime Minister he favoured the Conservatives in his coalition in the 1918 elections, leaving the Liberal party as a hopeless minority. He became leader of the Liberal Party in the late 1920s, by the 1930s he was a marginalised and widely mistrusted figure.
He gave weak support to the Second World War amidst fears that he was favourable toward Germany, Lloyd George was born on 17 January 1863 in Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester, to Welsh parents, and was brought up as a Welsh-speaker. He is so far the only British Prime Minister to have been Welsh and his father, William George, had been a teacher in both London and Liverpool. He taught in the Hope Street Sunday Schools, which were administered by the Unitarians, in March of the same year, on account of his failing health, William George returned with his family to his native Pembrokeshire. He took up farming but died in June 1864 of pneumonia, Lloyd George was educated at the local Anglican school Llanystumdwy National School and under tutors. He added his uncles surname to become Lloyd George and his surname is usually given as Lloyd George and sometimes as George. The influence of his childhood showed through in his entire career, brought up a devout evangelical, as a young man he suddenly lost his religious faith.
Biographer Don Cregier says he became a Deist and perhaps an agnostic, though he remained a chapel-goer and he kept quiet about that and was hailed as one of the foremost fighting leaders of a fanatical Welsh Nonconformity. It was during this period of his life that Lloyd George first became interested in the issue of land ownership, by the age of twenty-one, he had already read and taken notes on Henry Georges Progress and Poverty. This strongly influenced Lloyd Georges politics in life through the Peoples Budget which heavily drew on the georgist tax reform ideas, the practice flourished, and he established branch offices in surrounding towns, taking his brother William into partnership in 1887. Although many Prime Ministers have been barristers, Lloyd George is to date the only solicitor to have held that office, by he was politically active, having campaigned for the Liberal Party in the 1885 election, attracted by Joseph Chamberlains unauthorised programme of reforms. The election resulted firstly in a stalemate with neither the Liberals nor the Conservatives having a majority, William Gladstones proposal to bring about Irish Home Rule split the party, with Chamberlain eventually leading the breakaway Liberal Unionists
Hampstead Heath is a large, ancient London park, covering 320 hectares. This grassy public space sits astride a sandy ridge, one of the highest points in London, running from Hampstead to Highgate, which rests on a band of London Clay. The heath is rambling and hilly, embracing ponds and ancient woodlands, a lido, and a training track, the south-east part of the heath is Parliament Hill, from which the view over London is protected by law. Running along its perimeter are a chain of ponds – including three open-air public swimming pools – which were originally reservoirs for drinking water from the River Fleet. The heath is a Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, lakeside concerts are held there in summer. The heath first entered the books in 986 when Ethelred the Unready granted one of his servants five hides of land at Hemstede. This same land is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as held by the monastery of St. Peters at Westminster Abbey. Over time, plots of land in the manor were sold off for building, particularly in the early 19th century, the main part of the heath was acquired for the people by the Metropolitan Board of Works.
Parliament Hill was purchased for the public for £300,000, Golders Hill was added in 1898 and Kenwood House and grounds were added in 1928. From 1808 to 1814 Hampstead Heath hosted a station in the shutter telegraph chain which connected the Admiralty in London to its ships in the port of Great Yarmouth. The City of London Corporation has managed the heath since 1989, before that it was managed by the GLC and before that by the London County Council. In 2009, the City of London proposed to upgrade a footpath across the heath into a service-road, the proposal met with protests from local residents and celebrities, and did not proceed. The heath sits astride a sandy ridge that rests on a band of London clay and it runs from east to west, its highest point being 134 metres. As the sand was easily penetrated by rainwater which was held by the clay. Hampstead Heath contains the largest single area of land in Greater London. Buses serve several roads around the heath, the heaths 320 hectares include a number of distinct areas.
Hampstead Heath is an important refuge for wildlife, including snakes, rabbits, slow worms, squirrels. Common kingfishers, jackdaws and Daubentons bats are seen over the ponds, some introduced species have thrived at the site, for example muntjac deer and ring-necked parakeets
Finsbury Park is a public park in the ward of the London neighbourhood of Harringay. It is in the formerly covered by the historic parish of Hornsey. It was one of the first of the great London parks laid out in the Victorian era, the park borders the districts of Finsbury Park, Stroud Green, and Manor House. The park has a mix of ground, formal gardens, avenues of mature trees. There is a lake, a play area, a cafe. Sports facilities in the park include football pitches, a green, an athletics stadium. Unusually for London, the hosts two facilities for American sports, an American football field, home to the London Blitz. Parkland Walk, a park, provides a route that links the park with Crouch Hill Park, Crouch End. The park was landscaped on the extremity of what was originally a woodland area in the Manor or Prebend of Brownswood. It was part of a large expanse of woodland called Hornsey Wood that was cut further and further back for use as grazing land during the Middle Ages, in the mid-18th century a tea room had opened on the knoll of land on which Finsbury Park is situated.
Londoners would travel north to escape the smoke of the capital, around 1800 the tea rooms were developed into a larger building which became known as the Hornsey Wood House/Tavern. A lake was built on the top of the knoll with water pumped up from the nearby New River. There was boating, a shooting and archery range, and probably cock fighting, the Hornsey Wood Tavern was destroyed in the process of making the area into a park, but the lake was enlarged. Once the park had opened, a pub across the road from its entrance along Seven Sisters Road called itself the Hornsey Wood Tavern after the original. This pub was renamed the Alexandra Dining Room and closed for business in April 2007. In 1841 the people of Finsbury in the City of London petitioned for a park to alleviate conditions of the poor, the present-day site of Finsbury Park was one of four suggestions for the location of a park. Originally to be named Albert Park, the first plans were drawn up in 1850, renamed Finsbury Park, plans for the parks creation were ratified by an Act of Parliament in 1857.
Despite some local opposition, the park was opened in 1869, during the First World War the park was known as a location for pacifist meetings