Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Guangzhou R&F F.C.
Guangzhou R&F Football Club is a professional football club that plays in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Guangzhou and their stadium is the Yuexiushan Stadium which has a seating capacity of 18,000. They are owned by the Chinese property developers R&F Properties who took charge in June 2011, the clubs English name R&F is short for Rich and Force. The club was founded in 1986, in Shenyang as Shenyang Ginde FC and they played in the 55, 000-seat Shenyang Wuilihe Stadium, until they moved to Changsha in 2007 to reside in the Helong Stadium. American sportswear and sports equipment company MAZAMBA took over the club in 2010 and their ownership was brief, and by June 2011 Chinese property developers Guangzhou R&F gained ownership of the club and moved them to Guangzhou. The club had their most successful season in 2014 as they finished third in the league, the club was founded in 1986 by the local Shenyang government sports body to take part in the Chinese football league system.
The team started at the bottom of the system by playing in the second division. They were promoted to the 1988 Chinese Jia-A League quickly after the league expanded, the club was relegated after only one season. By the 1994 league season the entire Chinese football league system had become professional, the team were allowed to gather sponsorship and rename themselves Shenyang Liuyao, and were allowed to join the top tier due to their 1992 membership. When the team were relegated again at the end of the season they rename themselves Shenyang Huayang, again the club won promotion to the top tier, unlike before they were able to avoid relegation. This was to be the beginning of the establishment within the league. In 2001 the club was taken over by Ginde Plastic Pipe Industry Group, in 2007 the clubs homeground Shenyang Wuilihe Stadium was demolished. To represent this change the owners changed the name to Shenzhen Phoenix. By May 2011 the club was exposed as having serious problems and were struggling to pay their players.
Under the new ownership results significantly improved and the gained promotion back into the top tier at the end of the 2011 China League One season. The team finished the league in seventh, and the owners decided to commit their long-term future to the club by establishing a football school in Meizhou. The start of the 2013 Chinese Super League season, the club struggled in the league, former England manager Sven-Göran Eriksson was appointed to replace him on June 4,2013, and given a 19-month contract. Eriksson’s first full season would see the finish third, its highest league finish
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China. It is the southernmost city of Northeast China and at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, Dalian is the provinces second largest city and has sub-provincial administrative status, only the provincial capital is larger. The Shandong Peninsula lies southwest across the Bohai Strait, Korea lies across the Yellow Sea to the east, today, a financial and logistics centre for Northeast Asia, Dalian has a significant history of being used by foreign powers for its ports. Dalian was previously known as both Dalniy and Dairen, however the city was better known as Port Arthur and Ryojun from the original Port Arthur, now the citys Lüshunkou district. In 2012, Dalian ranked 82nd in the Global City Competitiveness Index, in 2006, Dalian was named Chinas most livable city by China Daily. Modern Dalian originated from Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao, a fishing village. Russia built a town for the Kwantung Leased Territory after assuming control in 1898.
After the Russo-Japanese War, Japan occupied the Kwantung Leased Territory, English sources called the city Dairen in this period, from the Japanese. In 1981, the State Council again renamed the city, from Lüda to Dalian, in the Qin and Han periods, Chinese expanded their territories into northern Korea through the Dalian region, under the jurisdiction of Liaodong county. During the Sixteen Kingdoms era, the kingdom of Goguryeo controlled this region, in the early Tang Dynasty, the Dalian region was part of Andong Prefecture in Jili state, during the Liao Dynasty, it was part of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of Wei Jin, San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty, Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty, and Qingniwakou during the Qing Dynasty. In the 1880s, the north of downtown within Dalian, now Jinzhou District, was a town and centre for political intrigue. The Qing government built bridges and heavily fortified the peninsula, mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Bay became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao, near what became downtown Dalian.
The British occupied Qingniwa in 1858, but it returned to Chinese control in the 1880s, Port Arthur at the peninsulas tip took its English name from Royal Navy Lieutenant William C. Arthur, but Chinese called it Lüshun, in April 1895, China conceded defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, ceding Liaodong Peninsula and Penghu, and making many other concessions in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. For Russia the region of the peninsula was of particular interest as one of the few areas in the region that had the potential to develop ice-free ports. The Russians built a commercial port city, which they wanted to become the Paris of the Far East. Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railways branch line from Harbin, Dalniy became Russias primary port-city in Asia, Russia spent more than 10 million golden rubles building the new ice-free port city
Changsha is the capital of Hunan province, south central China. It covers 11,819 km2 and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west and Zhuzhou to the south and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents and it has a moist monsoon climate of the subtropical zone. The average annual air temperature is 16. 8–17.3 °C, Changsha is famous for that it was the capital of Changsha State in the Han Dynasty, and the capital of Chu State in Ten Kingdoms period. The lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from Mawangdui there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions, in 1904, Changsha was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedongs conversion to communism and it was the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Nowadays, Changsha is an important commercial and transportation center in China, the origins of the name Changsha are lost in antiquity.
In the 2nd century AD, historian Ying Shao wrote that the Qin dynasty use of the name Changsha for the area was a continuance of its old name, archeologial evidence provides evidence of settlement 150,000 to 200,000 BC. Development occurred drastically closer to 3000BC when Changsha developed with the proliferation of Longshan culture, despite this and bronze ware have been discovered. In the Central Plain region during the Zhou and Shang dynasties, Sima Qian writes in his Records of the Grand Historian Huangdi, loving his Shaohao, gave him a parcel of land, an area amounted to Changsha and surrounding land. Evidence exists that people lived and thrived in the area during the Bronze Age, numerous examples of pottery and items of interest were discovered and recovered. Changsha entered a time of turmoil, eastern Zhous collapse swept in turmoil with the Spring and Autumn Period. The Yue culture spread and took a stronghold through the region, during the height of the Warring States Period, the Chu Kingdom took a hardline nationalist and reform approach and took a large-scale military operations in South China.
Chu Kingdom took control of Changsha and turned the city into an important part of the part of Chu. After years of war and occupation, Changsha slowly replaced Yue culture with Chu culture, nobles created tombs and got buried in tombs. In 1951-1957, archaeologists explored numerous large and medium-sized Chu tombs from the warring states era, there have been more than 3,000 tombs discovered of various people. The coming of Chu brought a lot of tools and production experience, massive changes quickly propelled Changsha through the Iron Age and into the feudal age of society. The city is sometimes called Qingyang in Warring States period texts, the slow wearing of time and turmoil weakened the Changsha and the region
Wang is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surnames 王 and 汪. Wáng was listed 8th on the famous Song Dynasty list of the Hundred Family Surnames, Wāng was 104th of the Hundred Family Surnames, it is the 58th-most-common surname in mainland China. 汪 is typically romanized identically, despite its distinct tone and it is Wong in Cantonese, Ong or Ang in Hokkien, Wang in Korean, and Ō or Oh in Japanese. However, in Vietnamese, it is written Uông.88 million bearers and it was the 6th most common surname in Taiwan in 2005, comprising 4. 12% of the general population. Wāng was listed by the NCIIS survey as the 58th most common surname in mainland China, Ong is the 5th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans and Wong the 6th. There were 88,000 Wongs during the year 2000 US Census, making it the 7th-most-common surname among Asians and Pacific Islanders, the 63,800 Wangs ranked 10th and 440th, respectively. Wang is a rare surname in South Korea. The year 2000 South Korean Census listed only 23,447 Wangs.
王 is the Chinese word for king, william Baxter and Laurent Sagart reconstructed the Old Chinese form of Wáng as *ɢʷaŋ and the Middle Chinese as hjwang. The most ancient family name of Wáng was originated from the surname Zi, the Chinese legend mentions that near the end of Shang Dynasty, King Zhou of Shangs uncle Bi Gan, Ji Zi, and Wei Zi were called The Three Kindhearted Men of Shang. King Zhou was violent in his rule, and Bi Gan repeatedly remonstrated to the king regarding his behavior, the king shunned his comments and killed Bi Gan instead. Bis descendants used Wáng as their surname as they are descendants of a prince and were known as The Bi clan of the Wáng family, the Zi clan has existed for about 3100 years through Qin Dynasty to Tang Dynasty and exists today. The Zi clan of Wáng lived predominantly in Henan during these times, more Wáng were originated from the royal family of Zhou Dynasty. The original surname of the family of Zhou Dynasty was Ji. However, many of them have separated out of the due to the loss of power.
Because they once belonged to the family, they used Wáng as their surname. This family of Wáng traced its ancestry to Wang Ziqiao According to the records, after King Wu of Zhou defeated the Shang Dynasty. During the reign of the 21st king, King Ling of Zhou, the capital was in Chengzhou, a son of King Ling, Wangzi Qiao or Prince Qiao, was reduced to civilian status due to his remonstration to the king. His son Zong Jin remained as a Situ in the palace, when the 8th generation Wang Cuo became a general in the State of Wei, the clan finally regained its status
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
The yuan is the base unit of a number of former and present-day Chinese currencies, and usually refers to the primary unit of account of the renminbi, the currency of the Peoples Republic of China. It is used as a synonym of that currency, especially in international contexts – the ISO4217 standard code for renminbi is CNY, a yuan is known colloquially as a kuai. One yuan is divided into 10 jiao or colloquially mao, one jiao is divided into 10 fen. When used in English in the context of the foreign exchange market, the Chinese yuan refers to the renminbi. Having been in use for at least 2000 years, the yuan was probably the first decimal currency system and it is considered the first to use metal coins and bank notes. In Standard Chinese, yuán literally means an object or round coin. During the Qing Dynasty, the yuan was a coin made of silver. In informal contexts, the word is written with the simplified Chinese character 元, in formal contexts it is written with the simplified character 圆 or with the traditional version 圓, both meaning round, after the shape of the coins.
These are all pronounced yuán in modern Standard Chinese, but were originally pronounced differently, in the Peoples Republic of China, ￥ or RMB is often prefixed to the amount to indicate that the currency is the renminbi. In many parts of China, the unit of renminbi is sometimes colloquially called kuài rather than yuán, in Cantonese, widely spoken in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau, the yuan and fen are called mān, hòuh, and sīn, respectively. Sīn is a word from the English cent. The traditional character 圓 is used to denote the Hong Kong dollar, the Macanese pataca, they do not share the same names for the subdivisions. The New Taiwan dollar is referred to in Standard Chinese as yuán. The names of the Korean and Japanese currency units and yen respectively, are cognates of Mandarin yuán, meaning round in the Korean and Japanese languages. The Japanese yen was written with the kanji character 圓. The Korean won used to be written with the hanja character 圜 from 1902 to 1910 and it is now written as 원 in Hangul exclusively, in both North and South Korea.
It was subdivided into 1000 cash,100 cents or fen and it replaced copper cash and various silver ingots called sycees. The sycees were denominated in tael, the yuan was valued at 0.72 tael
Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders, centre-back, full-back, the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations, a centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, and tries to prevent opposing players, particularly centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, intercepting passes, contesting headers, with the ball, centre-backs are generally expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defenders goal, during normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions, in the modern game, most teams employ two or three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper.
The 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, and 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs, the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who sweeps up the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents. Because of this, it is referred to as libero. For example, the system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s. The more modern libero possesses the qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack. This variation on the position requires great pace and fitness, while rarely seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack, some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles.
If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery, in modern football, its usage has been fairly restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a highly respected. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greeces manager, Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greeces sweeper to great success, as Greece surprisingly became European champions. The full-backs take up the wide positions and traditionally stayed in defence at all times
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong. Currently, a number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both sets. In contrast, simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China, the debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of Mainland China, Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China primarily in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text. They are often retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. Taiwan has never adopted Simplified Chinese characters since it is ruled by the Republic of China, the use of simplified characters in official documents is even prohibited by the government in Taiwan.
Simplified characters are not well understood in general, although some stroke simplifications that have incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, similarly, in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, because of the influx of mainland Chinese tourists, even government websites use simplified Chinese, as they answer to the Beijing government. This has led to concerns by residents to protect their local heritage. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification, while major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, and United Daily News still use traditional characters, on the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified.
Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores. In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub that is used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan and this is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters, overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the half of the 19th century. Therefore, the majority of Chinese language signage in the United States, including street signs, Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world